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I 



Jftarbarli CoUese librarg 



BOUGHT WtTH INCOMB 



HENRY LILLIE PIERCE 

OF BOSTON 



9 



« » 






TEXT-BOOK 



•'r 



SEAMANSHIP 



THE EQUIPPING AND HANDLING 

y 

V i: s s \i L s 

Under Sail or Steam 

rxiTF.D States Naval Acapemy 






Rear Admiral S. B, LUCE, l\ S. N. 



Lii:rTi:NANF \v" S. lU^XSoX, I'. S. X 



LiKUTiNANi s. >KAi;rkv, r. s. x 



NEW YORK: 

D. VAN 1S30STRAND CO 

23 Murray and 27 Wakki x Sikkkt 



I vav vjwontjk 



AfomySSK. ? S 









r.: 



, v-< ». • t V 1 



L 



BOUND OCI if i9l3 



Copyright^ 1884^ by D. Van Nostrand, 



Copyrif^ht, iSgS^ by D, Van Nosirand C0, 



J. K. * K. B. SMITH, 

•uccaMom TO 
SMITH ft MODOUGAL, 



Preface to the Fourth Edition. 



A NEW edition of Seamanship having been called for, 
-*^^ the work of revising the late edition and preparing 
the present one for the press, was undertaken by Lieutenant 
W. S. Benson, U. S. N. , Assistant Instructor in the Depart- 
ment of Seamanship, Naval Academy, Annapolis, under the 
general supervision of Commander Charles M. Thomas, 
U. S. N., the very able head of that Department. 

Lieutenant Benson's labors have been attended with 
marked success, notwithstanding the distractions due to 
the breaking out of the war with Spain. 

It is hoped the work, in its present form, may x>rove ac- 
ceptable to those for whom it is intended. 

S. B. LUCE. 

Bear-AdiinniL l\ S. X. 

Newport, R. I., ) (retired.) 

August 5th, ISUS. S 



/ 



Revisers Note to the Edition of 1884. 



/^ RATEFUL acknowledgments are due to those whose 
^-^ contributions to the text have enhanced the value 
of this work. 

Commander F. V. McNair has permitted the use of his 
pamphlet on Seamanship Drills. 

The chapter on the Laws of Storms is taken principally 
from the lecture of Lieutenant-Commander Thomas Nelson, 
Vol. V, Proceedings U. S. Xaval Institute. 

Chapter XIX. is i)ractically a reprint of Lieutenant D. 
Delehanty's pamphlet : *' Cadet Midshipman's Manual." 

Chapter XXXV. has been prepared from notes furnished 
by Lieutenant-Commander Z. L. Tanner, together with 
data from the lectures of Constructor R. H. White, R. N., 
and from the professional pamphlets of the German Ad- 
miralty on steamers and screw propulsion. 

The suggestions made by Boatswain Robert Anderson, 
U. S. N., have been of special importance. Getting a lower 
yard on board, sending down a lower yard inside of rigging, 
rigging derricks, and carrying out anchors between two 
cutters in shoal water, are described from actual work per- 
formed under his direction. 

To Commander Taylor, Lieutenants Berry, Nazro, and 
Holman, U. S. N"., and to many other officers, sincere thanks 
are tendered for their assistance and suggestions in the 
revision of the proofs. AARON WARD, 

Lieutenant, U, S, X. 



REVISER'S NOTE. 



TN the present revision the attempt has been made to 
-*- eliminate obsolete matter and to introduce as much 
new material as the limited time would permit. The 
general arrangement has remained unchanged. 

The chapter on storms has been compiled by Mr. R. L. 
Lerch, under direction of the Hydrographer of the Navy 
Department. 

The descriptions and plates of sounding machines, 
patent logs, marine sentry, &c., have been taken from the 
various pamphlets on those subjects. 

Description and plates of steam capstan were obtained 
from the Bath Iron Works, and those of steam steering 
gear from the Williamson Brothers. 

The chapter on organization is omitted, as no estab- 
lished system has as yet received oflBcial approval. 

W. S. BENSON, 
Lieiitenant, ?". S. X 

IT. S. H. S. Vermont, ) 
Xew York, Sept. 27, 1898. ) 



CONTENTS. 



CBArrBR PAOS 

I. — The Ship — Definitions 1- 12 

II.— The Compass— The Lead— The Log 18-23 

III.— Ron: 24-82 

IV.— Knotting, Splicino, etc 33- 49 

v.— Bum Ks 50-54 

VL— Tackles 55-62 

VI L — Masts and Yards — Rudder — Mastino 63- 78 

VIIL— Standing Rigging 74- 85 

IX.— RiocjiNG Ship H6-130 

X.— Sails 131-143 

XI. — Purchasing Weights 144-155 

XI I. — Stowage and Sources op Supply 156-162 

XIII.— Boats 168-198 

XIV.— Ground-Tackle 194-219 

XV. — Capstan — Steam Windijiss — Steering Gear 220-224 

XVI, — Mooring — Clearing Hawse 225-232 

XVII. — Carrying out Anchors by Boats 233-239 

XVIII. — Port Drills with Sails and Spars, and Miscellaneous 

Port Kvolutions 240-272 

XIX. — International Regulations for Preventing Collisions 

AT Sea 27:^285 

XX. — Getting Under Way and Anchoring Under Sail 286-298 

XXI.— The Deck- Making and Taking in Sail 299-814 

XXII.— Working to Windward 815-881 

XXlll.— Wind Baffling 832-888 

XXIV. — Two or more Vessels Communicating at Sea — Heaving to 

— Filling Away — Squalls — Man Overboard — Sounding 889-848 

XXV. — Reefi.vg -Turning Out Reefs 849-855 

XXVI.— The Weather— Law of Storms 856-8T4 

XXVII. — In a Gale — Scudding — Lying-to — Rudder gone — Cut- 
ting AWAY Masts — Use of Oil 875-888 

XXVI 1 1. — Parting Rigging — Shifting Spars, etc 8S9-8t>7 



Vin CONTEXTS. 

CHAITEH I'AtiK 

X\IX.— II ANDiJxr. FoRK-AND- Afters 39iS-407 

XXX. — ILxXDLixo Vksskls rxDKR Stkam 40S-4H9 

XXXI. — (1i:ttix({ ox Shork — Lkakixcs — IIkavixo Down .. 440-44Sf 

XXX 1 1. — UxiTEi) JStates Life-Savix(i Service 450-459 



APPENDIX. 

A. — I{()PE-MAKix(i — Table of Dimexskins of Rope 4()l-40({ 

15. — ClTTIXU AXI) FlTTIXC Ul/M'K STRAPS 4()T-4(kS 

(\ — TiRXixc IX Old-fasiiioxei) Dkadeyks — Ui'LEs FOR Size of 

SiiKorns 4(J1I-472 

I).— Stavix(j Masts hy Use of Battens 472-47;J 

K. — Tables of Flax axd Cottox (*anvas 478-474 

F. — Maxa<jemext of ()i*ex Hoats ix SiRF 474-47({ 

G. — Hoi'TiNE — Preparin(5 Siiip FOR Sea 477-4SI 

]1.__Tarrix(J Down— S(RAPL\(i Spars— Talntino Ship, etc 481-48:> 

I. _1n a Tideway Txiier Saii 4H;{-4,Sr) 

K. — Tenimn<j Ship at Anchor — Fire Booms 4S5-4S9 

L. TiRNixo Kxperiments — Methods of Determining Tactical 

Diameters 49(U")07 

]\I. — Taxnkh SorxDiNo Machine 508-500 

X. —Ship's Papers 5(H)-510 

(),_TeRMS I'SED IX SHIPBriLI)IN(i 51 1-54*2 

'» .. «« Naval Architectcre 548-555 

P._Servi( E BrcLE Calls 556-5(58 

Index ^^59-579 






T 



ir^ p 



mu. 



if'i 



:M 



CHAPTER I . 

THE SHIP. 

6ENKBAL REMARKS ON THE HULL, SPAK8, AND SAILS. — DEFINITIONS. 

Ships are usually built on stocks and launched on ways, 
which are inclined planes leading to the water's edge. 
Sometimes vessels are built in docks, which are artificial 
basins with level floors, shut off from outside waters by 
gates, or by a single dam. known as a caisson. These gates 
are water-tight and can be opened or closed ; the dock is 
supplied with means for pumping out the water, or letting it 
in. Tlie following is an outline of tlie principal parts of the 
hull of a wooden ship. 

The lowest fore and aft piece which forms the founda- 
tion of a ship is called the keel (Plate I, No. 1). It is of 
live-oak, or elm, and made of several pieces, the joints of 
which are known as scarphs. 

To receive the edge ot the first row, or strake, of outside 
planking, called the garboard strake (2), the keel is scored 
throughout its length, the score being styled a rabbet (3). 

To protect the main keel from injury in grounding there 
is fitted under it a false keel (4), bolted on after the bolts 
which secure the frames to the main keel are clinched. 

The forward end of the shij) is formed of the stem (5), 
usually of live-oak, and inclining forward from the keel. 
A rabbet, similar to the one scored in the keel, is cut into 
the sides of the stem and receives the forward ends of the 
outside planking, which are called the fore hood-ends. 

The stem is oacked and strengthened by the apron ((3), 
placed abaft it, and by the deadwood (7). 

Deadwood consists of timbers that fill the spaces where, 
owing to the shape of the vessel, the floor-timbers have to 
he discontinued. 

Inside of the forward deadwood and the apron is the 
stemson (8), a large knee which joins the apron to the 
upper part of the deadwood. 

The after-end of the ship is bounded by the stern-post 
(9), usually of live-oak, which stands perpendicular to the 
keel or slightly inclined aft. It is fitted like the stem with 
a rabbet on each side to receive the after-ends of the out- 
side planking, or after-hoods, and it is strengthened by the 
introduction of a stem-post knee (10), inner post (11), and 
the after-dead wood (12). Above the latter is the after- 
deadwood knee (13). 



{ 



2 THE SHIP. 

Screw vessels have generally two stem-posts ; the after 
one, which carries the rudder, is called the rudder-post. 

The joining of the stem-post to the keel is effected by 
tenons and bolts. 

The frames (14) form the ribs of the ship. They stand 
mostly at ri^ht angles to the keel and each is formed of 
two parts joined together, each part being in itself made 
up 01 several pieces. The lowest portions of a square 
frame are called the floor-timbers ; above these come the 
futtocks, then the long or short top-pieces. The starboard 
andport side of each frame form one continuous piece. 

where, owing to the form of the ship, the frames do 
not stand at right angles to the keel, they are called cant 
frames. 

The following parts of the ship serve to secure the 
above-mentioned portions together and give the structure 
stiffness and strength: viz., the keelsons, breast-hooks 
15^ and stem-hooks (16), outer and inner planking, beams 
17) and diagonal braces. 

The main keelson (18) is a fore and aft timber which is 
laid directly over the keel on the floor-timbers and may 
extend beyond the latter and over the deadwood, forward 
and aft. The keelson is bolted through frames, keel, and 
deadwood. There are usually additional keelsons at each 
side of the main keelson, known as sister keelsons (20). 
There are also boiler or bilge keelsons to support the 
boilers (19). Bilge-keels are exterior keels bolted on to 
the bottom of the ship on either side of, and parallel to, the 
main keel, and at some distance from the latter, to prevent 
rolling in vessels of certain form. 

To hold the two sides of the ship together in the for- 
ward and after ends, where the frames have no floor-tim- 
bers crossing the keel, owing to the form of the ship, there 
are worked m knee-shaped, horizontal timbers, either with 
a natural curve, or formed of two or more pieces backed by 
an iron or wooden knee. These curved supports, secured 
to either side of the ship, are termed breast-nooks (15) for- 
ward and stem-hooks (16) aft ; when they support a deck 
they are called deck-hooks. 

The outer planking of a ship is formed of a number of 
oak planks of varying thickness, but nearly parallel when 
placed in position over the frames. 

To check marine growth on the bottom of vessels and 
the consequent decrease of speed, all wooden vessels of war 
are sheathed with copper from the keel to a point some 
distance above their line of flotation^ or "water-line." 

The inner planking is not contmuous, as in the case 
of outside planking, and in different parts of the ship 
is called by different names. It is known as the lim- 
ber-strakes (21) nearest the keelson. These strakes ex- 
tend along the bottom of the ship on either side of the 
keelson. As the planking is carried up the side beyond the 



THE SHIP. 3 

limber-strakes it is known as the ceiling (22) : following it 
up higher we find projecting ledges, callea shelf -pieces, 
or clamps, placed inside the frames to receive the deck- 
beams. 

The deck-beams (17), extending from side to side of the 
ship, holding the sides together, form the support for the 
decK-planking. The beams are supported oy posts or 
stancnions (23) in their centre, and by clami)s at each end. 
They are jomed to the sides of the snip by iron or wooden 
knees, known as hanging (24), lodging (25), lap (26)^ or 
daeger (corruption of diagonal) knees, from their positions 
and form. 

The waterways (27) are timbers set in the side over the 
tops of the deck-beams and bolted to these and to the 
frames at the side. 

Decks are of oak, teak, or yellow pine, and are spiked 
to each deck-beam over which they pass. 

Vessels owe much of their strength to the use of diagonal 
trusses or braces, of metal, secured inside of the frame- 
timbers and forming a net-work which binds the frames 
firmly together. 

To the above outline of the parts of the hull is appended 
a list of prominent interior fittings and of the terms used 
in describing them. As will be seen, some apply only to 
wooden ships; and some to both wooden and iron ships alike. 

Aft. At or near the stem of the ship. 

After passage. Usually a space in the after orlop of frigates, being a passage- 
way to the different store-rooms on that deck. 

Air-port. Hole cat in ship's side to give light and air to berth-deck. Usuallj 
drenlar. 

Amidships. In or near the middle of the ship. 

Apron. A timber eecnred in rear of the stem to strengthen it at the joint of 
upper and lower stem-pieces. 

Athwartships. In the direction of the ship's breadth. 

Bag-room. Where clothing-bags of crew are stored. Usually forward on the 
berth-deck or lauding off of fore- passage. 

Ballast. Stone or iron placed In the hold to bring the ship down to her proper 
Ihie of flotation and give stability. 

Beams. Timbers that extend from side to side, supportinff the decks. 

Beo^blocks. damps bolted to the bowsprit through which reeve the fore-top- 
mast stays. 

Belaying-pin. A pin of wood or metal at the side of the vessel or on the masts, 
around whicn a rope is fastened or belayed 

Bends. The thickest outside planking, extending from a little below the water- 
line to the lower gun-deck ports. 

Beith-deck. The sleeping and mess-deck of the crew and officers of a ship. 

Bibbs. Pieces of timber on either side of the mast to which the trestle trees 
are secured, and upon which they rest. 

Bilge. The flat part of a ship's body on each side of the keel. 

Bilge-keels. Long pieces of wood or iron aflixed to ship's bottom to lessen tho 
rolling motion. 

Bill-board. A ledge on the ship's bow to receive the fluke of the anchor. 

Binnacle. The case mounted on a stand in which the compass is carried when 
in use. 

Bitts. Large vertical timbers projecting above the deck to secure the ship's 
cable, also vertical posts to secure the main-tack, main-sheet, etc., accord- 
ing to location. 



4 THE SHIP. 

Bout-chocks. Blocks of w(xxl shaped to receive the bottoms of boatft, when 

hoisted ia. 
Bolsters. Rounded blocks of wood filling the angle between the treatle-tree 

and the mast, to prevent chafing of the ringing a^rainst the former. 
Bolts. Pieces of iron or other metal used in fastening parts of the ship 

togethcT. 
Booby-hatch. A small hatchway, or the covering or companion of such an 

aperture. 
Boom-iron. Iron rings secured to one yard or spar, to support another spar, 

which {jasses through the iron. Such are the studaing-sail boom-irons 

on the lower and top-sail yards. 
Bowsprit-bed. The |>art of the stem on which the bowsprit rests. 
Bread-room. The store-nx)ms in which are kept the ship's allowance of hard- 
bread, etc. Usuully situated in the after orlop. 
Break of Forecastle. Where the rise of the forecastle towards the waist of 

the ship, ends. Commonly used to define the after side of a top-gallant 

forecastle. 
Break of Poop. Where the rise of the poop towards the waist, ends. Com- 
monly used in speaking of the forward end of the poop. 
Breast-hooks. Knees, or an assemblage of timbers, set in the bows of ships 

and secured on cither side to the timbere of the liow. 
Bridle-ports. The ship's forward gun-ports. Through these ports are led the 

bridles of tow-lines or warps. 
Bridge. A light structure extending across the ship above the spar-deck, to 

afford the officer of the deck or lookout a place for oliservation. 
Bucklers. Shutters used in closing hawse-pipes (hawse-bucklers), or filling the 

circular opening of half- ports when there is no gun in the port (port- 

bucklersV 
Bulk-heads. Partitions that divide off different pirts of the ship. 
Bulwarks. The sides of the ship above the upper deck. 
Bumpkin. A projection of wood or iron from the bow or quarter, to give 

proper angle for the lead of the fore-tack or main-brace. 
Cabin. The quarters of the commanding officer of a ship. On the gun-deck of 

a ship with flush spar-deck, or under the poop {pof/p-eabin) of a single- 

deeked vessel or one having a poop in addition to a covered $;un-deck. 

In the Iwtter case the gun-deck cabin is usually occupied by a flag officer. 
Cable-tier. Formerly platforms on which the ship's cables were coiled. At 

present understoiKl to mean light platforms in the wings where spare 

rigging is stowed. 
Cant-frames. Frames, forward and aft, which are not at right angles to the 

central fore and aft line of the vessel. 
Cap. A joint fitted over the heads of masts to 8ui)i)ort the next higher mast, 

which passes through a hole in the cap. 
Cap-shore. A stout upright which Bup})ort8 the forward edge of the lower cap. 
Capstan. A barrel of wood or metal that revolves horizontally on a spindle ; 

is used with capstan-bars or moved round by steam to raise heavy weights, 

weiffh anchor, etc. 
Carlings (28). Short timbers running fore and aft, connecting the beams. 
Cat-head. An iron or wooden projection from the ship's bow to raise the 

anchor clear of the water. 
Caulking. Filling the senms of a ship with oakum or cotton. 
Cavil. A large wooden cleat used f<»r belaying. 
Ceiling. Portions of the inside planking of a ship. 
Chains (see ('hannels). C/iain chests. Lockers in the channels for the storage 

of wash-deck gear. 
Chain-lockers. Receptacles for the chain cables of the ship, usually forward 

of the main-mast in tlie main-hold. 
Chain-pipes. Iron linings of the hok»8 through which the cables are led in 

passing from one deck to another. 
Chain-plates. Iron plates for securing lower dead-eyes to ship's side. 
Channels. Ledges of plank projecting from the side to give additional spread 

to the lower shrouds. 



THE SHIP. 5 

Chess-trees. Pieces of timber Iwltnl in the top-sidos, with sheaves for fore and 

main sheets, after gxivn. etc. Tliose for the fore and main sheets are 

known also as fore and main sheet ** chocks." 
Cleats. Pieces of wcx)d with projecting arms, used for belaying ropes. 
Coaming. A raised lK)uudary to hatchways, to keej) water from getting' 

down, etc. 
Cockpit. A spac;* i>elow the after hatchway under the hertli-deck ; usually the 

forwurd end of the after passage. 
Compressor, in its siinnlr^! t iiiu, an iron lin-er fitted lulow each cliMin-pipe. 

Tlh" «'liain i> eontrolied. when running out, l)y beini^ jammed i)eiwet'n the 

compressor arm and ed^e of the chain-pipe. 
Counter. The rounding of the stern over the run. 
Cross-trees. Thwartship timbers, suj)ported l)y tlie l)il)l)s and trestk'-trecs to 

sustain the frame of the top, constitute tlie U)Wcr cross-trees. Top-mast 

• ross-trees resting on the top-mast trestle-trees, extend the top-gallnnr 

shrouds. 
Cutwater. The forward part of a ship's l)ow. forming tlie forward edy:e of 

t)ie stem. 
Dagger-knee. A knee which i> im-lincd diu^ronally. usually to clear a p<irt. 
Dayits. Cranes project intif fnmi the siiip'.^ side to lioist boats, etc. . 

Deadeye. A round flattish wooden block encircled by an iron sti'.ip and 

pierced \v'ith holes to receive a laniard hy means of which rigging and 

stays are set un taut. 
Dead-^rood. Tiuiber built up on top of the keel to give solid wood for sup- 

lK)rting the heels of cant frames. 
Decks. The different platforms of ships. 

Dispensary. Tlie .ship's pharinacy, usually placed on starboard side of berth- 
deck forward of warrant otiicers' rooms, may also l)e in or near sick-bay. 
Dolphin-striker. A small spar ])roj«.K*ting downward from below the Iwwsprit 

to extend certain rigging of the head-booms and keep the latt<T in ])lace. 
Eye-bolt. A projecting IxvU of which, the head is fashioned into an eye, used 

for hooking tackles, etc. 
Fid. A bar of iron or wood which pa.sses through a fid-hole in the heel of a 

mast and rests on the trestle-trees on either side. 
Fife-rail. Rails placed around each mast, fitted with* belay ing-pins to belay ropes. 
Fish-davit. A movable piece of timber or iron projection, used to raise the 

fluke of an anchor and place it on the bill-board. 
Fishes. Pieces of wood or iron used in effecting temporary repairs with 

injnred masts, yards, etc. 
Floor-timbers. Tunbers of the frames which lie directly acro.ss the keel. 
Fore and Aft. Lying in the direction of the ship's length. 
Forecastle. Tlie upper-deck of a man-of-war forward of the after part of the 

tore-channels. 
Fore-foot. The forward end of the keel. 
Fore-hold. The forward part of the hold, usually e'xtendiug from abaft the 

tore passage to about midway between fore and main masts. 
Fore-passage. A passageway below the berth -deck leading to the general 

store-room and with entraJices on either side to various si)ecial store 

rocjms, sail-room, etc. 
Fore-peak. The narrow part of a vessi'l's hold close to the bow and under the 

lowest deck, often accessible only from the general store-room. 
Funnel. An iron band at a mast-head around wliicli the rigging fits. 
Futtock-plates. Iron jjlates to which the dcnideyes of the topmast rigginir 

and futtock-shrouds are secured. 
Futtocks. Timbers of the frame between the floors and top-timbers. 
Gammoning. The lashing or iron strap by which the bowsprit is secured to the 

stem. 
Gangway. The spar-deck on each side of the booms between the quarter-deck 

and for««a8tle. Also an open space through the bulwarks as a passage 

way in and out of the ship. 
General Store-room. Is situated below the berth-deck and at the forward end 

of the fore-pasflage. 



6 THE SHIP. 

Gooseneck. A bent nieoe of iron uaed to connect a boom to a mast hj entering 
an eye-bolt or clamp, and capable of movement at tbe curve. 

Grating;. An open latticed covering for hatches, etc. 

Gripe. A piece bolted on forward of the stem, forming the lower end of the 
catwater. 

Gun-deck A covered deck of a man-of-war carrying the whole or a portion of 
her battery. When the guns are carried on the upper-deck, its name as 
spar-deck remains unchanged. 

Gun-room. Obsolete expression for the quarters of the commissioned officers. 

Gunwale. Tlje covering-piece of the heads of the timbers in a small vessel, or 
boat. 

Half-deck. That part of the gun-deck between the main and mizzen masts on 
each side. 

Hammock-nettinf 8. Trough-shaped receptacles along the rail on either side, 
ki which the hammocks are stowed. A net- work of ropes was formerly 
used for this purpose, hence the term; other nettings will be described, as 
used. 

Hanging-knee. Knee placed vertically under a deck -beam. 

Hatoi. An o[«ning in a deck, forming a passage from one deck to another, 
and into the holds. 

Hawse-buckler. A plate used for closing the opening of tbe hawse-hole. 

Hawse-holes. Holes in the bows of the ship through which pasH the cables. 

Hawse-pipe. Iron lining of the hawse-holes to take the chafe of the cables. 

Hawse-plug. Plugs which fill the hawse-pipes to prevent the entrance of water 
when the cables are unbent. Usually made of canvas and stuffed, then 
termed "jackasses." 

Head-board, boards placed at the forward and after ends of the hammock- 
nettings. 

Helm. Strictly, the bar by means of which the rudder is moved from side to 
side. Usually understood to mean the rudder, tiller, and wheel, or the 
whole of the steering arrangement. 

Hold. The interior i^art of ship in which the stores or cargo, etc., are stowed. 
In a man-of-war if there are two holds the forward one is called the fore- 
hold and the after one. whatever its position, the main hold. 

Horse-block. A small raised platform abreast the mizzen-mast, for the use of 
the officer of the deck when the ship is not supplied with a bridge. 

Hounds. A projection on a mast for the trestle-trees to rest upon. 

Hull. The main body of the ship. 

Inboard. In the interior of the ship, as distinguished from outboard. 

Keelson. A timber in the interior of the sliip bolted on over the keel and 
floor timbers. 

Knight-heads. Strong uprights on each side of the upper part of the stem to 
strengthen the bow and support the bow8i)rit. 

Ledges (29). Light beams, parallel to the deck -beams butting on the clamps 
and carlings. 

Life-rails. Consist of stanchions heeled on the gunwale or planksheer with 
chain running from stanchion to stanchion. Pipe may be substituted 
for chain. 

Light-boxes. Frames in which are set the side-lights of a vessel when under 
way. 

Limbers. Gutters on each side of the keelson to allow the water to pass into 
the pump-well. Limber-boards, the covering of the limbers. 

Life-buoy. An apparatus for the assistance of those who may fall overboard. 

Locker. A drawer or chest that may be closed with a lock. Shot locker, a 
compartment in the hold for storing shot ; cJiain-locker, a similar compart- 
ment for the chain-cables. 

Magazine. The store-room for the ship's powder. 

Main-hold. Tliat portion of the hold which extends from a short distance for- 
ward of the main-mast to the break of the orlop-deck. 

Manger. Part of the deck divided oflf forward to prevent any water from 
running aft that may enter through the hawse-holes. 



THB SHIP. 7 

Manger-boArd. A plank numing across the deck a short dUrtanoe abaft the 

the hawse-pipes, the after boundary of the manger. 
Mast-coat. A canvas-coTering fitted around the mast and over the wedges to 

prevent leakage around the mast. 
Naval-pipe. Same as chain-pipe. 

Oakam. Old rope picked to pieces, like hemp, used in caulkinff. 
Orlop-deck. Usually a half-deck extending aft from the main -hold, a distance 

depending greatly upon the shape of tlie after body. 
Outboard. On the outside of the ship, in contradistinction to inboard. 
Partners. The framing around a mast-hole, to take the direct strain of the 

mast and mast- wedges. 
Pawl. An iron arm on a capstan to keep it from recoiling. 
Pin-rail. A railing on each side of the ship abreast of the masts, fitted with 

belaying pins for securing ropes. 
Pay. To pay a seam is to pour hot pitch and tar into it after it has been 

caulked. 
Poop. A deck raised above the after part of the spar-deck, reaching forward to 

the mizzen-mast. 
Port. An opening cut in the side of the ship through which a gun nmy be 

discharged. 
Port. The left side of a ship looking forward, as distinguislied from starboard. 
Pump-well. The part of ttie bilge upon which the suction of the pump acts 

directly. 
Quarter-deck. Usually that part of the spar-deck which extends from the 

stem to the main-mast. 
Quarter-^alleiy. Projections from the quarters of a vessel. 
Rake. The inclination of a mast, etc., from a perpendicular direction to the 

keeL 
Ridin&^-bitts. The bitta around which the ship's cables are taken. 
Rine-bolts. Eye-bolts having a ring through the eye of the bolt. 
Rucmer. The instrument by which a ship is steered. 
Run. Ttie narrowing of the after part of the ship. 
Sail-room. Storage-room for spare sails, hammocks, and sail-maker's stores. 

In modern ships usually ojiens into the after-passage ; some vessels have 

forward sail -rooms in fore-passage. 
Sampson-knee. A heavy timber forward of the riding-bitts which serves to 

strengthen the latter. 
Shell-room. Storage- room for explosive project! lea 
Shore. A post or timber used as a temporary support. 

Sick-bay. The hospital of the ship, usually situated forward on the berth- 
deck. 
Scuppers. Holes cut through the waterways and side to allow water to run off 

the decks. 
Scuttle. A small circular aperture in a deck not intended for the passage of 

persons, through which powder, etc., may be passed from one deck to 

another. 
Sheathing;. Usaally understood to mean a covering of copper, felt, etc. , placed 

over a portion of the ship's surface to protect it. Copper sheathing covers 

the immersed part of a ship to protect it from marine growth. 
Spar-deck. The upper de^k of a ship-of-war. 
Spirketing. The inside planking of a ship extending from the lower edges of 

the gun-ports to the waterways. 
Spirit-room. A name formerly given to the paymaster's store-room in the after- 
part of the after-hold, reserved for stowage of spirits The name applies 

at present to the pavmaster's store-room for dry provisions. 
Stanchions. Uprights placed under deck-beams to support them in the centre, 

also called pillars. 
Starboard. The right side of a ship looking forward, as distinguished from 

port. 
Steerage. The quarters of junior officers and clerks, situated outside the 

ward-room on either side of the deck, the space between the two steerage- 
rooms being known as the steerage-country. 



8 THE SHIP. 

Stem. The forward boundary of a nhip, tlio continuation of the keel to the 

height of tlu» deck. 
Steps of Mast. Places inU> which the lower ends or Jials of lower masts are 

secured or stepped. The fore and main masts are stepped at present in 

iron siepH fittecl over the main- keelson, with flanges to the sister-keelsons. 

The mizzen-mast step is a piece of timber secured to the orlop or berth 

deck beams. 
Stern. The after-part of the ship. 
Stern-post. The after-boundary of the shij). a continuation of the keel, tenoned 

into the latter and secured to it in addition by composition ))lates. 
Sv^eep-pieces. Ledjres of wood hinged to the inner eilgen of gun-yorts to give 

additional facility in trainine: the iruns. 
Taffrail. The rail around a ship's, stern. 
Tenon. The end of one piece of wood diminished and cut with shoulders to 

fit in a hole of another piece, called a mortise. 
Thole-pin. Pins fitted in the gunwale of a boat, to be used with a royya ring or 

f/rommet as a rowlock. 
Thwart, A crosrt-])iec<j in a boat, used as a seat by the oanunen. 
Tiller. A bar of wocxi or iron whi':h fits into the rudder-head and by which the 

steering is eft(»cted. (S«'e Helm.) 
Top. A platform at the <^yes of the hiwrr rigging, supported by the treslh'- 

trees and cross-tn»es; the top-ma.st rigging sei.s up at each side of the 

top. 
Top-gallant Forecastle. A deck raised over the* forward end of the s])ar-deck 

extending from the bows nearly or quiti' \o the fore-mast. 
Top-rim. The torward edge of a top, roundel to prevent chafe. 
Transom. A lx«am extending across the after part of the ship. 
Tree-nail. Pin of hard wo(xl u.sed as a fastening in the place of a metallic 

Iwlt. 
Trestle-trees. Fore and aft pieces on each side of a mast resting on the hounds 

to support the rigging, cross-trees, etc. 
Truck. A small wmxlen cap on a flag-stafi' or mast-head with holes or sheaves 

for halliards. A mast-head truck is also fitted to receive the spindle of 

the lightning-rod. 
Ward-room. The quarters of the commissioned oflScers of a ship, usually 

occupying the after part of the berth-deck. The rooms on the starboanl 

side occupi<Ml by the line officers, those on the ])ort side by the staff 

officers — the intervening space is styled the ward-room country. 
Warping-chock. A block of wood, or metal casting, scored to receive a tow- 
line. Bridle-ports arc fitted with such chocks, which can be removeil 

when not in use. 
Warrant-Officers' Rooms. Usually on the berth-deck, two on each side, for- 
ward of the steemge. The boatswain and gunner occupy the starboard, 

the caqH'Uter and sail-maker tlie port rcwms. 
Waterways. Pieces of timl)er ]>lace<l over the tops of the l)eams and secured 

to the l>eams and shi])'s side, tilling the angle between the beams and the 

inside of the franie-timlx»rs. 
Wheel. A wheel to the axle of which, culled the barrel. an« connected the 

tiller- or ir/if(l-r<)\n's by which the rudder is niovrd in steerinc:. 
Weigh. To weigh anything is to raise it— to weigh anchor. 
Whiskers. Small spars projecting on either side of the bowsprit from the bees, 

extending the jib and flying-jib guys. 
Wings of the Hold. That part of the hold or orlop which is nearest to the 

side. 
Wythe. An iron fixture on the end of a mast or boom, bearing a ring through 

which another mast or lxK)m is rigged out. Pronounced mth. 
Yoke. A cross-piece of timber or metal fitted on the rudder-head when a tillei 

cannot be used. 



Plate 2 



0' 



5' 



\ I I L^_t L 



»• 



I t 



IS* 

-I 



A- 



Beam Arm 






n 



I 






- •* " — '■ — '-^— 






'^IBea'm (i) 



r.ti.TXi.T.J 



'"'--•■"■- ' 




THE SHIP. 9 

Plate II shows a midship section of a battle-ship of the 
Indiana clasQ: such a section as would be obtained by cut- 
ting the ship in the middle of its length by a vertical 
thwartship plane. This exhibits the general method of 
construction of a modern war vessel. The names of the 
various parts will be found on the drawing and in the gloss- 
ary of the terms. An examination of this plate will show 
the difference in shape of material used in iron or steel ves- 
sels ; and in those constructed of wood. 

The keel (1) consists of two flat plates arranged as shown, 
the pieces going to make up its length being joined by straps 
of metal. The garboard strakes (2) fit in under the outer 
edge of the outer keel plate on each side. 

The vertical keel (3) rests on, and is secured to, the flat 
keel as shown. The keelson plate (4) is placed on top of 
the vertical keel. The flat keel plates are lapped on, and 
secured to, the stem which consists of a casting of the de- 
sired shape of the bow. Aft, they are similarly secured to 
the stern-post, which is also a casting of the desired shape 
and size. 

There are no dead-woods. The breast and stern hooks 
consist of angle-irons secured to tlie inside of the frames 
with horizontal thwartship plates secured to them. 

The frames are made up, as shown, of the outer or main 
frame (5), inner or reverse frame (6), and bracket plates( 7). 
These frames are angle-irons of the required size, the cross 
section of which forms a Z. In the extremities of large 
vessels and, throughout in small vessels, these bracket-plates 
are replaced by vertical plates of the required length and 
depth called floor plates. 

The beams (8) have arms at their ends instead of knees, 
by which they are secured to the frames. 

Below the protective deck the ship is divided, horizon- 
tally, by perfectly flat decks called platforms, most of which 
are made water-tight. The vertical subdivisions are made 
by bulkheads. 

By careful study of Plate 2 and Plates 81 and 82 a very 
good idea can be obtained of the construction of a modern 
war vessel, together with the internal subdivisions and ar- 
rangements. 

GLOSSARY. 

Armor. Extra thick plates placed around the vital parts of a vessel to piv 

vent the entrance of projectiles. 
Armor-shelf. The horizontal shelf upon which the armor rests. 
Brid^^es. The forward bridge, the after bridge, the upper bridge, the loivfr 

bridge, according to situation. A connecting^ gangway between the for- 

wara and after bridges, or between the bridge and forecastle or poop 

deck, is called the fore and aft bridge. 
tower. An armored pilot house. 



10 THE SHIP. 

Decks. In a modern war vessel the decks are named as follows : — 

Main deck. The highest complete deck extending from stem to stern. 

ForecuHth deck. A partial deck, ai>ove the main deck, forward. 

Poop deck. A partial deck alx)ve the main deck at the stern. 

Upper deck. A partial deck above the main deck, amidships ; when the 
8[)ace under this deck is not enclosed it is called a bridge deck. 
Gun deck. A complete deck between the main deck and the berth deck on 

which guns are carried. If there are two such decks they are calleil 

giitt deck and lower deck respectively. 
Berth deck. The first deck below the main deck used primarily for bftrthinj; 

purposes and on which noguns except light rapid-fire guns are carried. 
Orlopideck. A partial deck between the berth deck and protective deck or 

water-tight deck. 
Protective deck. A steel deck of extra strength and thickness designed for 

protective purposes. It is divided into middie protective deck, &nd for- 
ward (or after) protective deck. 
Water-tight deck. A deck worked in the same manner as the protective deck 

but of much ligliter material, serving only to keep water from getting 

behiw. 
Splinter deck. A deck worked immediately under the protective dK*k for 

protective purposes. 
Deck-lights. Small openings to the deck for the admission of light only. 
Deck space. Space between decks; this space takes the name of the deck 

above which it is located. 
Double bottom. The space l)etween the inner and outer l)ottoms. In the mer- 
chant service this is often called the water bottom 
Inner bottom. The inner surface of the double bottom. 
Freeing ports. Large openings in the bulwarks for permitting the escape of 

water. 
Man-hole. A small opening just large enough to permit the passage of a man. 
Platforms. Partial, flat decks located below the protective deck. Where there 

are two they are called, upper platform ana lower platform. 
Strake. Applies to layers of plating. 

Torpedo port. Opening in the ship's side for the service of torpedo tubes. 
Vertical keel. The vertical plate placed on the inside of the flat keel. 
Water-tight bulkheads. The internal vertical partitions of a modern vessel 

compo.sed of plates and made water-tight. They are designated as follows : 
Transverse bulkheads. Thwartship partitions placed as required. The one 

farthest forward is made specially strong and called the collision bulkhead. 
Splinter or Screen bulkheads. Thwartship partitions worked between the 

guns on battery decks. 
Longitudinal bulkheads. Fore and aft partitions called middU line e^r winy 

bulkheads, according as they are placed in the middle of the vessel or out 

toward the sides. 
Wood flat. The wood jdanking in metal ships. 



Plate 4 




THE SHIP. 



11 



Si>£tx*H And n/ig-g-ing-. The names of the spars 
and rigging of the ship are given in the references to 
Plate 3. 



1. 

2. 

a 

4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 

8. 
9. 

la 
11. 
i«. 

18. 
14. 
16. 
16w 
17. 
1& 
19. 
». 
91. 



M. 



«7. 
SB. 

99. 

ao. 

31. 



34. 



88. 
39. 



Fore rojal stay. 

Flying jib Btoy. 

Fore topgallant Btay. 

Jib etay. 

Fore topmast stays. 

Fore stars. 

Fore tacks. 

Flying martingale. 

Martingale stay. 

Jib gnys. 

Jamper gnys. 

Back ropes. 

Bobetays. 

Plying JI^ boom. 

Fhring Jib foot ropes. 

Jib boom. 

Jib foot ropes. 

Bowsprit. 

Fore royal track. 

** mast. 

" lifts, 
yard, 
backstays. 

** braces. 
Fore topgallant mast and 

Fore topgallant lifts, 
yard. 
'* backstays. 

" braces. 

Fore topmast and rigging. 
Foro topsail lift, 
yard. 

foot ropes. 
" braces. 

Fore yard. 
"■ brace. 
" lifts. 
f?aff. 
trysail vangs. 



tt 



40. 

4t. 
42. 
48. 
44. 
45. 

46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
SO. 

51. 
08. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
50. 

eo. 

61. 

68. 

68. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
TO. 
71. 
72. 
T8. 
74. 
75. 



REFERENCES. 

Fore topmast studding sail 

booms. 
Foremast and rigging. 
Fore topmast backstays. 
Fore 8heet8. 

Main track and pennant. 
Main royal mast and back- 
stay. 
■Main royal stay. 
llftP. 
yard. 
" braces. 

Main topgallant mast and 

Main topgallant lifts. 

*' backstays. 

yard. 
" stay. 

*' braces. 

Main topmast and rigging. 
Topsail lifts. 
^* jard. 
** foot ropes. 
'* braces. 
Topmast stays. 
Main topgallant stnnsail 

booms. 
Main topmast backstay. 
" yard. 
** foot ropes. 
'* mast and rigging. 
** lifts. 
"• braces. 
" tacks. 
** sheets. 
" trysail gaff, 
trysail vangs. 
stays. 
Mizzen royal track. 
Royal mast and rigging. 



ti 



76. 
T7. 
78. 
79. 
80. 

81. 
8S. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 

87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
93. 
98. 
94. 
96. 
96. 
97. 

Ms. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
108. 
103. 

104. 
106. 
106. 
107. 
10& 
109. 
110. 
111. 



Royal stay. 
♦' lifts. 
" yard. 
'* braces. 
Mizzen topgallant mast 

and rigging. 
Mizzen topgallani lifts. 

** backstays. 

" braces. 

yard. 
*' stay. 

Mizzen topmast and rig- 

MuBzen topmast stay. 
" topsail lifts. 
** topmast backstays. 
" topsail bracc9. 

** yard. 
** ** root ropes. 

cross-Jack yard. 

foot ropes. 
•* Hfts. 
" braces. 
Mizzen mast and rigging. 

•* sUy. 
Spanker gaff. 
Peak halliards. 
Spanker vangs. 
Spanker boom. 
Spanker boom topping 

lift. 
Jacob's or stern ladder. 
Spanker sheet. 
Cutwater. 
Port bow. 
" beam. 
Water line. 
Port quarter. 
Rudder. 



ScLilM. The names of the sails and certain running 
rigeing of a ship are given in the following references to 
~*la 



Plate 4. 

Nambs of Sails. 

1. Flying Jib. 

2. Jib. 

Z. Fore topmast staysail. 

4. Fore course or foresail. 

5. Main course or mainsail. 

6. Fore topsail. 

7. Main topsail, 
a Miczen topsaU. 

9. Fore topgallant sail. 

10. Main tof^allant sail. 

11. Mizzen topgallant sail. 
19. Pore royal. 

18. Bfain royal. 

14. Mizzen royal. 

15. Fore trysail. 
IC Main trysail 
17. Spanker. 

1& Lower staddlngsail. 



19. Fore topmast stnddingsall. 

80. Fore topgiJlant studding- 

sail. 

81. Main topgallant staddlng- 

sail. 

OBAB or COUBSIB. ' 

23. Clew Garoets. 

88. Tacks. 

94. Sheets. 

25. Inner leechline. 

86. Outer leechline. 

87. Buntlines. 

88. Bowline bridles. 

Obab of Topsails, stc. 

29. Clewlines, 
ao. Bowline and bridles. 
81. Topgallant clewline. 
88. Boyal clewline. 



; 88. Fore trysail Tangs. 

84. Peak span. 

85. Main trysail vangs. 
I 86. Peak span. 

87. Spanker vangs. 

88. Throat bralL 

89. Middle brail. 

40. Foot brail. 

41. Lower studdingsailouthaul 
48. Lower studdingsall sheet. 
48. Lower staddlngsail clew- 
line. 

44. Outer halliards. 

45. Topmast studdingsall tack. 

46. Topmast staddlngsail 

downhanl. 

47. T*gllt stunsU Uck. 

48. Qoarter boat. 

49. Waist boat. 



Xligr of T^essels (compare Plate 5). Vessels are 
divide<raccording[ to their rig into numerous classes, of 
^which the following may be mentioned as the principal 
types usually met with at sea : 



IZ THE ?»HIP. 

Th^j Whip (\), Three masted, square rigged on all 
three mastM. 

Th#^ 1 f iiT'iiiie or I^ai*k (2). Three masted, square 
rigged on forf and main, fore and aft rig on the mizzen mast. 

^VU4^ I )xi.i*k«f ntine (3). Three masted, square 
rigg^'d on the foremast, fore and aft rig on the main and 
my///A'X\ mastH, 

^ni#* llf'ii^ {:*). Two masted, sijuan* rigged on both 

''I''li<» Kf'lerfintiTie. The same as a brig, but with- 
out a m]uare mainsail. 

^•1145 1 l€^i*iiiiii>hT*oclite Bi'ig' (0). Two masted, 
m|uare rigged op the foremast, fore and aft rig on the main- 
rriant. 

^V\i^*- 'TopMall Schooner (7). Two masted 
Hrhooner with a wjuare fort! topsail. 

''I''li#^ M<*lioon4»i*. Two masted (8), three masted 
(4), or four masted fore and aft rig. 

''I''h« Hloop (0). One masted, fore and aft rig. 

Note. A vessel is said to be square rigged on a certain 
mast, when the sails set on that mast are bent to yards, 
and fore and aft rigged when the sails are bent to gaffs. 

The topsail yards of merchantmen are almost invariably 
double, the topsail being in two parts, the lower part bent 
to the low(5r topsail yard and not noisted, the upper portion 
bent to the upper yard and hoisted, as in the case of a single 
topsail. TIhj clews, or lower comers, of the upper topsail 
are shackled to the yard arms of the lower topsail yard, 

Vi»hh€»1h ol*\Vtii'5 in the United States Xavy, are 
<;luHHifi(?d as follows: 

'I'hey are first divi(l(Ml into two principal classes; armored 
and ininnnarvd, Thc^ formta* comprises all those which an^ 
protected f'roni gun attac^k by thick armor; the latter includes 
all from wliic^li this protc^ction is absent. 

TIh» first class is subdivided into battleships and arm- 
tired rr in sens. The foriiKT are either sea-going with high 
freeboard and great c()al endurance, or roast defense, with 
low f nM'hoard, of which the monitor ty])e is an example. 

. I rnawed rruisers luive high speed, great coal endurance, 
and in<»dc»rately thick armor. Uaarmored ernisers are ^^/o- 
terled l)y a heavy protective deck, extending fore and aft; 
or partialltf protected, when the protective deck covers only 
th(» vital parts of the vi'ssel. Lnarmored vessels of 2,000 
tons displa(*enient and above are called cruisers; below that 
sisee, gmdnutts. 

Torpedo boats. Small vessels of high speed intended, 
e.xelasivelv, for tiring t<»rpedoes. 

T}}rpeifo'fH)at Destroffers. Torpedo vessels of from 30(» 
to 1000 tons tlisplacement, of great speed, and fitted with 
rapitl fire battery in addition to the ordinary outfit of tor- 
petlo tubes ami torjHHloes. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE COMPASS. -THE LEAD. -THE LOG. 

The Oompass. A piece of steel which has been 
touched by a magnet, if free to move on a pivot, will point 
in a definite direction. To this direction, as a standard, all 
others may be referred, and any desired course thus fol- 
lowed. 

The Mariner's Compass is basfed upon this principle. It 
consists of the needle, which is attacned to the under side 
of a card. Fig. 1, representing the horizon, and graduated 
with the thirty-two ** points '"of the compass. The North 
end, or pole, of the needle is fixed under the North point of 
the card. The needle and card are balanced on a pivot 
fixed vertically in the compass-box, or bowl, and the whole 
is protected by a glass covering. The bowl is filled with a 
liquid composed of 45^ pure alcohol and 55^ distilled water. 
This mixture remains liquid at a low temperature exceed- 
ing — 10'' Fahrenheit. 

As the North mark of the compass-card always points 
with the needle to the North, the other marks will of course 
point to their respective parts of the horizon. 

The variation of the compass and its local errors are not 
noticed here, as they may be referred to in any book on 
Navigation. 

The Luhher*8 Point is a vertical line drawn on the inside 
of the bowl of the compass to correspond with the vessel's 
head ; the point of the card coinciding with it shows the 
course steered, or the direction in which the ship is 
heading. 

To Box tlie Oompa^^is^ is to name the points 
in regular succession, beginning at one point and ending 
at the same: thus, commencing with north and going 
around with the sun, say : — 

North, South-East, 

North by East, South-East by South, 

North North-East, South South-East, 

North-East by North, South by East, 

North-East, South, 

North-East bv East, South by West, 

East North-East, South South-west. 

East by North, South- West by South, 

East, South- West, 

East by South, South- West by West, 

East South-East, West South- West, 

South-East by East, West by South, 

13 



14 THE COMPASS. 

West, North-West, 

West by North, North-West by North, 

West North-West, North North-West, 

North-West by West, North by West, 

North. 

Each point is further divided into half -points and quar- 
ter-points, and the fractional points are named upon the 
same principle as the points themselves ; thus : — 

N. i E. N. E. i E. 

N. i E. N. E. i E. 

N. I E. N. E. J E. 

N. by E. N. E. by E. 

N. by E. i E. N. E. by E. } E. 

N. by E. i E. N. E. by E. i E. 

N. by E. i E. N. E. by E. i E. 

N. N. E. E. N. E. 

N. N. E. i E. E. N. E. I E. 

N. N. E. i E. E. N. E. i E. 

N. N. E. i E. E. N. E. J E. 

N. E. by N. E. by N. 

N. E. I N. E. I N. 

N. E. i N. E. i N. 

N. E. i N. E. i N. 

N. E. E., &c., &c. 

A quarter-point (or half -point) can obviously be named 
with reference to either one of the nearest whole points. 
Thus N. \ E. would be defined also as N. by E. J N., and 
E. N. E. i E. would be recognized as E. by N. ^ N. 

The following are the usual rules for naming quarter- 
points : — 

1st. From East or West to the nearest whole point, use 
for quarter-points that name which ends with the word 
North or South. Thus, E. i S., not E. by S. J E. 

2d. From N. E., N.W., S. E., or S. W., to the nearest 
whole point use that name which ends with the nearest 
cardinal point. Thus, N. E. i N., not N. E. by N. i E.; 
N. W. i W., not N. W. by W. | N. 

3d. in all other cases use that name of the quarter or 
half -point which ends with the word East or West. Thus, 
E. S. E. i E., not E. by S. i S. 

A Dumb Compass is used at the mast-heads, tafifrail, 
&c., for taking relative bearings. It consists of a compass- 
card painted on a board or cut on a copper plate. 

Relative Rearingrw. In referrmg to the posi- 
tion of an object, the direction of the wind, &c.,with refer- 
ence to the ship, use is frequently made of what are called 
relative bearings, instead of givmg the directions in com- 
pass-points. 



THE COMPASS. 15 

i 



In Fig. 2, Plate 9, a ship is represented as heading North. 
A lighthouse or other object if seen bearing North would 
also be said to bear, from that ship : Ahead. 

If seen bearing N. by E. : One point on starboard bow. 

Bearing N. N. E. : Two points on starboard bow. 

Bearing N.E. by N.: Three points on starboard bow. 

Bearing N.E. : feroad off starboard bow. 

Bearing N.E. by E.: Three points forward of starboard 
beam. 

Bearing E. N.E. : Two points forward of starboard beam. 

Bearing E. by N. : One point forward of starboard beam. 

Bearing East : Abeam. 

Bearing E. by S. : One point abaft starboard beam. 

Bearing E. S.E. : Two points abaft starboard beam. 

Bearing S.E. by E. : Three points abaft starboard beam. 

Bearing S.E.: feroad off starboard quarter. 

Bearing S.E. by S.: Three points on starboard quarter. 

Bearing S. S.E. : Two points on starboard quarter. 

Bearing S. by E. : One point on starboard quarter. 

Bearing South : Astern. 

And similarly at N. by W., N. N.W., &c., one point on 
I)ort bow, two points on port bow, &c., &c. 

To find the direction of the wind, when ship is close 
hauled, — A square-rigged ship, when close hauled, can 
usually lie no nearer the wind than six points ; therefore, if 
a ship be close hauled on the starboard tack, and her head 
at North, count six points thence to the right hand, or 
towards East, and you will find the wind at E. N.E. The 
wind then forms with the keel an angle of six points, so 
that if a line at Fig. 2, Plate 9, represents the ship's keel, 
{c\ will be the yard when braced up, and (cZ) the direction 
01 the wind. In practice the yard is braced up sharper, to 
make the sail stand to better advantage. 

When the ship is on the port tack with her head NoVth, 
the points are counted on the opposite or left side, and the 
wind is W. N. W. If the ship's nead be put to any point of 
the compass, counting six points to the right or leit hand, 
according as the ship is on the starboard or port tack, will 
always give the direction of the wind when the vessel is 
close hauled. 

When the wind is E. by N. , in Fig. 2, the ship is then 
one point free, because her head is seven points from the 
wind. With the wind East in the figure, it is said to be two 
points free, or abeam, as shown in the remarks on relative 
Searings. If the wind is at S. in the figure, it is said to be 
aft. 

After learning to box the compass. with the sun, go 
around against the sun, or from North towards West, and 
practise with such questions as the following : Ship on the 
port tack, heading S. W. f W., how will she head on the 
other tack ? With the wind at S. W. and steering due East, 



16 THE LBAD. 

the ship is hauled up two points and a half, how will she 
head ? Close hauled, with the port tacks aboard, heading 
S. S.E., you bear up, keeping away six points, how will the 
ship head, and how will the wind be with reference to the 
ship's beam ? Ship heading N. N.E. on the starboard tack, 
a lighthouse is reported from aloft bearing two points abaft 
the lee beam, how will it bear by compass, &c., &c. ? 

With few exceptions steam vessels steer entirely by 
degrees and not by points or fractions of points. As tlie 
departure for 1° and 300 miles, is 5.2 miles, the reason for 
the change is obvious. 

Compass cards are now graduated to degrees as well as 
quarter points, and the seaman should be equally familiar 
with both methods of graduation. 

TTlie I*elox*vxH« This is a dumb compass mounted 
on the end of the bridge or other convenient place for taking 
bearings. It consists of an outer metal ring with the lub- 
ber's point marked on it. Revolving inside of this ring is 
a metal plate graduated to quarter points and degrees, in 
the same manner as the ordinary compass card. Over the 
plate, and revolving on the same vertical axis, is a metal 
bar furnished with sight vanes, by which the bearings are 
taken. The bar has verniers at its outer extremities for 
reading off against the graduated plate below. The plate 
and bar can be clamped at will. 

THE LEAD. 

SoTxiiclingrf*5^ to ascertain the depth of water on 
entering or leaving a port, or in any case where there is 
supposed to be less than twenty fathoms of water, are 
taken by the hand lead. Fig. 3, Plate 0, a quartermaster or 
forecastle-man being stationed in the main chains for tlie 
purpose ; the lead weighing from seven to fourteen pounds, 
and the line being from twenty to thirty fathoms in length. 
Hand lead lines are marked as follows : 

At 2 fathoms from the lead, with 2 strips of leather. 

At 3 fathoms from the lead, with 3 strips of leather. 

At 5 fathoms from the lead, with a white rag. 

At 7 fathoms from the lead, with a red rag. 

At 10 fathoms from the lead, with leather, having a hole 
in it. 

At 13 fathoms from the lead, as at 3. 

At 15 fathoms from the lead, as at 5. 

At 17 fathoms from the lead, as at 7. 

At 20 fathoms from the lead, with 2 knots. 

At 25 fathoms from the lead, with one knot. 

At 30 fathoms from the lead, with three knots. 

At 35 fathoms from the lead, with one knot. 

At 40 fathoms from the lead, with four knots. And so 
on. 



THE LEAD. 17 

These are known as the ''marks.'" The numbers omit- 
ted, as 1, 4, C, 8, &c., are called the "deeps;" and they are 
spoken of together as the " marks and deeps of the lead 
line." 

All lead lines should be marked when wet. 

Soundings by the hand-lead are taken while the vessel 
has headway on, the leadsman throwing the lead forward, 
and getting the depth as the vessel passes, while the line is 
nearly perpendicular. He communicates to the oflScer the 
soundings obtained, thus : 

If the depth corresponds with either of the above marks, 
he says, "-Bv the mark 5 or 7. If the mark is a little below 
the surf ace, ne says, ^^Mark under water 5 or 7." If the 
depth is greater, or one half more than any of the marks, 
he says, ^'And a quarter^" or '^And a half 5 or 7." If the 
depth is a quarter less, he says, *' Quarter less 5 or 7." If 
he judges by the distance between any two of the marks 
that the depth of water is 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, or 21 
fathoms, he says, ''By the deep 4," &c. 

On the hand-lead line there are nine "marks" and 
eleven "deeps." 

Require tne soundings to be given in a sharp, clear and 
decidea tone of voice. In steamers, this is certainlv the 
best plan, for while the old-fashioned "song" is being 
drawled out, the vessel may run ashore. 

Tlie I3i:*eaNl>"barid. oi^ l^oj^e, generally the 
former, made of canvas, secured at both ends to the rigging, 
supports the body of the leadsman while heaving the nand- 
leaa. 

Besides the breast-band, it is a very good plan to have 
fitted, in connection with it, a tarpaulin apron, to cover the 
"leadsman" from the feet to the waist. This keeps him 
dry and adds much to his comfort. 

On going into the chains for the purpose of sounding, 
the leaHsman should see the breast-rope properly secured • 
liis line clear, and the end made fast. If at night, he should 
take the distance from the breast-rope to the water's edge ; 
then at each cast deduct this distance from the mark at 
hand and give it as the true sounding. 

The X>eep-s*ea T^ead. is used in depths of over 
*25 fathoms, and weighs from 50 to ]()() pounds. 

The deep-sea (pronounced *'dipsey") lead is hollowed 
out at the base to receive an anniufj of tallow. When the 
lead strikes the bottom, the tallow becomes coated with sand, 

¥Bbbles, shells or other substances which show its ^character, 
his information, compared with the description of the sea- 
bottom given on the chart, often proves of value in deter- 
mining the ship's position. Instead of being hollowed out 
at the bottom, the deep-sea lead may have a specimen cup, 
of brass, at the end» as shown in Fig. 4, Plate (». 



iS THK LEAD. 

The deep-sea lead line is from 100 to 200 fathoms in 
length. Up to 20 fathoms it is marked the same as the 
hand lead line. 

At 25 fathoms, one knot ; 

At 80 fathoms, three knots ; 

At 40 fathoms, four knots, etc., etc., and at every inter- 
mediate five fathoms, by one knot or a small strand. At 
100 fathoms the line is marked with a piece of red bunting. 

To Soixnd w^itli the I>eep-sea Lead. 
The order is given, Man the chains and pass along the line ! 
The men are ranged outside the vessel from the weather 
mizzen chains to the cathead. The line is passed forward 
outside and clear of everything. The lead is sent forward 
on deck, and the line bent to it by the captain of the fore- 
castle. The line is then hauled forward, each man collecting 
a coil of several fathoms in his hand, commencing forward, 
until the officer thinks there is line enough out. It is then 
snatched in a small snatch-block. Fig. 5, Plate (5, secured to 
the after mizzen rigging, or to the weather spanker vang. 
the remaining part of it being coiled down in a tub or rack, 
or wound on a reel, clear for running. Everything being in 
readiness, and the vessel's headway sufficiently deadened, 
the officer orders, Stand by! Heave! The captain of the 
forecastle heaves the lead as far forward as he can, and at 
the same time cries, Watch-ho ! Watch ! And each man, as 
the line runs out from his hand, holds it clear of the side, 
and repeats the cry, Watch-ho! Watch! In the mean 
while, the line runs out until the lead touches the bottom, 
or until a sufficient quantity has been run out to satisfy the 
officer that no bottom has been found. The men then lay 
aft and man the line! and walk forward with it; a petty 
officer being stationed by it, to note the depth of water by 
the first mark that comes in. 

If bottom has been found, it will instantly be known by 
the line bringing up suddenlv in running out, or by the 
arming on the lead after it is hauled up ; by which the na- 
ture of the bottom is known. 

In heaving the deep-sea lead, the men stationed in the 
chains should be cautioned not to let the line go until they 
feel the lead take it, for if the ship is in much shoaler water 
than was anticipated, it is thus detected at once. 

The I>i»ift I^ead.. While at single anchor, it is 

E roper always to have a lead somewhat heavier than the 
and-lead, say from fourteen to twenty pounds, over the 
side, and resting on the bottom, with a man to attend it. 
Of course, this is only necessary in a stiff breeze, or at 
night. But in a vessel-of-war, it should be observed as a 
standing rule, without regard to the weather. By this you 
will have instant notice if the vessel parts her cable or 
drags her anchor. 



^ 



LORD KELVir^S SOUNDING MACHINE. 



THE LEAD. 19 

The Sir TV^illianx Thomson Soixnding^ 
Misteliiiie, Fig. 10, Plate 7. This consists of a V-shaped 
drum on which the wire is wound, mounted in a strong frame. 
The drum can revolve independently of the spindle ; or it 
may be clamped to it by means of friction plates. There is 
a friction plate on each side of the drum. The one on the 
left side is rigidly attached to the spindle. The one on 
the right side revolves with the spindle, but can slide, in and 
out, on it. Just out-board of the friction plate on the right 
side, and working on a threaded portion of the spindle, is a 
sleeve, carrying a radial arm which may be held in place by 
a hinged catch, on the right side of the frame. Turning the 
cranks, [which are shipped on the ends of the spindle,] aft. 
or in the direction for paying out, the wire, while the arm is 
fixed, draws the sleeve out, and releases the friction plates. 
Turning the cranks forward, or in the direction for reeling 
in, pushes the sleeve in and clamps the friction plates against 
the drum. Attached to the drum on the left side is an arm 
that moves a pointer on a dial, and thus registers the num- 
ber of turns out. 

On the end of the wire is a lead toggle, to which about 
two fathoms of plaited rope is made fast, the other end of 
the rope being bent to the lead in the usual manner. The lead 
weighs about 25 pounds and is hollowed out for the arming. 

There are two methods of registering the depth. By 
means of the depth-recorder, Fig. 1 2, Plate 7, and by means 
of a small glass tube, the inner surface of which is covered 
with a chemical substance that is discolored by having 
water come in contact with it. ( )ne end of this tube is her- 
metically sealed, the other end is open. 

If using the depth-recorder seize it to the rope about a 
fathom from the lead. If using the glass tube take off the* 
depth-recorder and seize in its place a brass guard tube. 

This machine is used almost exclusively for coasting and 
taking soundings in depths not exceeding 100 fathoms. The 
number of turns gives the depth only approximately. Up 
to 10, or 12 knots the depth in fathoms is about half the 
number of turns out; above that speed it is about one-third. 

Tlie clepth-recoi-clei* is shown in Fig. 12. As 
the lead descends the increased pressure of the water forces 
the piston D up the tube, while a spiral spring pulls the 
piston back as soon as the pressure ceases. The distance 
the piston is forced up against the action of the spring, de- 
pends on the depth. The marker C records the depth. As 
the recorder goes down, the marker is pushed along the pis- 
ton. When the recorder is brought to the surface, the piston 
returns to its original po*sition ; but the marker remains at 
the place on the scale to which it was pushed, and shows 
the depth to which the lead has descended. 

Between each cast the nut A should be unscrewed to 



20 THE LEAD. 

slacken the valve B ; and the recorder should be turned up^ 
side down to empty out any water that may have leaked in. 

A little water in the upper bottle will not interfere with 
the accuracy of the indications. 

Before each cast see that the nut A is firmlv screwed 
up and that the marker is at zero. 

Occasionally push a little grease up the piston into the* 
tube to keep the leather packing in good order. 

To take a cast : have one man at the crank, and one at the 
lead, see that the marker on the depth-recorder is at zero, 
and that the arming is on the lead. See the lead clear of the 
side ; sounding wire clear in the fair leads. When all is 
ready, give the order. Let go! The brakeman gives the 
crank one turn aft, the catch being down, and the arm in it. 

This releases the drum, allowing it to revolve freely and 
the wire to run out. Keep the finger pin pressing on the 
wire. When the bottom is reached, [shown by the wire 
slacking up] give the order, Stop! The br^fkeman imme- 
diately gives the crank one turn forward, which clamps the 
drum to the friction plate and spindle, throws up the catch, 
and reels in the wire. Watch the dial ; and. when the lead is 
nearly up, reel in very carefully while the leadsman is clear- 
ing the tube and lead. 

To use the glass tube take off the metal recorder, seize 
on the guard tube, open end up, put in the glass tube, open 
end down; put the top on the guard tube and sound as 
already described. 

Be careful, when reeling in, to keep the open end of tlie 
glass tube down until all water is out of it. Apply the 
glass tube, open end down, to the scale supplie(l for the 
purpose, and read off the number of fathoms shown by the* 
discoloration. There is a small correction for the state of 
the barometer that may be applied; but it is usually too 
small to be considered. 

•TameH** Patent Sixl>m.ai»iiie Senti-jy^^ 
Fig. 13, Plate 8, is an automatic apparatus to give instant 
warning of the approach of a vessel to shallow water. 

It consists of the kite K, called the Sentry, which is towcMl 
astern of a vessel, the forward end of the kite being slightly 
inclined downward; the pressure on top keeping it sub- 
merged to a uniform depth with a given amount of line out. 
Frequent experiments have proved that at speeds varying 
from 5 to 13 knots there will be no alteration in the vertical 
depth of the sentry. 

The kite is of wood, slightly over 3 feet long, and weighs 
about 15 lbs. The line used is galvanized pianoforte wire 
equal to a strain of 1000 lbs. The wire is wound on a drum 
similar to the Sir Wm. Thomson Sounding Machine. A 
counter on the left side of the machine shows the vertical 
depth at which the sentry is towing, also the amount of 
wire out. 



THE LOG. 21 

Two kites are supplied ; the black kite for depths not ex- 
ceeding *M) fathoms; the red kite not exceeding 40 fathoms 
depth. 

To use the machine slow the vessel to a speed not exceed- 
ing 10 knots ; lower the sentry to the depth you expect to run 
into, then go ahead at any speed not exceeding 13 knots, with 
the black kite; or 10 knots with the red kite. When the 
trigger A B strikes the bottom, the catch C is released, 
throwing the whole strain on D, thus upsetting the kite and 
causing it to rise to the surface. At the same time that the 
tension on the wire is reduced, one end of a crank of the 
machine on deck is freed, allowing the other end to fall 
back, and strike a gong ; the signal that bottom has been 
struck. The depth can be verified by getting a cast of the 
lead. 

This machine should be frequently overhauled to prevent 
rusting and should be carefully examined before being used. 

THE LOG. 

Various methods have been proposed for measuring the 
rate at which a ship sails; but that most in use is by the 
Log and Glass. 

The Log is a flat piece of thin board, of a sectoral or 
quandrantal form, Figs. (>« and fo, Plate 0, loaded, on the 
circular side, with lead sufficient to make it swim upright 
in the water. To this is fastened a line, about 150 fathoms 
long, called the log-line, which is divided into certain spaces 
called kuotfs, and is wound on a reel, Fig. 7, which turns very 
easily. The Glass is of the same form as an Hour-Glass, 
Fig. 8, and contains such a quantity of sand as will run 
through the hole in its neck in twenty-eight seconds. 

>I!ai*liing' the Log'-Line. Previous to mark- 
ing a new Log-line, it is soaked in water for a few days, in 
order to get it in the condition it will be when in use. From 
15 to 20 fathoms is allowed for *' stray-line,'' to carry the 
chip out of the eddy of the ship's wake. The length of a 
knot is determined (for the 28-second glass) by the following 
proportion, viz. : As the number of seconds in an hour is to 
the number of feet in a sea mile (one-sixtieth of a degree of 
a great circle of the earth,) so is the length of the glass to 
the length of a knot, or, 

3.000 s : n,()80 ft. =28 s : 47.29 ft. 

: 47 feet 3 inches; 
therefore the length of the knot is 47 feet :} inches for the 
28-second glass.* 

* A statute mile is 5,280 toot. To convort sea miles into statute miles, 
multiply the former bv 1.153. To convert statute miles into sea miles, multi- 
ply by the decimal .808. 



22 THR LOO. 

The velocity of the ship is estimated in knots and tenths 
of a knot. 

The limit of stray -line is marked by a piece of red bunting 
about six inches long, and each length of 47 feet 3 inches 
after that, by a piece of fish-line with one, two, three, etc., 
knots in it, according to its number from the stray-line. 

Each length of 47 feet 3 inches (the knot) is subdivided 
into five equal parts, and a small piece of white bunting 
about two inches long is turned into the line at every two- 
tenths division thus formed. 

Always, before leaving port, the Navigator has the line 
thoroughly soaked for a few days, and then all the marks 
placed at their proper distances. He also compares all the 
sand-glasses with a watch, and if any should be incorrect, 
he makes them run the proper time by taking out or putting 
in sand, as the case requires. During daylight, especially 
in very damp weather, it is preferable to use a watch rather 
than a sand-glass for noting the time. Errors of the glass 
due to moisture are connmionly corrected by drying it. 

Heaving- tlie X^og. — To find the ship's speed is 
called heaving the log, and is thus performed: One man 
holds the reel, and another the glass; an officer of the 
watch throws the log over the ship's stern, on the lee side ; 
or, on the side opposite to the patent log if it be out. When 
he observes the stray line is run off, and the red rag is gone, 
he cries, Turn ; the glass-holder answers, Twra. Watching 
the glass, the moment it is run out, he says. Up! The reel 
being immediately stopped, the last mark run oflf shows the 
number of knots, and the distance of that mark from the 
rail is estimated in tenths. Then the knots and tenths to- 
gether show the distance the ship has run the preceding 
hour, if the wind or motive power has been constant. But 
if the wind has not been the same during the whole hour, or 
interval of time between heaving the log, or if there has been 
more sail set or handed, a proper allowance must be made. 
Sometimes, when the ship is before the wind, and a great sea 
setting after her, it will ''bring home" the log. In such 
cases, it is customary to allow one mile in ten, and less in 
proportion if the sea be not so great. Allowance ought 
also to be made, if there be a head sea. 

In heaving the lo^, you must be careful to veer out the 
line as fast as the chip will take it ; for if it be left to turn 
the reel itself, it will come home and deceive you in your 
reckoning. You must also be careful to measure the log- 
line pretty often, lest it stretch and deceive you in the dis- 
tance. Like regard must be had that the glass be iust 28 
seconds ; otherwise no accurate accoimt of the ship^s way 
can be kept. The glass is much influenced by the weather, 
running slower in damp weather than in dry. The glass 
may be examined by a watch, as above stated, or by the 
following method :— Fasten a plummet on a line, and nang 



THE LOG. 23 

it on a nail, observing that the distance between the nail 
and middle of the plummet be 39^ inches ; then swing the 
plummet, and notice how often it swings while the glass is 
running out, and that will be the number of seconds meas- 
sured by the glass. 

If the vessel's speed is greater than four knots the four- 
teen-second glass is used instead of the twenty-eight second, 
and the nuniber of knots run out is doubled to ascertain the 
actual rate of sailing, as the line is graduated for the 
twenty-eight second glass. The twenty-eight and fourteen 
second glasses are .called respectively the long and short 
glasses. 

In addition to the chip log. vessels of war are furnished 
with *'The Bliss Patent Taflfrail Log" and ^-^The Negus Im- 
proved Taflfrail Log." The former is considered reliable for 
speeds up to ten or twelve knots, the latter for still higher 
speeds. The general features of both are the same. 

The :Bli»s Patent TafTir-ail I^og^ (Fig. 9). 
This is a mechanical.log, consisting of a rotator, or fly, 
which is towed well astern of the vessel, clear of the eddy 
currents ; and of a series of geared wheels arranged in a 
brass cylinder secured to some convenient place on board 
ship well aft. The rotator, as it is drawn through the 
water, revolves like an ordinary propeller, and these revo- 
lutions are transferred to the geared wheels by means of a 
plaited rope about 2O0 feet long. The inner end of this rope 
is secured to the outer end of a spindle, the inner end of 
which is an endless screw, geared into two small wheels 
which transfer the turns to three registering wheels. The 
axes of the registering wheels carry pointers that register 
speed in knots and tenths, up to 100 knots. 

Tlie ^TVeg-us Improved I^atent TafTi^all 
(Fig. 11). This log differs from the one just described, 
in that the system of geared wheels is provided with a fly 
wheel and a governor. The governor consists of a rod with 
a ball at each end, the line being attached to the middle of 
the rod. The movement of the geared wheels is similar to 
a clock made with strong and well proportioned springs. 
A length of line, varying with the speed of the vessel, is 
reconunended for use with this log. 

Both logs should be carried on the weather side of the 
taffrail, and the works kept well oiled. The rotator should 
be carefully watched to see that it is not fouled by sea-weed 
or other floating substances. It must also be remembered 
that no patent log of this description can register accurately 
in a heavy head sea. 

Tlie GrfoiMid. X^og- is the conmion log line with 
a haad-lead attached, and is used in tideways and currents, 
in soundings, to ascertain the vessel's speed over the ground. 

The speed of steamers is generally estimated from the 
number of revolutions of the enginea. 



CHAPTER III. 

ROPE. 

There are four varieties of rope in the United States 
naval service : that made of the fibres of the hemp plant : 
the Manila rope, made of the fibres of a species of the wila 
banana ; hide rope, made of strips of green hide, and wire 
rope. 

In some countries, ropes made of horse hair, of the 
fibrous husk of the cocoanut, called coir-rope, and of tough 
grasses, are quite common. In our own country, rope has 
been made from fibres of the flax and cotton plants. The 
metals have also been put in requisition, copper-wire rope 
being used for particular purposes, principally for lightning 
conductors, and iron and steel wire are in general use for 
standing rigging; steel wire being some fifty per cent, 
stronger than iron wire of the same size. 

Of the manv vegetable substances that are adapted to 
rope-making, the best is hemp — hemp-rope possessing in a 
remarkable degree the essential qualities of flexibility and 
tenacity. 

Hemp in its transit from its native fields to the rope- 
walk passes through the operations of dew-rotting y scuzch" 
ing and hackling. In the first process water dissolves the 
glutinous matter that binds the nbrous portion to the woody 
core, thus partly setting the fibres free ; scutching breaks 
the stalk and separates it still further from the fibre, and 
hackling consists in combing out the hemp to separate the 
long and superior fibres from the short and indifferent ones 
or tow. 

The hemp of commerce is put up in bundles of about 
200 lbs. each. If good, it will oe found to possess a long, 
thin fibre, smooth and glossy on the surface, and of a yel- 
lowish green color; free from "spills," or small pieces of 
the woody substance ; possessing the requisite properties of 
strength and toughness, and inodorous. 

Russian and Italian hemp are considered the best, for the 
generality of purposes. Rope made from the best quality 
of Russian hemp, is more extensively used in the navy than 
any other kind. 

Italian hemp is only used in the navy for packing for 
engines, its cost being more than double that of Russian 
hemp. ; 

Tne Native American dressed hemp, easily distinguished 

24 



ROPE. 25 

by its dark grayish color, is preferred for many purposes, such 
as for marline, houseline, hambroline, and all cordage spun 
by hand, the fibre being finer than that of the Russian hemp, 
Ootton is a poor substitute for hemp, in rope-making, 
lacking its strength and durability. It retains moisture 
when once wet, and is liable to rot. 

Flax is used sometimes for deep-sea. sounding-lines, 
though reeled piano wire has replaced it for this purpose 
where great depths are measured. 

Sail T^vrine is made of cotton or flax. 

The size of ]Rope is denoted by its circumfer- 
ence, and the length is measured by the fathom. The 
cordage allowed in the ecjuipment of a man-of-war ranges 
from IJ (15-thread) to 10 inches inclusive. 

ROPE-MAKING. 

In rope-making, the fibres of hemp, not averaging more 
than three and a half feet in length, must necessarily be 
overlapped among themselves and compressed together so 
as not to be drawn apart. The required compression is given 
by twisting, the fibres being continuously drawn out to- 
gether, from a bundle, in the right quantity to produce the 
required size of thread or yarn. 'Yarns are then combined 
by twisting, and form a strand ; three or four strands, by 
twisting, form a rope, and three or four ropes, a cable. 
These successive steps, in each of which the twist is re- 
versed, cause the strain to be more equally diffused among 
the fibres than it would be if these were laid together in 
sufficient quantity at once and twisted, and moreover, the , 
alternating directions given to the twist in the several oper- 
ations, cause the different portions to bind upon themselves, 
and form a permanently firm bundle. The fibres only once 
twisted, make but a loose bundle, which, though decidedly 
stronger than the same quantity made into a hard-twisted 
rope, is not so durable nor so well adapted to the ordinary 
purposes of rope.* The actual loss in strength, by twisting, 
as found by trial, is about one-third the full strength of the 
fibre; its loss in length, from the same cause, being also 
one-third. 

Rope is made in long buildings called rope-walks. The 
size of the yarn varies according to the kind of rope for 
which it is intended. Forties — so-called because forty varus 
will just fill a half -inch tube — are for the finer kinds of rope ; 
twenties, requiring twenty to fill the tube, are for cables, 
hawsers, etc. From the spinning-room the bobbins contain- 
ing the yarn are taken to the tar-house, where they are 
placed in frames conveniently arranged with reference to 
the tar-box. This is a long box filled with tar kept during 
the operation of tarring at a temperature of 220° F. by means 

* The wires which compose the cables of the E^t River Suspension Bridge, 
N. Y., are not "laid up," or twisted, but are run straight and bound together. 



26 ROPE. 

of Steam heaters. The yarns are led from the bobbins in the 
frame through two or more guide-plates working in a verti- 
cal plane over the tar-box, and convenient for lowering into 
the tar; thence to the farther end (between metal rollers, 
which press out and return to the box the superfluous tar) 
on to a large wooden drum to cool them ; through fair-lead- 
ers, and finally to a fresh set of bobbins, where they are 
wound up with the utmost regularity. 

Rigging is so much exposed to moisture and heat that 
hemp would soon decay if not protected. Tar, though really 
injurious in its effects upon the hemp fibre, has been found 
indispensable to its general preservation. 

The manila fiber is cut to the required length, oiled, 
drawn, and spun into yarns. 

Vai*ietieK ol' R,ope« In rope-making the gen- 
eral rule is to spin the nam from right over to left. All 
rope yarns are therefore righi-hauded. The strand, or 
ready, formed by a combination of suc^h yarns, becomes 
left-handed. Three of these strands being twisted together 
form a riifht-handed rope, known as plain-laid rope. Fig. 
U, Plate 10. 

AVliite Hope. Hemp rope, when plain-laid andi 
not tarred in laying-up, is called white rope, and is the 
strongest hemp cordage. It should not be confounded with 
Manila. It is used for log-lines and signal halliards. The 
latter are also made of yarns of untarred hemp, plaited by 
machinery to avoid the kinking common to new rope of the 
ordinary make. This is caWea '' plaited stuff, '^ or '^signal 
halliard stuff J' 

The tarred plain-laid ranks next in point of strength, 
and is in more g^eneral use than any other. The lighter 
kinds of standing rigging, much of the running rig- 
ging, and many purchase falls are made of this kind of 
rope. 

Cal>le-l«icl oi* PlaTVssser-laicI H^ope, Fig. 15, 
is left-handed rope of nine strands, and is so made to render 
it impervious to water, but the additional twist necessary 
to lay it up seems to detract from the strength of the fil^re, 
the strength of plain-laid being to that of cable-laid* as 
8.7 to 6; besides this, it stretches considerably under 
strain. 

I3a.ek-liMTi<led. H^ope. In making the plain 
laid, it was said that the readies were left-handecl, the 
yarns and the rope itself being right-handed. If, instead 
of this, the readv is given the same twist the varn has 
(right-handed), then, when brought together and laid up, 
the rope must come left-handed. This is called left-handed 
or hack-handed rope. It is more pliable than the plain-laid, 
less liable to kinks and grinds when new, and is allowed, in 
the navy, for reeving on lower and topsail bracers. 

Shi-orwl-lnicl Kope,, Fig. 16, Plate 10, is formed 



ROPE. 27 

by adding another strand to the plain-laid rope. But the 
four spirals of strands leave a hollow in the centre, which, 
if unlSUed, would, on the application of strain, permit the 
strands to sink in, and detract greatly from the rope's 
strength, by an unequal distribution of strain. The tour 
strands are, therefore, laid up around a hearty a small rope, 
made soft and elastic, and about one-third the size of the 
strands. 

Experiments show that four-stranded rope, when under 
5 inches, is weaker than three-stranded of the same size ; 
but from 5 to 8 inches, the difference in strength of the two 
kinds is trifling, while all above 8 inches is considered to be 
equal to plain-laid when the rope is well made. 

All hemp or manila rope aoove 3 inches now issued to 
the Xavy is four stranded. All laniard stuff is four stranded. 
The heart used in all rope is made of jute. 

Tapered Il/ope is used where much strain is 
brought on only one end. That part which bears the strain 
is full-sized, tapering off to the hauling part, which is light 
and pliable. Fore and main tacks and sheets are made of 
tapered rope. 

IVf £tiiil£|. I^ope seems to be better adapted to cer- 
tain purposes on board ship than hemp, being more pliable, 
buoyant, causing less friction, and not so easily affected by 
moisttu-e. It is used for hawsers, tow-lines, and for light- 
nmning rigging and gun-tackle falls. 

Large hemp and manila cables have been generally re- 
placed by steel wire hawsers ; the latter being much lighter, 
stronger, and more durable. 

liicle I^oi>e is made of strips cut by machinery from 
green hides. 

Bolt H^ope is the name applied to rope used for rop- 
ing sails. It is made of the best hemp and finest yarns, and 
is the most superior kind of cordage. 

Small HtuflT is the general term applied to small 
rope. It is particularized by tne number of threads or yarns 
which it contains, and is further known either as ratline 
stuff or seizing stuff. 

Ratline StrxlT is three-stranded, right-handed 
small sfcuflf of 24, 21, 18, 15 or 12 threads. It is measured by 
the fathonoL. 

Seizing- Stn£K Is of 9, 6, 4 or 2 threads, and is 
measured by the pound. While all varieties of small stuff 
may be spoken of as "24, 18, 9, &c., thread stuff," the 
smaller varieties have ^Iso special names, according to 
their number of threads and the manner of laying up. 
We have : • „ 

Hambroline, two-stranded, right-handed, and 

ft'Oiiiidliiie, three-stranded, right-handed. Both of 
these are made of fine back or left-handed yams, so that 
the stuff itself is right-handed. 



2H ROPE. 

>I Ai-line^ two-stranded, left-handed. 

llonwliiie^ three-stranded, left-handed. Both of 
these are made of finer dressed hemp, and have altogether 
a neater, cleaner and smoother appearance than spun- 
yam. 

SpiMi-^^ara is also left-handed, and of two, three 
or four strands. 

^ For fine seizings and service, hambroline and roundline 
(right-handed), or marline and housline (left-handed) are 
the kinds of small stuff selected. For ordinary purposes, 
spun-yam is used. 

;Nettle«!*9 used for hanmiock clews, and where very 
neat stops are required, are made by laying up two or three 
yams in a taut twist with the thumb and fingers, and then 
rubbing it down smooth. 

Rumhowline is the name sometimes applied to coarse, 
soft rope, made from outside yams, to be used for temporary 
lashings, &c. 

Rogue's Yam is a single untarred thread, sometimes 
placea in the centre of the rope, or in the centre of each 
strand, denoting government manufacture. 

•Tiinl^: is supplied for the purpose of working up into 
various uses — sucn as for swabs, spun-yarn; nettle-stuflf, 
lacings, seizings, carinas, gaskets, &c. — of all of which the 
supply, in proper kind, is generally inadequate. Good junk 
is got out of such material as condemned hawsers — they 
having been necessarily made of the best stuff, and con- 
demned before being much injured. Old rigging makes 
bad junk, not being condemned generally until much 
worn. 

Of the worst junk, swabs and spun-yarn should be 
made ; of the best, nettle and seizing-stuff, lacings, earings, 
&c. 

Large junk, such as lengths of towlines, should be unlaid 
before being put below, that it may admit of being snugly 
stowed. 

Hlisvkin^s! are odds and ends of yams and small 
ropes, such as are found in the sweepings of the deck after 
work. They are collected, put in a bag kept for the pur- 
pose, and at certain times served out to the watch to be 
Eicked into Oakum, a good supply of which should always 
e on hand for any calking that may be required, for stuff- 
ing jackasses, boat's fenders, &c. 

«,opelIlalcel•'*^4 TVincli, Fig. is, Plate 10, gives 
a general idea of the winch, in operation. 

A loper is a swivel hook, Fi^. 17 (a), which, by revolving 
freely, allows the strands to twine up together, by the twist 
put in them as the top is withdrawn. 

The top, Fig. 17 (b), is a conical piece of wood, scored on 
the outside for the reception of the strands. Its use is to 
keep the strands separate between it and the winch, and to 



i 

i 



i 
I 










te 



ROPE. 29 

regulate the amount of twist in the rope behind it. by being 
moved along either slowly or rapidly. When four-stranded 
rope is required, a hole is bored through the centre, as a 
lead for the heart. 

Greixej*al .Uema.r'ks on ]Rox>e« The strength 
of a rope-yam of medium size is equal to 100 lbs. , but the 
measure of strength of a given rope is not, as might 
naturally be supposed, 100 lbs. multiplied by the number of 
yams contained in the rope. The twist given to the yarn, 
after certain limits, diminishes its strength, as already 
stated, and with the best machinery it is scarcely possible 
that each yarn of the rope should bear its proper proportion 
of strain. The difference in the average strength of a yam 
differs with the size of the rope. Thus, in a 12-inch rope, 
the average strength of each yarn is equal to 76 lbs., whereas, 
in a rope of half an inch, it is 104 lbs. 

Experiment has shown that by applying a constant, or 
even frequent, strain equal to half its strength, the rope 
will eventually break. This seems to be particularly the 
case with cable-laid rope, which is the wealcest of all. 

It has been ascertained that a good selvagee, carefully 
made with the same number arid description of yams, as 
the common three-stranded plain-laid rope, possesses about 
the same degree of strength. 

It has been shown by experiment, that where a span is 
so placed as to form an angle less than 30 degrees, the 
strength of the two parts of the rope or chain of which it is 
composed, is less than the strength which one such part 
would have if placed in a direct line with the strain. 

Right-handed ropes are coiled down with the sun, or in 
the direction pursued by the hands of a watch ; the left- 
handed ropes, against the sun. An exception to this rule is 
in the hemp cables and hawsers, which are left-handed and 
are coiled away with the sun. 

In taking out new ringing from a coil, the end should 
be passed through the coil and coiled down against its lay 
to get the turns out. 

Avoid covering hemp rope with leather, especially 
green hide, unless good and well-tarred parcelling be inter- 
posed. 

Rope contracts very considerably by wetting it. Ad- 
vantage may be, and often is, taken of this, by wetting 
lashings, which are required to be very taut and solid, and 
are not. permanent, as the lashing of a garland on a lower 
mast for taking it in or getting it out. For the same reason 
in rainy weather, braces, halliards, sheets, clew-lines, and 
other ngging requiring it, should be slacked up to save an 
unnecessary strain on the rope, and avoid the risk of spring- 
ing a yard or carrying something away. 

Running rigging nas nothing to protect it from the 
effects of tne weather, excepting, in hemp, the tar taken up 



30 ROPE. 

in the process of manufacturt\ and after being wet the air 
should be allowed to circulate through it freely. Rope 
should never be stowed away until thoroughly drv. 

Running rigging, when not in actual use, should be kept 
neatly coiled down near the pin to which it belays, taking 
care always to capsize the coil that the running part may 
be on top, so that it may run clear. In port, during good 
weather, the rigging may be coiled down in flemish coils, 
that is, perfectly flat, as soon as the decks are dry enough 
in the morning, and left so until the decks are cleared up at 
seven bells in the afternoon, when the ends should be run 
out, the rope coiled down snugly and triced up in readiness 
for washing decks in the momine. 

When scrubbing clothes or hammocks, soap at times 
unavoidably gets on the rigging : it should be carefully 
washed oflE oefore the decks are dry. 

One rope may be rove by another by putting the two 
ends togetner, and worming three yams or pieces of spun- 
yam in the lay for three or four inches on each side, and 
clove-hitching the ends around the rope, or opening the 
strands and laying them in. This is always done when 
reeving new braces by old ones, and with running rigging 
generfiuly. 

Rule to Find the Approximate Strength of Tarred 
Rope. — Divide the circumference of the rope by 3 and mul- 
tiply the quotient by circumference will give breaking point 
in tons, very near. Example: Say 8" — 8-r-3=2.(i(i x8=21^ 
tons; 2,240=47,786 lbs. Proof by yarns in rope: Yarns in 
rope, 426; 8 in 426 x 112=47,712 lbs. 

^W^ire H^ope for use in the Navy is manufactured 
at the Boston Navy Yard. It is made of galvanized steel 
wire A. W. G.* Nos. 24 to 12. All wire is supplied in con- 
tinuous coils of not less than 4,000 feet. Annealed wire is 
required to stand a strain of 80,000 lbs. per square inch; 
hard wire a strain of 175,000 to 200,000 per square inch. 
The process of making wire rope is the same in principle as 
that of making hemp rope. The wires taking the place of 
the yarns. The wires are laid up into strands, each strand 
having a heart, sometimes of wire, sometimes of jute. The 
strands are then laid up, around a heart, into rope. Wire 
rope is six-stranded plain laid, the size and number of the 
wires varying with the size of the rope to be made, as in 
the following types : 

Type A, When strength, rather than flexibility is re- 
quired. To be made of plain laid, hard, galvanized wire, 
six core wires, and twelve wrap wires. Type A includes 
all articles coming under the head of standing rigging, 
shrouds, baclj:stays, fore and aft stays, catharpin legs, 
reefing jack stays, bitt and deck stoppers, boat spans and 
guys, peak and throat spans, triatic stays and spans, pre- 

♦ American Wire Gage. 



ROPE. 31 

venter slings, winding pendants, water whip stays and 
pendants. 

Type B. When strength and flexibility are both required. 
To be made of plain laid, hard, galvanized steel wire, as in 
type A, except that the core wires are omitted and a jute 
hemp or cotton heart tarred or greased substituted. The 
following articles are made from this type : trysail ladders, 
swinging boom and stern ladders and pendants, grab ropes, 
swinging boom topping lifts, yard lifts, topsail runners, par- 
rels and tyes, vang pendants, jib and staysail pendants, 
sea anchor bales, ridge ropes, foot ropes for awnings. 

Type C. When great flexibility is required. To be made 
w^ithout core wires as in type B, but with a greater number 
of wrap wires. The following articles are made from this 
type: hogging lines for collision mats, wheel ropes, boats 
rigging, etc. 

Type D. Annealed wire to be used for special purposes, 
such as scow lines, seizings, etc. To be laid plain or other- 
wise. 

Directions for fitting wire rigging. All standing rig- 
ging, after being put on a stretch, is to be covered with a 
good coat of red lead, mixed with boiled linseed oil then 
wormed, parcelled with dry parcelling, and again red leaded 
and served over all and throughout. Rigging below 2 inches 
to be served with marline, from 2 inches to 3J^ inches to be 
served with house-line, larger sizes to be served with round- 
line. All nips and around thimbles to be doubly served. 
Fore and aft stays to be leathered in collars and nips. 

In splicing in thimbles, etc., there must be a seizing be- ^ 
tween the thimble and first tuck. Splices must be tucked 
whole twice, then half, then quarter. 

All spans and guys to be served throughout and fitted 
with shackles in one end and an oblong or wire thimble in 
the other. Lower lifts and boom topping lifts to be served 
throughout. Boom pendants and ladders, stern pendants 
and ladders to be served throughout, leathered around thim- 
bles, the sides of the ladders to be covered with 8-ounce cot- 
ton duck between the leather, the duck to come under the 
ends of the leather, the end to be secured by a seizing of ^^ 
inch wire. Boom pendants to be fitted the same as ladders. 

Trysail ladders to be served throughout and set up with 
brass tumbuckles; boom, stern and trysail ladders are to 
have galvanized iron rungs 13 inches long and | inch 
diameter. 

Deck stoppers to be double served throughout ; fitted with 
an iron toggle at one end and a hook \ larger than the cable 
at the other end. The toggle to be leathered. The toggle 
end to be leathered over the serving one foot and provided 
with a manila lanyard 3 fathoms long. Bitt stoppers to be 
fitted at the forward end the same as deck stoppers. Ridge 



82 ROPE. 

ropes and foot ropes for awnings to be served throughout 
and set up with turnbuckles. 

Grab ropes to be served throughout and covered with 8- 
ounce cotton ravens, the ends to be fitted the same as boom 
pendants and laciders. 

All parcelling used on wire rope must be of cotton sheet- 
ing of the best quality, unbleached, closely woven, and free 
from sizing of any kind. 

To replace hemp or manila by steel wire rope, take wire 
rope whose circumference is three-eighths of that of the liemp 
or manila. 



/ 



CHAPTER I V. 

KNOTTING, SPLICING. ETC. 

To Klnot It It ope ^"arn. Fig. 10, Plate 11. 
Split in halves the two ends of a rope-yarn, scrape them 
down with a knife, crotch and tie the two opposite ends ; 
jam the tie and trim off the ends. 

An Ovei*-liaiicl I-tnot, Fig. 20, Plate 11. 

JS^ t^igxii-e-ot-Ei^lit TLn^yt^ Fig. 21, Plate 11. 

A. H^eef lilnot. Fig. 2:5, Plate 11. This knot is 
used in tying reef points and small stuff generally. Observe 
to bring the end out next its own part, otherwise it will be 
a Granny's Knot, which jams and is difficult to cast off. 

A I3o\;\--I^ine Klnot, Fig 20, Plate 11. 

-^V R^unning^ Bovr-T^ine lilnot. Fig 28, Plate 
11. Take the end of a rope, Fig. 27, round the standing part 
(b) and through the bight (c) ; make the single bow-line 
knot upon the part (d), and it is done. 

A. Xio^w-Line linot upon the Bight of a Rope, 
Fiff. 30, Plate 12. Take the bight (a) in one hand, Fig. 29, 
and the standing parts (b) in the other ; throw a kink or 
Cuckold's Neck over the bight (a) with the standing parts, 
the same as for the single knot ; take the bi^ht (a) over the 
large bights (c, c), bringing it up again : it will then be 
complete, Fig. 30. The Best way to sling a man by a bow- 
line is to shorten up one of the lower bights, using the 
lower part as a seat and putting the arms through the part 
next aoove. 

A. r*roloiig-e Klnot, Fig. 31, Plate 12. 

A. BoAV-line KLnot, formed with a bight to hook 
into, as in Fig. 2 is, Plate 33, is used for heavy pulls, on the 
ends of rigging luffs, by riggers. Fig, 7l>, Plate 17, shows 
an ordinary bow-line knot formed over a ring-bolt to make 
a temporary stopper. Shove the bight through the ring- 
bolt, take a half hitch with the short end over the bight, 
then pass the short end through the bight. A handy knot 
when you wish to use a short end of a long coil. 

A'^Wall-Klnot, Figs. 32 and 33, Plate 12. 

To Ci-o^-n this knot. Figs. 34 and 3o, Plate 1 2. 
This is called a Single Wall, and Hinijle Crown, 

To I>oixl>le->Vall this knot. Fig. 36, Plate 13. Take 
one of the ends of the single crown, suppose the end (b), 
bring it underneath the part of the first walling next to it, 
and push it up through the same bi^ht (d) ; perform this 
operation with the other strands, pushing them up through 



• »»> 



'J4 KNOTTING. 

two bights, and the knot will appear like Fig. 30, having a 
Double Wall and Single Crown. 

To II>ovil>le-d*o\;\"i:i the same knot, Fig. 37, Plate 
13. Lay the strands by the sides of those in the single 
crown, pushing them through the same bights in the single 
crown, and down through tne double wallmg ; it will then 
be like Fig. 37, viz. single walled, single crowned, double 
walled, and double crowned. The nrst walling must always 
be made against the lay of the rope : the parts will then lie 
fair for the double crown. The ends are scraped down, 
tapered, marled, and served with spun yarn. Tnis knot is 
often used for the ends of man-ropes, and hence frequently 
called a Man-rope Knot, 

>IattlieAV Walker's linot. Fig. 39, Plate 
13. This knot is made bv separating the stranas of a rope, 
Fig. 38, taking the end (1) round the rope, and through its 
own bight, the end (2) unaerneath through the bight of the 
first, and through its own bight, and the end (3) underneath, 
through the bights of the strands (1 and 2), and through its 
own bight. Haul them taut, and they form the knot. Fig. 
39. The ends are cut off. This is a handsome knot for the 
end of a laniard, and is generally used for that purpose. 

.A^ Siiig-1^ iVXattliew AVallcev, Figs. ^Q and 
41, Plate 13. It should have a leather washer around its 
neck when exposed to chafe. 

A. Singfle ir>iamoii<l T^iiot, Fig. 43, Plate 14. 
Unlay the end of a plain-laid rope for a considerable length. 
Fig. 42, and with tne strands form three bights down its 
side, holding them fast. Put the end of strand (1) over 
strand (2), and through the bight of strand (3), as in the 
figure ; then put the strand (2) over strand (3), and through 
the bight formed by the strand (1), and the end of (3) over 
(1), and through the bight of (2). Haul these taut, lay the 
rope up again, and the knot will appear like Fig. 43. This 
knot is used for the side ropes, jib guys, bell ropes, &c. 

J^ Doiible I>ia.iiioiicl lilnot, for the same 
purpose. Fig. 44, Plate 14. With the strands opened out 
again, follow the lead of the single knot through two single 
bights, the ends coming out at the top of the knot, and lead 
the last strand through two double bights. Lay the roue 
up again as before, to where the next knot is to be made, 
and it will appear like Fig. 44. 

A- Spi-it-Sail Hli€-et Ii:not, Fig. 47, Plate 14. 

A. Stoi>pov lV>i* a Htr-anclecl Ii^^'oot I^oi>o 
ox* a LeecMi P^ope, Fig. 48, Plate 15. This is made 
by double walling, without crowning, a three-stranded rope, 
against the lay, and stopping the ends together, as in tht* 
figure. The ends, if very short, are whipped without being 

stopped. 

A. Stoppc^i' lilnol: on the end of a deck stopper is 






> 



KNOTTING. 35 

made as in Fig. 49, by a single crown and single wall. The 
ends are whipped singly and cut off. A deck stopper has a 
laniard spliced around the neck of the knot, and a nook and 
thimble spliced in the other. When made of wire rope, a 
deck stopper is fitted as in Fig. 50, where an iron toggle is 
spliced into the end of the stopper in place of the knot. 

A. Shi^oud Ji^not. unlay tne ends of two ropes, 
Fig. 51, placing them one within tne other, drawing them 
close as for splicing ; then single-wall each set of ends — 
those of one rope, ag^ainst the lay (i. e. from left to right if 
the rope be cable-laid, as in the figiire), round the standing 
part of the other. The ends are then opened out, tapered, 
marled down, and served with spun-yam. This knot is 
used when a shroud is either shot or carried away. Fig. 54 
and Fig. 55. 

A. French Sliroud Klnot. Place the ends of 
two ropes as before, Fig. 61, drawing them close. Laying 
the ends on one side back upon their own part, single- 
wall the remaining ends around the bights of the other 
three and the standing part, and it will appear as in Fi^. 
52. When hauled taut, it appears as in Fig. 53. The enas 
are tapered, &c., as before. This knot is as secure as the 
other, and much neater. 



HITCHES. 

Hitoliing: a Hope, Fig. 50, Plate 15. This is 
called a Half-hitch, Two of these, one above the other. 
Fig. 57, are called Two Half-hitches or a Clove-hitch. Fig. 
58 represents a half -hitch around a spar; Fig. 50, Plate 10, 
a clove-hitch, with a ratline around a shroud. 

A Timber— Hitch, Figs. 00 and 01, Plate 10. 

A. H^ound Turn a^nd a Half-Hitch, Fig. 
02, Plate 10. Used for bending a hawser to the ring of an 
anchor. 

A. Timl>eir and Half-Hiitch, Fig. 03, Plate 
16. Used for bending a line to a spar, for towing, &c. 

A. Hlackwall Hitch, Fig. 05, Plate 10. This is 
sometimes used with a laniard, when setting up the shrouds. 

A. r>oTil>le Black^vall Hiitch, Fig. (W;, Plate 
10. It is better, however, to use a strap when a heavy strain 
is expected. 

A. Cat's I^a^v is used for the same purpose as the 
double blackwall hitch. Fig. 70, Plate 10. 
• A. Sheep Shank, Fig. 71, Plate 17. This is made* 
for shortening a back-stay, &c. 

A. H^ollin^ Hiitch, Fig. 73, Plate 17. This is a 
good hitch for a stopper, as it will not slip, and is in very 
general use. Fig. 74, Plate 10, shows how a stopper is 
passed, one of the hitches being omitted. 



36 HITCHING. 



A. TMEai'ling-Spilce Tliteli, Fig. 75, Plate 17. 
Always used in heaving on seizings. The spike is used as 
a pry, to heave the seizing taut. 

A HariieHH ITitcli, Fig. 76, Plate 17. 

A. TVIarlingr Hitcli, Fig. 77, Plate 1 7, is used in 
marling down the yams left out from a splice ; for the mar- 
ling put over parcelling ; and for making selvagee straps, 
&c. It is the same as used for lashing up hammocks, Fig. 
78, where seven such turns are allowed. 

A. AVeavei-'K Hitcli. See Sheet-Bend, 

Uitcliiiigr tlie Iilncl oi* ix H/Ope. Trim the 
end off with a knife to the shape of a cone ; then, with a 
sail-needle and twine, stitch it around with a loop-stitch, 
first taking a few round turns with the twine. When 
finished it will resemble Fig. 80, Plate 17. All running 
rigging have the ends hitched to prevent unlaying, as in 
the figure, instead of the ordinary whipping. All the gun- 
tackle falls should have their ends hitcnea, as it is neater 
and better than the ordinary whipping. 

To Hitch ovei- a H^ingr-l^olt, Fig. HI, Plate 
17. 

IKa.elitliiig', Fig. H4, Plate 18. To prevent ghafe, 
secure one end and hitch right and left handed, alternately. 

BENDS. 

.A. Slieel T^encl oi- Sing*!^ Uencl, Fig. 85, 
Plate IS. It is sometimes called also a Becket-hend, some- 
times a Weaver's Hitch. 

jK. T3ovxl:>le liencl. Fig. S7, Plate IS, is simply tak- 
ing the end around a second time. The single bend is the 
most common one in use. The standing part of most pur- 
chase falls are thus secured to the becket in tlie strap of the 
purchase block, as in Fig. 80. 

jV. I^iKliei-iixan'w Bend, Fig. SS. Plate IS. This 
is sometimes used for bending the studding-sail halliards to 
the yard, but more frequently for bending a hawser to the 
ring of an anchor, in which case the end should be stopped 
down with spun-yarn. Fig. 81*. 

i Tlie Stviclding^ Sail I lalliai-cl I^eiid, Fig. 
IM), Plate IS, is preferred to all others for bending halliards 
to yards, as it is safe and snug. 

"J^ Cai-i-ick Bencl, Fig. 1)2, Plate 18. This bend 
is much used for hawsers. 

Hawnevs^ are sometimes bent together thus. Fig. 03, 
Plate 18; the hawser has a half -hitch cast on it, a throat 
seizing clapped on the standing part (b^ and a round one at 
(a). Another hawser is rove througn the bight of this, 
hitched in the same manner, and seized to tne standing 
part (d, e). 



CLINCHES — SPLICING. '57 

And frequently the ends of two ropes (a, c), Fig. 04, Plate 
18, are laid together : a throat seizing is clapped on at (e), 
the end (a) is tumed back upon the standing part (b), and 
the standing part (d) brought back to (c) ; another throat 
seizing is put on each, as at (f ), Fig. 95, and a round seizing 
near tne end at (g) ; the same security is placed on the 
other side. 

A- Ifceevinjsr Line Beiid9 Fig. 96, Plate 18, may 
also be used for small hawsers. 

In any case of bending hawsers, towlines, &c., the end 
should bi securely stoppid down With spuA-yarii, using 
racking turns if much strain is anticipated. 

The best bend for a hawser to a kedge is a Fisherman's 
bend. Fig. 102, Plate 19, or a round turn and a couple of 
half-hitches, Fig. 101, with the end stopped down with 
spun-yarn. 

CLINCHES. 

The clinch is made like Fig. 97, Plate 1 ; the end of a 
bridle or leech line, for example, is rove through the cringle 
(f), taken round the standing part (e), forming a circle ; two 
round seizings (d) are then clapped on. The clinch on any 
rope is always made less than the cringle, &c., through 
which the rope is rove. 

There is an outside clinch, Fig. 98, Plate 19 ; and an 
inside clinch. Fig. 99. 

To Bend a Hemp Cable, use an inside clinch. The end 
of the cable (a). Fig. 100, Plate 19, is taken over and under 
the bight (b), forming the shape of the clinch, which must 
not be larger than the ring of tne anchor (d). The seizings 
(c), which are called the bends, are then clapped on and 
crossed. 

SPLICING. 

Ropes are joined together, for dilBferent purposes, by 
uniting their strands in particular forms, which is termed 
Splicing. A splice is made by opening, and separating the 
strands of a rope's end, and thrusting them through the 
others which are not unlaid. Ropes reeving through olocks 
are joined by a long splice, otherwise a short splice is used. 
Tlie splice is weaker than the main part of the rope by about 
one-eighth. The instruments used for this are Fids, Mar ling- 
Spikes, and Prickers. 

In addition, for working with wire rope are the follow- 
ing : Hack-saws, Marling-spikes with flat end ; Pinchers with 
flat nibs, pinchers with round nibs. Wire-cutters, or nip- 

¥3rs; Cold-chisel, Heavers, (a) Fig. 290, Plate 28. Dogs, and 
uming-in-Machine, Fig. 292. 



38 SPLICING. 



I9 Fig. 231, Plate 23. From 2 to 3 feet of chain, 
from 1-8 to 3-8 in. diameter, with a ring in one end, and a 
hook on the other. 

Fid, Fig. 103, Plate 10. Made of hard wood or metaL 

jVIaT-liiig--Spik:e. Is shaped like Fig. 104, Plate 19. 
Made of metal and has a round hole in the upper end through 
which a laniard is rove. 

j\. Fi-icker is made of metal, hard wood, or bone, 
and is used for light work, 

An E^^e-Splice, Fig. 106, Plate 19, is made by 
opening the end of a rope, and laying the strands (e, f , g) 
at any distance upon the standing part forming the Collar 
or Eye (a). The end (h), Fi^. 107, is pushed through the 
strand next to it (having previously opened it with a mar- 
ling-spike) ; the end (i) is taken over the same strand, and 
through the second. Fig. 108 ; and the end (k) through the 
third, on the other side. Fig. 110. After sticking the ends 
once, one-hall of the yams may be cut away from the under 
part of the strands, and the remainder stuck again, in 
order to taper the splice and make it neater. In a four- 
stranded rope, the left-hand end lies under two strands. 
Fig. 111. 

A. Slioi*t Splice. To splice the two ends of a rope 
together, proceed thus : Unlay the strands for a con- 
venient length ; then take an end in each hand, place them 
one within the other. Fig. 112, Plate 20, and draw them 
close. Hold the strands (a, b, c) and the end of the rope (d) 
fast in the left hand, or it the rope be large, stop them 
down with a rope-yarn ; then take the middle end (1), pass 
it over the strand (a), and having opened it with the thimib, 
or a marling-spike, Fig. A, push it through under the 
strand (c), and haul it taut. Perform the same operation 
with the other ends, by leading them over the first and 
next to them, and through under the second, on both sides ; 
the splice will then appear like Fig. 113 ; but in order to 
render it more secure, the work must be repeated ; leading 
the ends over the third and through the fourth j or the ends 
may be untwisted, scraped down with a knife, tapered, 
marled, and served over with spun-yam. 

When there is to be no service used, the ends should be 
stuck twice each way, otherwise once and a half is 
sufl&cient. In anchor straps, and heavy straps generally, 
the ends are stuck twice and not trimmed off but tvhipped. 

In whipping the strands they should be split and one 
part of each whipped, or seized, with one part of another so 
as to enclose a strand of the rope on each side of which they 
appear. 

Al. Slioi*t Splice with a Foui'-Sti-iincled 

.ope. Fig. 114, Plate 20. 

TTlie Long: Spliee,, Fi^^ 115. Plate 20. 

j\. iJwt ox- 13ig-lit Splice, Fig. 120. Plate 21. 



Plate 20 





SPLICING. 39 

norHe-Shoe Spliee9 or span-splice. Fig. 121, 
is formed hv splicing the two ends of a piece of rope into 
each side of the bight of another rope, where an eye is to be 
formed. The len^h of rope used is one-third the length of ^ 
the eye required, with twice the round of the rope on each 
end, in addition, for splicing. 

To Loiig"-Spliee a Three stud a Fonr- 
Stranded Itope Tog-etliei^ Unlay the ends of 
the two ropes to a sumcient length and crotch them ; unlay 
one strana of the three-stranded, and fill the space with a 
strand of the four-stranded rope ; then unlay a strand of 
the four and fill up from the three-stranded rope ; there re- 
mains two strands of the foui, and one of the three ; divide 
the single strand by taking out one-third, with which knot 
to one of the remaining pair, then unlav the other one, and 
fill up with the remaining two-thirds ; knot and stick once, 
stretch well, and trim off. 

Another way is to work three strands as usual, and stick 
the fourth strand where it lies. The first plan is the better. 

To Short-Splice a Thx^ee and a l^^ovii^- 
Sti*aTided IRope. Unlay the ends, and divide one 
of the three strands m half, making four strands, and pro- 
ceed to splice. 

Z^erigt:heiiiiig' a H/Ope ^with an Addi- 
tional Strand, Fig. 122, Plate 21. Cut a strand at 1, 
unlay until you come to 2, and cut another strand; 
unlay both to 3 (equal to the distance from 1 to 2, or there- 
abouts), and there cut the last strand ; separate the parts, 
and they will appear as in Fig. 122, B. Measure off the in- 
creased len^h required from 1, mark it (a), and brin^ the 
end of the left-hand piece (b) down to (a), and lay it in. 
The second strand, at 2, must have been cut sufficiently far 
from (a^ to allow end enough for knotting and laying in. 
Twist tne ends (c and b) up together ready for knotting, on 
finishing the splice, and (a and e) in the same manner for 
the present : the splice will then have the appearance repre- 
sented in Fig. 122, c. Cut a piece of rope, and unlay a 
strand sufficiently long to fill in the vacant lay between 
(f and g), and to knot with the ends (f , g) ; lay the strand 
in, and finish off as with an ordinary long-splice, from 
which it will only differ in appearance by its having four 
breaks in the rope instead of three. In putting in the long 
strand, care must be taken to follow the lay along cor- 
rectly, or it will not tally with the ends (f, g), with which 
it knots. 

If it is required to give a sail more spread by inserting a 
cloth, the head and foot rope must be lengthened in this 
way. For all sizes of rope, take eight times the round for 
splicing, in addition to what is wanted to lengthen the 
rope. To lengthen two feet, cut the strands tliree feet 
apart : and the additional strand must be over nine feet long. 



40 SPLICING. 

To Shorten a H^ope in the Ceni:i*€3. 

Proceed precisely as in the previous case ; but, instead of 
separating strand (b) from 1, bringing it down to (a), take 
it up on 1 as far as you require to reduce the rope. No 
additional strand is used, so Knot (b, f), (d, g), ana (e, c) : 
finish oflf the ends, and in appearance it diflcers in no way 
from the common long-splice. 

To Spliee a Slope arovincl a Thimblo^ 
Whip the rope at twice and a half its circumference from 
the end. The length to go round the thimble should be 
once the round of the thimble, and once the round of the 
rope, from the whipping to where the first strand is to be 
struck. If the splice is not to be served, whip the ends of 
the strands, to prevent them from opening out into yams, 
and stick them twice, whole strand. If to be served, after 
one half of each strand is put through, it is cut oflf, and the 
other half is opened out, wormed along the lay, and marled 
down. Parcel the thimble. 

A. Flen\iHh Eye, Fig. 125. Plate 22. 

-A. Grrommet, Fig. 131, Plate 22, is made by unlay- 
ing a strand of a rope. Fig. 130, placing one part over the 
other, and with the long end (f) following tne lay till it 
forms the ring. Fig. 131, casting an over-hand knot on the 
two ends, and, if necessary, splitting and pushing them 
between the strands, as in the long splice. The test of a 
well-made grommet is, to throw it on the deck when it 
should lie perfectly flat. Worn or four-stranded rope makes 
the best. For CTommet straps for yard or block, take three 
times the round of yard or block and three times the round 
of the thimble, allowing six times the round of the rope 
for splicing. The length to marry the strands is, once tne 
round of the block and thimble. 

A^i\ .A.x-tilieial or- Si>in<lle E^ye, Fig. 126. 

A\"oT"li:inor a d'ing-Ie in ti l-{oj>e. Unlay 
a single strand from a rope of the size that the cringle is 
required to be ; begin on the left, and put this strand under 
two strands of the rope you are working it on ; divide it 
into thirds and haul two-thirds of it through, so that the 
long leg is from you ; lay the two parts up together so as 
to form sufficient for the round of tne cringle, out always 
with an odd number of turns, ending witn the long leg 
towards you. Fig. 132, Plate 24 ; stick it from vou under two 
strands ; bring it round and work back to tne left : put it 
under two strands towards you, leaving one strand, inter- 
vening between the place you entered it, then back over 
one, and down under two, Fig. 133. Now tuck the short 
end in under the same two strands in the rope that the 
cringle is already worked through, then over one, and 
under two ; cut the ends oflf, and serve the cringle 
over. 

If a cringle is to be worked into the leech of a sail, the 



V 




l-'iB.iaa FlB.143 




SPLICING. 41 

strand is taken round the rope and through the eyelet-hole 
in the sail, Fig. 134, Plate 24, and the ends are finished off 
by taking a hitch round all, and then passed under two, 
over one, and under two, as before. 

The following are the splices used in working wire rope. 
Remember always to tuck the whole strand twice, then a 
half, then a quarter. 

K;v'e Splic»e in ^Vire H^ope. (As for splicing 
in a liook and thimble). Clap on a marline whipping two feet 
from the end of the rope, and a similar whipping fifteen 
inches farther along. Get the rope on a stretch, paint, 
ivorm, parcel, point, again serve between the whippings, 
and mark the centre of the eye. Now, break the rope around 
the thimble, first by hand, then in the turning-in-machine. 
Fig. A, Plate 41), bringing both ends of the service together. 
Clap on a good figure-of-eight seizing, around both parts of 
the rope and through the thimble ; then take off the turning- 
in-machine. Unlay and open out the strands to the first 
whipping, cutting out the heart close to the service. Count- 
ing to the left, with the hook of the thimble toward j'ou, 
tuck No. 4 strand first. Enter the point of a marling-spike 
from right to left under two strands of the rope about one 
inch from the service and clear of the heart. Push or driv(», 
the spike in about two-thirds of its length, and hammer the 
two strands down on both sides of it to prevent their spring- 
ing out when the spike is withdrawn. Pull out the spike, 
take strand No. 4, throw a half turn in it, stick it under the 
two strands, and with a quick jerk to the left and toward 
you bring it in place, then give it a pull from you parallel 
with the rope. In the same manner, and always under two, 
and over one strand, tuck Nos. 5, 3, G, 2 and 1. Tuck onc^e 
again, whole, conmiencing with any strand, tucking over 
one and under two. Now, with the dog and heavers, heave 
each strand in place, beginning with the first one tucked. 
Then hammer down the tucks, tuck half of each strand, 
heave in place and hammer down, then tuck one quarter 
and finish off. Get splice on a stretch, cut off ends of wires, 
hammer down the eye and seize in the thimble. Clap on a 
round seizing with nine lower and eight upper tm-ns of the 
Kuizing stuff. 

Hhoi*t: Splice in AVii*e Il.c>p<*. Clap on a mar- 
line whipping three feet from the end of one of the ropes to be 
spliced; and a similar one two feet from the end of the other 
piece. Unlay, and open out, the strands on both pieces, cut 
out both hearts, close to the whipping; marry the ends, 
heaving them well together. Put a stout whipping around 
all the short strands, binding them close around the rope ; 
cut the whipping around the short piece and commence to 
tuck the long strands as in the eye splice. Twice whole, 
and heave in place; once a half, and heave in; once a 



[ 



42 SPLICING. 

quarter, and break off the wires and hammt^r down. Then 
do the same with the short strands. 

Long- Splice in "Wire P^ope. Put on a mar- 
line whipping eight feet from the end of one piece of rope, 
and a similar whipping on the other piece two feet from the 
end. Unlay, and open out, the strands ; cut the hearts out 
close to the whipping and draw the two ends together by 
hand as closely as possible. Secure a dog around all but one 
strand of the short end, and another do^ around all but one 
of the long strands ; and, with heavers, jam both ropes close 
together. Cut the whipping on the short end, unlay the loose 
short strand and follow it up with the loose long strand, 
leaving one foot of the strand for knotting. Come up the 
dogs and leaving out another long and short strand, clap 
dogs around the remaining strands and proceed as before, 
laying these strands to within one foot of the first pair. 
The second pair left out should be those exactly opposite 
the first pair, in order to bind both ropes close together. 
Continue in the same manner with the other strands, leav- 
ing one foot between each pair of strands. Commence to 
knot from the point where the ropes come together. Take 
these two strands overhand, knot them, and l)y means of 
dogs and heavers on each strand heave the knot taut in the 
lay ; tap with a hammer on each side of the knot to prevent 
slipping. Come up and take oflE the dogs, divide each of the 
strands just knotted into three equal parts and open them 
out, close to the knot, tuck these separately over the same 
strand and into the lay, the first one to the left, under one 
strand, the second under two strands, and the third under 
three. Finish up the other strands in the same manner. 
Beat down the knots and tucks with a hammer; get the 
splice on a stretch and cut the ends of the wires off close to 
the rope, and with a hammer, and the point of a spike, tap 
the projecting wires down out of sight into the lay of the 

rope. 

The Splicing- Beiicli^ Fig. 21K), Plate 23. For 
convenience in handling wire rope, some rigging lofts are 
supplied with splicing benches, which are large tables of 
hard wood, plated with iron on the top and sides. 

The top of the bench is pierced with holes, into which 
may be set steel standards or *'normans,'' by which the 
rope is steadied on a stretch. Similar holes are made in 
the sides of the tables to receive smaller pins. 

SEIZINGS, POINTINGS, GRAFTING, MOUSING, ETC. 

Seizing* a rope, is binding the two parts together with 
spun-yam, house-line, marline, or small stuff. 

All seizing stuff should be well stretched before use. 
J^ Sp£iiiisbL ^V^^indlasis, Fig. 135 (a), Plate 24, is 




f 





SEIZING. 4B 

used for heaving two parts of a shroud, or any rope requir- 
ing it, together at the nip, before passing the seizing, and 
for many similar purposes. 

A. Round Seiziner, Figs. 136, i:37, and 138, Plate 
24; and Figs. 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, and 14(5, Plate 25. Used 
for eyes of lower rigging, &c. 

A. Tlxx*oat ^0121x13*9 Fig. 140, Plate 25, is put on 
when ropes cross,- and is passed with riding turns, but not 
crossed 

Ra.ckin^ Seizing, Fig. 147, Plate 25. This seiz- 
ing is generally made use of in seizing two parts of rope 
together temporarily, but very securely. 

A. Flat Seizing- is commenced the same as a round 
seizing, but, on the end being rove through the eye, it is 
finished off at once with a reef-knot without any riding 
turns. 

A. Cnclcolcl^s IVeclc, ox* Half Cx^own, is 
formed as Fig. 148, Plate 25, with a round seizing. Used when 
ropes are fitted for going over a spar, as in Fig. 149, at a. 

A. K.OMe Seizing", oi* X^ose L<a>sliing', Figs. 
150 and 151, Plate 26, is used when rigging is lashed to 
yards, etc., such as foot-ropes, &c. It is passed alternately 
over and under each part of the eye, and the end passed 
around the crossings instead of cutting it off. 

Stopping:^ IS fastening two parts of a rope together, 
like a round seizing, but not crossed. 

]Vii>pex4ng*9 is making fast the two parts of a lan- 
iard or tackle-fall, while the purchase is fleeted. The turns 
are taken crossways, Fig. 152, between the parts to jam 
them; and frequently a round turn is taken over the 
laniard, before every cross : these are called racking turns. 
Riders are passed over these, and the end fastened with a 
round turn and half hitch, or with a clove hitch, to a part of 
the laniard or fall. 

WORMING, SERVING, POINTING, GRAFTING, MOUSING. 

Spxin-"\rax*n is used for Worming, Serving, Seizing, 
&€., as a general rule, but Hamhroline, Rounding, and small 
seizing stuff is frequently substituted. 

Tvorniing- a itope is filling up the division 
between the strands (called the lay of the rope) bypassing 
spun-yam, &c., along them. Fig. 153. This is done in order 
to render its surface smooth for parcelling. 

Worming is in length about once and a half the length 
of the rope to be wormed, for each piece. 

Pax^celling- a litope^ is wrapping strips of old 
canvas round it, well tarred, with edge overlapping, which 
prepares it for serving and secures it from being injured by 
rain-water lodging between the parts of the service when 



44 SEIZING. 

worn, Fig. 150. Parcel with the lay, if s(Tvic(> is to be used, 
otherwise against it. 

Sei'vice is put on to protect the rope from chafe and 
the influence of the weather. It is clapped on by a wooden 
mallet, Fig. 154, made for the purpose. 

The rope is first bowsed hand-taut by a tackle, then 
wormed. The end of the spun-yarn for the service is laid 
upon the rope, and two or three turns passed round the rope 
and over it (the end), hauling them very taut. The mallet 
is laid with its groove upon the rope. Fig. 150; a turn of the 
spun-yarn is taken round the rope and the head of the mal- 
let, close to the last turn which was laid by hand; another 
is passed in the same manner, and a third also on the fore 
part of the mallet, leading up round the handle (i), which 
the rigger holds in his hand. The service is alwaijs passed 
against the lay of the rope, so that as the latter stretches, 
the tension of the former is not much decreased. A boy 
holds the ball of spun-yarn (k), at some distance from tlie 
man who is serving, and passes it round, as he turns the 
mallet, by which he is not retarded in the oi)eration. The 
end is put through the three or four last turns of the service, 
and hauled taut. 

"Wliippinj? «. P^ope, Fig. 157, Plate 26, is done 
to prevent the end from fagging out. 

^V Sailmaliei-'s^ ^\^liii>i>iiig- is put on with a 
needle and twine — a reef point has such a whipping. Pass 
a stitch through the point, take several turns, stick through 
again, and pass cross turns from one end of whipping to the 
other in the direction of the lay of the rope. 



CROWNING, POINTING, SNAKING. 

Cr-ovi^iiirigr tlie end ol' a Xl^ope is a rough 
substitute for a whipping. With the three strands form a 
crown, then stick the end once or twice as in splicing. 

To Ci^ov^ii a Ilawnei*. Put a stout whipping 
on the hawser, a suflScient distance from the end to allow 
for crowning. Unlay the strands to the whipping, and lay 
the three inside, or heart strands up together. Then form 
the crown with the three outside ones, taking them above, 
and covering the remaining three, which, with the heart 
strands, should be whipped, and cut off even. Lastly, worm 
the ends of the crowning strands back into the lay of the 
hawser, and clap stout smooth seizings close up to the crown, 
and at the extremity of the worming. Sometimes an arti- 
ficial eye is formed with the inner strands. 

To l^oint IX Xlope, Figs. IGO and C, Plate 2f;. 

SnAkin^ is for the better securing of a seizing, which 
is passed round the single part of a rope, and therefore can- 
not be crossed. It is done by taking the end part under and 




Fig. isa I 







PUDDING FENDERS. 45 

over the lower and upper turns of the seizing. Fig. 10 1, 
Plate 26. 

Pointiiiiar ^^ I^ai'gr^ Ha^wser*. Clap on a 
whipping of three-yarn nettle-stuflf, snaked. Open out the 
strands, lay the heart up three-stranded, and splice a becket 
into it, which has previously been eye-spliced into its own 
part. Lay the outside yarns up into five-yarn sennet : use, 
for filling, a two-yam fox ; ana continue as already snown 
Fig. 162, Plate 27. 

Cross Pointing-, Figs. 163a and l(>:3b, Plate 27. 

Hitoh.iiig' is a very convenient method for covering 
boats' awning-stanchions. Fig. 164, Plate 27. 

PUDDING FENDERS, OR DOLPHINS. 

Piiclding- FeTicleT*«9 oi* I>olpliins, are used 
in the navy for launches, being placed outside the boat just 
under the gunwale, and permanently secured there. 

A piece of rope of the required lenj^h is cut, and an eye 
spliced in each end, by means of which it is set up to small 
evebolts under the gunwale ; the rope is then marked where 
the puddings are to be worked. W orm the rope and form 
the puddings with any old stuff, such as old strands laid 
lengthwise along the rope, raising the pile in the centre and 
scraping off the ends to a taper. Oi* make a tapering pud- 
ding by winding spun-yarn around the rope. In forming 
the puading, the sides intended to be next to the boat are 
flat, and the outer sides a half round. 

When formed to the required shape, parcel the pudding 
and graft it over, as in Fig. lG5a, or cover with leather, as 
in Fig. 1656. 

The whole fender is commonly known as a dolphin. 



FOXES-GASKETS-TURK'S HEAD. 

Foxes for gaskets, &c., are made by taking a number 
of rope-yarns, from three upwards, according to the size 
intended, and twisting them on the knee, rubbing them 
well backwards and forwards with a piece of canvas. 
Spanish foxes are made by twisting single rope-yarns back- 
handed in the same manner. 

Cjraslcetw, Fig. 167, Plate 27, are made by taking 
three or four foxes, according to the size, middlmg them 
over a pin, &c., and plaiting the three or four parts together 
for the length of the eye, Fig. KJO. 

Turin's Head, Fig. 108, Plate 28. 

Tni^li's JtIgslA ^%voi*l£ecl into a HLoi>e, Fig. 



46 SELVAGEES, ETC. 



SELVAGEES— REEFING BECKETS, ETC 

j\. Selvag-ee is made by warping rope-yam, spun- 
yarn, or small stuff, according to tne size required, and 
marling down as in Fig. 170, Plate 2s. 

A small selvagee may be made by warping rope-yam 
around two marling-spikes, stuck in the holes of a grating 
at the proper distance apart. 

Large ones are sometimes made of small stuff, for get- 
ting in lower masts, and are called garlands. 

As selvagee straps are soft ^nd pliable, they are the best 
for clapping on rigging, spars, &c., as in Figs. 171 and 172. 

For tne same reason, stoppers for braces, &c., are made 
in a similar manner, as in Fig. 173. 

Selvagees may be used tor various purposes. A very 
neat and expeditious way of bending stuading-sail halliards 
is to use a strap, as in Figs. 174 and 175. 

Very neat straps for blocks, may be made of selvagees. 

Tieefinof iJeelcetK, Fig. 177, Plate 29, are made 
like sennit, after a variety of designs. 

These points may be made of manilla-yarns, or four- 
yam spun-yarn, with four or five parts in the eye, and 
worked down with seven or nine parts ; the length of the 
spun-yarn on the two parts to make a point, is once and a 
half the length of the point to be made. The eye is made 
around a toggle which remains in. If fitted to go around 
the jack-stay, plait down six inches from the toggle, then 
separate the foxes and plait an eye eight inches long, then 
plait down nine inches solid, whip the end with twine and 
it is finished. 

Sennit is made round, square, or flat, and is used for 
various purposes, such as gaskets, ^v, 

Oomnaon Sennit. Figs. 170 and 180, Plate 21>. 

F'l-encli Sennit. Fig. LSI, Plate 'l\). 

H^onncl Sennit. Figs. l<S:i and 18:5. Used for 
man-ropes, yoke-lines, &c. 

SqxiaT-e Sennit. Fig. 1S4, Plate V.). 

SwoT'd 3f:at. Figs. 185, 18<), and 187. Used for 
chafing mats. 

^V Col^l^lei-'j^ Stiteli is used for joining the sides 
of the mat together. Fig. 17(), Plate :J(). 

Pannch 3Iat. Fig. lt)0, Plate :]0. 

IVet iVTi^lcingr. Figs. 103 and 104:. Plate 31. 

A. Shot oi- 1^i-eawixi»;y^ :Xet. Fig. 105, Plate 31. 

Boats' Fenclei's. The usual hanging-fender for 
boom-boats is made of as many parts of spun-yarn as will 
give it the requisite dimensions. These are middled and 
doubled over the laniard, and a small grommet is driven 
over the bights to make them snug, as in making a swab. 



SENNIT, ETC. 47 

It is then grafted over, either with sennit or foxes, and fin- 
ished off as grafting is usually finished ; or by crowning the 
end over with the foxes. dB'igs. 197 and 198, Plate 31. 

A grommet fender is merely a rope grommet grafted over. 

A canvas fender is stuffed with oakum, roped at the 
edges, and has a small grommet sewed on the centre, to 
keep the chafe oflf. 

Leather fenders are used for gigs and cutters. 

For another kind of fender for boom-boats, see Dolphin. 

Ha^imnoeLc: Clews. Take twelve lengths of 
nettle-stuff, middle them, serve round all at the centre, and 

5 ass a seizing to form the eye ; then lay one up and one 
own, as for a sword mat, bring the outside nettle on each 
side across for filling, and leave it out ; form the other rows 
in the same manner, and when reduced to two, knot the last 
pair. Fig. 200. Plate 31. 

Sennit lor Hats. Figs. 201, 202, and 203, Plate 31. 

Coir BrxxtsliessJ. Figs. 204 and 205, Plate 32. 

To iVroixne a Hoolt. This is done when hoist- 
ing a heavy weight to prevent the hook from straightening 
out, and on sails, &c., to prevent unhooking. Fig. 200, 
Plate 32. 

Flog-sheacl Slinks. Fig. 207, Plate 32. 

Can-Hoolis. Fig. 208, Plate 32. 

A. Tanlc-Toggrle. Fig. 209, Plate 32. 

To Sling- a Caslc with a Itope^»-eTicl — 
make a bowline knot in the yard- whip, and stick the end 
back so as to form a short bight, to which bend the stay- 
whip. Turn the bight of the bow-line over its own part, 
and slip each bight thus formed over one end of the cask. 
Fig. 210, Plate 32. 

To Sling a Cask ^ivith the Head 
Klnooked in — slip the bight of the whip under the 
cask, take a hitch with each part over the head, and knot 
them together above. Fig. 211, Plate 32. 

Another way, though not quite so safe, is to make a 
figure-of-eight knot, and slip the bight under the barrel, as 
in Fig. 212. 

I3ale ox* Barrel Slings are generally made of 
three-inch rope, and of suflScient length to go round the 
bale or barrel. They are similar to a long strap, spliced 
together with a short splice ; they are passed round the barrel 
and one bight rove through the other. Fig. 213, Plate 33. 

They are sometimes made long enough to sling two or 
three barrels at a time. 

Jk. P^arbxiclile, Fig. 214, Plate 33, is a purchase 
contrived with a single rope for raising a heavy cask or 
other similar weight. The same kind of purchase, though 
on a larger scale, is used for getting on board the sheer legs 
wrhen masting a ship with one's own resources. 



-t'S NETTINGS, ETC. 



JACOB'S LADDERS, ETC. 

•Tacob^s I^£iclclei:*s are made of wire rope, as in 
Fig. 21.5. Plate ^:5, for convenience of passing into the boats, 
into the rigging, &c. They lead from the spar deck to the 
lower rigging, to enable the topmen to get in the rigging 
without getting on the hammocks ; on the lower booms and 
main brace bumpkin to facilitate getting in and out of 
boats ; and in large ships, to the after-end of the spare top- 
sail vard in the chains ; and also from the top-gallant mast- 
heads, the lower end setting up to the aiterpart of the 
cross-trees. 

Snakins- on 13aelcKtix;v"»*s«9 &^e. Seizing a small 
rope alternately from one stay to another, to keep either 
from falling if shot away. This is only done when prepar- 
ing for action. Fig. 216, Plate 33. 



NETTINGS. 

lVettinsr«*«-i Fig. 217, Plate 33, are made by seizing 
together the Fights of small ropes — such as ratline stuff — 
leaving uniform spaces or meshes between. The rope is 
first marked oflf at equal intervals with chalk, and neat 
seizings of twine clapped on. They are used in different 
parts of the ship for various purposes. 

Jib Nettings seize to the jib guys on each side, passing 
under the boom, and are for the purpose of catching and 
holding the jib when hauled down, and to save men from 
falling overboard when stowing the jib in bad weather. 

Staysail Netting, for stowing the foretopmast staysail 
in. 

Boarding Nettings trice up from the rail to the ridge-rope 
to prevent the enemy from boarding. These, when made of 
ratline stuff well soaked in tar, sanded, and allowed to 
harden, defy the sharpest knife. 

Quarter-deck nettings are stretched over the deck like an 
awning to prevent spars, &c., from falling on the heads of 
the oflBcers in time of action. 

Boarding and splinter nettings as well as exterior net- 
tings for defence against torpedoes are only furnished in 
time of war. 

Torpedo jVettingTH. In these, steel rods or wire 
take the place of the small rope in ordinary netting, and the 
seizings are replaced by metal rings or links. 

Collision 3£ats are used to stop the inflow of 
water in case a vessel's bottom should be injured in collision 
or otherwise. They are carried by all of our vessels of war, 
and regular drills are held to familiarize the crew with 
their use. 



COLLISION MATS. 49 

In the United States Navy there are five sizes, as follows : 

Xo. 1. Twelve feet square ) 

Xo. 2. Ten feet square [• For ships. 

Xo. 3. Eight feet square ) 

Xo. 4. Six feet by four feet ( -^ tornpdo boats 

Xo. 5. Four feet by three, feet. . . . f ^''^ torpedo boats. 

Sizes 1, 2, and 3 are made of No. 1 flax canvas, roped 
with 3-inch hemp, backed with cross bands six inches wide. 
Xo. 1, three cross bands each way. Nos. 2 and 3, two cross 
bands each way, thrummed with 3^-inch hemp thrums, in 
rows two inches apart. To be fitted with 3-inch cringles in 
corners and 2-inch metal eyelets in ends of cross bands. To 
have bridles of 3-inoh hemp on two opposite sides fitted with 
crow's feet. Thimbles in bridles to be three inches. Dis- 
tance of thimble from middle of side of mat equal to the 
len^h of that side. To have dipping or hogging lines at 
comers thirty -five fathoms long of 3-inch hemp for Nos. 1 
and 2, and of 2J-inch hemp for No. 3. 

Sizes 4 and 5 to be made of No. 3 flax canvas roped 
with 2i-inch hemp, backed with one cross band each way, 
thrummed with 2-inch hemp thrums, in rows |-inch apart. 
To be fitted with 2-inch cringles in corners and 1-inch metal 
eyelets in ends of cross bands. To have dipping or hogging 
lines at corners five fathoms long of 1 J-iiich hemp. 



CHAPTER V. 

BLOCKS. 

Bloclcs are mechanical contrivances, possessing the 

Eroperties and powers of pulleys. They are generally made 
y machinery, of ash, and are, what are called, made or 
mortised. 

The made block. Fig. 220, Plate 34, consists of four prin- 
cipal parts, as follows : — ^The shell or outside, consisting of 
two or more pieces pinned together ; the sheave or wheel 
(b), over which the rope passes ; the pin or axle (a), on 
wnich the sheave turns, and the strap, either rope or iron, 
which encircles the whole, and by which it is confined to its 
particular place. 

The sheave mav be of metal or of lignum-vitaB ; if the 
latter, it is bouchea (c), in all blocks except those used for 
the gun tackles. In the patent blocks the bouching con- 
tains friction rollers. Fig. 221. 

In the common block the bouching is counter-sunk, and 
made of a composition of 100 parts of copper and 16 of tin. 
The sheaves of blocks used for gun tackles are not allowed 
to be bouched, and the pins are made of hardened copper. 
The pin of the common olock is made of iron. 

Mortised blocks, Fig. 222, Plate 34, are made from a 
single piece of wood, mortised out to receive the sheave. 

Blocks are single, double, treble or threefold, and four- 
fold, according to the number of sheaves contained within 
the shell ; are either single or double scored, and are mea- 
sured by their length — that is, the length of the shell. 

The scores are the notches cut at the ends of the shell to 
admit the strap. 

The sizes oi blocks used in the navy range from 4 inches 
to 22 inches inclusive, as follows : — 4-inch, 5-inch, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, and 22, single and double of each 
size, and treble blocks for the largest purchases. 

Not included in the above are viol blocks, large blocks 
used for warping, &c. 

Bloc'lcH take their name from the purposes to which 
they are applied, or from some peculiarity of form, the fol- 
lowing being the principal ones in common use : — 

Bee-Bloclcss, or simply Bees, are thick, pieces of 
oak bolted to the sides of the bowsprit, having heavy metal 
sheaves in them for the fore-topmast and fore-topmast 
spring stays to reeve through. 

50 



Plate 34 

SHs>SSO 




BLOCKS. 51 

Ocit-Block, a largje, double or three-fold block, 
iron-strapped and composition sheaves. It has a large hook 
connected with the strap by a link, to admit play. It is 
used to raise the anchor to the cathead. Fig. 225. 

Cheelc-BIoelis are made of a halt-shell, and bolt 
aeainst a mast or spar, which acts as the other cheek or half 
of shell. The chief bolt serves as a pin for the sheave to 
turn on. Used on gaffs for brails, &c. 

Clew-g-ai^net HloeliH are single, iron-bound, 
and hook or shackle to the iron bands on the quarters of the 
fore and main yard. They hang under the yard and receive 
the clew-garnets, by which the courses are hauled up. The 
name also applies to the blocks which hook in the clews of 
the sail. 

Cle^w-line I31oc1ch are those which are attached 
to the clews of the topsails for the clew-lines. Formerly, 
the name applied only to the block on the yard, now called 
Quarter-block. 

Clu-xnp-Bloclc. Strongly made blocks with, a 
thick metal sheave, having a large swallow or opening in 
proportion to the length. Used for the topsail and top- 
gallant lifts in the top ; also on collar of main stay for fore- 
topsail brace, &c. 

The same name is applied to any short thick block, such 
as fore and main tack blocks, &c. 

I>aHliei*-I31ocl£ is the small block sometimes 
strapped to the extremity of the spanker-gaff, for reeving 
the ensign halliards. 

liJii.plii*oe. A long piece of wood having a number of 
holes in it, through which the crow-foot for the awnings is 
rove. It has a score around it for a strap, and is strapped 
with a thimble for bending the crow-foot nalliards. 

F'ish-Bloclc. For fishing the anchor • a large 
double or treble block, iron strapped, fitted with several 
links of chain and a hook to hook on the arm of the 
anchor. 

F'iclclle-KlocliK, Fig. 223, Plate 34, are made with 
a long shell so as to have one sheave over the other, the 
lower Doing smaller. Used for top-burtons and as hanging 
blocks. When used for fore or mam buntlines the two parts 
are connected by a swivel. 

Fly-Blools: is the upper block of the topsail hal- 
liards. It is double, has sister hooks and thimble for hook- 
ing to the topsail tye. Friction rollers. 

Grln-BlocliH, Fig. 224, Plate 34, are large composi- 
tion sheaves which turn m a metal framework. Used prin- 
cipally for topsail tyes, and hook to iron bands, made to fit 
snugly over the topmast tressle-trees. The name is also 
appued to the small metal blocks used aloft for various pur- 
poses, such as for topgallant and royal braces, topgallant 
Duntlines, etc. 



52 X BLOCKS. 

CJ-ii't-line ZJlocks are single, through which girt- 
lines, or single whips reeve, as the mast-head girtlines, in 
rigging ship, etc. oometimes called qantUnes. 

H[aiieliig--BlocliJs« Any block depending at a 
mast-heaoT as a lead for running rigging ; such as the 
fiddle-blocks at fore-topmast head for head halliards and 
topsail bunt lines, etc. 

•Tstek-BloekH are large single blocks, used for 
sending up and down topgallant and royal yards. 

Jeei'-BloclcK are large double or treble blocks for 
reeving the purchases for sending up and down the lower 
yards.. 

JTe^v^el-Bloclcts are single blocks at the extremities 
of the topsail, topgallant, and sometimes, though rarely, 
royal yards, through which the studding-sail halliards 
reeve. The head oi the studding-sail, when set, is hoisted 
to them. 

]\i]a.iii-i«t]ieet Bloelc is a double or treble block, 
strapped to the main-boom of a schooner or sloop, for the 
main-sheet, or a single block for main-sheet of square 
riggers. 

C^ixai^er-Blocks, on the topsail or topgallant 
yards, are double, and are iron-strapped to the quarters of 
the yards, to gfive lead to the sheet of the sail above and 
clewline of the sail below. On the lower yard they are 
single, for the topsail sheet alone, and on "the royal yard 
they are single, for the royal clewline alone. Those for the 
topgallant and royal yards go with sister hooks, that they 
may be readily detached. 

Sister-BloclcH, Fig. 226, Plate 34, are formed of 
one solid piece and two sheaves, one above the other ; be- 
tween the sheaves is a score for a middle seizing, and on 
the sides a score for the shrouds to fit in. 

Seci^et-BloclcH, Fig. 227, Plate 34, are so made 
that the sheave is entirelv screened, the rope leading 
through an orifice in the shell just large enough to admit its 
free passage, the object being to prevent its fouling by 
small gear catching in the swallow and choking it. Used 
for clewlines, whicJn are frequently fouled bv reef-points, 
and for clew-jiggers. The snell of the block, Fig. 227 (a 
and b), is made of lignum-vitse, and has an iron half-strap. 
The hooks fitted to this block are known as clip hooks. 
Similar hooks are shown in Fig. 228, but opening perpen- 
dicular to the sheave instead of opening in line with it. 
Hooks fitted as in Fig. 228 are known as sister hooks. 

Snatcli-Blocltw, Fig. 229, are always single arid 
iron-bound, with swivel hooks. The shell at the breech is 
left open, and the strap at that part fitted with a clamp, so 
that tne bight of a rope may be '' snatchech'' 

Teleg*i*apli-1 Jloolv>4 are pyramidal shaped blocks, 
with a number of small brass sheaves, used for making 
telegraphic signals. 



BM«J340a BHa.S40ft 




Fia-S-Urt I^iK.S-l I /, I^ia,a43 



BLOCKS. 53 

Top-Blocks, Fig. 233, Plate 35, are large, single,^ 
iron-bound blocks, used for sending up and down topmasts. 
They hook to an eye-bolt in the lower cap, hooking irom in, 
outj so that the bill of the hook points outward, and the 
top pendants reeve through them. Sometimes shackled. 

Topg-allant-top Block is similar to the above, 
but smaller. It is used for the topgallant-mast rope, and 
hooks from in, outy to an eyebolt in the topmast cap. 

Tye-Bloclis are large, single, iron-bound blocks, 
which bolt or shackle to iron bands on the topsail yard, for 
the topsail tyes to reeve through. 

Viol-Blocks are large single blocks, with a swallow 
large enough to take a small hawser. 

In the navy -yards there are fourfold blocks of 30 inches 
and over, for neavy purchases. 

Block-a^nd-Block, or ''two blocks" is the term 
applied to a tackle when its two blocks are drawn so close 
together that they cease to operate. The act of drawing 
the blocks apart is called fleeting the purchase, or overhaul' 
ing it. 

Blocks should frequentlv be examined, not only as to 
strapping, but also by knocking the pin out and inspecting 
the Douching. The loss of power, and strain on rope, occa- 
sioned by a worn bouch, is considerable. The working 
blocks of tackles (for instance, the fly block of topsail hal- 
liards) are always more worn than the lower ones, and, 
therefore, without waiting until the sheaves shriek and 
become dumb, the blocks should be shifted and the sheaves 
transposed. This remark applies also to quarter-davit 
blocks. 

The sheave, on which the hauling part of the rope 
works, does most duty ; and this calls for'greater strengtn, 
and frequent alterations in upper blocks. 

All blocks which stand horizontally must be placed with 
the square end of the pin upwards : as, when the shell 
shrinks, it is liable to fall out if placed otherwise. 

Hanging, Tye, and Quarter-Blocks, undergo great strains 
when bracing sharp up ; if the former are two blocks, the 
weather halliards snould be eased up suflBciently. 

Books. There is no proportion for hooks, so that 
while handling heavy weights, unless the hooks be evidently 
very strong, it is safer to use a shackle or a good mousing. 
More accidents happen from open hooks than from chain or 
cordage. Great support may be given a hook by slipping a 
link or a shackle over the point, Fig. 234, Plate 35. 

Tliimblos are made both perfectly round, and also 
with the ends nearly joined. Two are sometimes united 
for the purpose of giving easy play to the adjoining straps 
or block, as well as a different stand. These are called 
Lock-Thimbles. 



54 STRAPPING BLOCKS. 



STRAPPING BLOCKS. 

The majority of the largest blocks supplied to men-of- 
war are iron-strapped ; quarter-blocks, brace-blocks, clew- 
gamet-blocks, top-olocks, cat-blocks, blocks for boat falls, 
and many others are of this class. All the above, except 
the cat-blocks and top-blocks, are also provided with fric- 
tion rollers, and the same may be said of nearly all iron- 
strapped blocks which are not subjected to very heavy 
strains. Some blocks are made entirely of iron, such as the 
jeer-blocks for small vessel's, secured permanently in the 
chain sling. See also Fig. 231, for a treble iron block. 

Figs. 229 and 233 show one method of strapping blocks 
with iron. Another plan is to use inside iron straps, as in 
Figs. 230 and 232, which are probably the strongest straps 
yet devised. 

When not iron-strapped, blocks are fitted with straps of 
hemp or wire-rope. 

A wire-rope strap differs from a hemp one in being 
wormed, parcelled and served, and in being usually made 
of rope one half the size of the corresponding hemp strap. 
In wire straps for ordinary single blocks, the splice comes 
on the side instead of the breech, to avoid a nip near the 
splice. 

Hemp-rope for block-straps should be well-stretched, or 
until it begins to look ** long-jawed," that is, the angle of 
the lay diminished. 

Once and a half the round of the block gives a good 
measure for the common strap, in which the two ends are 
joined by a short splice ; first reeving the ends through the 
eye of the hook ; a seizing of marline, houseline, spun-yarn, 
hambroline, or larger stuff, according to the size of the 
block, is then clapped on between the thimble and the 
block. 

The splice in the hemp strap should be placed at the 
breech of the block. After getting a good strain on the 
strap, the splicing ends may be trimmed off. 

Covering block-straps at all is objectionable, particularly 
if much exposed, as they decay more rapidly and break with- 
out warning. 



CHAPTER VI. 

TACKLES. 

Taclile is an assemblage of ropes and blocks, 
and is known in mechanics as a sj^stem of pulleys. 

The simplest contrivance of this kind is the single whip, 
or ffirtline, which consists of a rope rove through a single 
sttuionary block. By this arrangement, a better lead is 
given the rope, but no power is gained by it. 

But this arrangement is extremely convenient and often 
absolutely necessary, as in hoisting articles from the holds 
to the upper decks, or from the decks to the masts and 
yards. 

It is quite different, however, when the single block is 
movable, or attached to the weight to be moved, and gener- 
ally these two principles obtain m all tackles, namely, that 
stationary blocks give no gain, but only serve as a lead to 
the rope, and all increase of power is derived from movable 
blocks. 

The block having the greatest number of parts of the fall 
should be attached to the weight to be moved, in order to 
gain the greatest mechanical advantage. The power gained 
IS equal to the number of parts at the movable block. 

As, in all purchases, a considerable proportion of power 
is expended in overcoming friction alone, and as stationary 
blocks, while they serve to augment friction, yield no 
mechanical advantage, there should be as many movable 
blocks aspossible. - 

To X>etermii:ie the IRelatioix of Po^vrer 
to A^V^eisrh-t in anj^ system of pulleys, we have to 
remember mat the tension on a rope is the same through- 
out, from the point hauled on to tnat at which it is made 
fast, friction not considered. If we then make a figure of a 
system of pulleys, tracing up the tension on each part, 
marking the hauling part as 1, we find the purchase by 
adding the values thus assigned to each part of rope at the 
weight, or reeving through the block at tne weight. When 
the rope itself starts with a doubled power as at A, Fig. 
253, each part of such a rope must be marked 2 ; if it starts 
with a quadrupled power as at B, Fig. 255, each part must 
be marked 4, &c. 

Plate 36 shows the manner of estimating the power in 
this way, with the forms of purchase in ordinary use. 

55 



ii) TACKLES. 

Pig. 244, Single whip ; power gained, none. 

Fig. 245, The same with block at the weight; power 
gainea, 2. 

Fig. 246, Gun tackle, purchase, power gained, 2. 

Fig. 247, The same inverted, power gained, 3. 

Fig. 248, A luflf tackle, power gained, 3. 

Fig. 249, The same inverted, power gained, 4. 

Fig. 250, Double purchase, power gamed, 4. 

Fig. 251, The same inverted, power gained, 5. 

Fig. 252, Single Spanish burton, power gained, 3. 

Fig. 253, Double Spanish burton, power gained, 5. 

Fig. 254, Bell purchase, for topsail halliards, power 
gained, 7. 

Fig. 255, Luff upon luff, power gained, 16. 

In the above estimate for Bell purchase, the angle be- 
tween the two parts, C, D, should be considered. 

The general rule for ascertaining the power necessary to 
raise a given weight with a tackle, is to aivide the weight to 
be raised by the number of parts of rope at the movable 
block or blocks, the quotient being the power required to 
produce an equilibrium, friction not considered. 

To ascertain the amount of purchase required to raise a 
given weight with a given power, divide the weight by the 
power, and the quotient will be the number of parts of rope 
which must be attached to the lower block. 

To ascertain what weight given tackling will raise, the 
weight a single rope will bear is multiplied by the number 
of parts at the moving block. 

When one tackle is put upon another, multiply the two 

¥owers together to get the total amount of purchase gained, 
'hus with a luff tackle, with four parts at the movable 
block, the gain is four. A luff upon luff would give an 
increase of 16 times, another luff clapped on to the fall of 
the second, 16 x 4, or 64 times, &c. 

These rules require considerable modification for fric- 
tion. 

Power can only be increased at the expense of time, 
hence there are many cases on board ship where a great 
deal of purchase would be a positive disadvantage. 

f I'ietion. Perhaps we shall not be far wrong if we 
estimate one sixth of the original force to be consumed by 
friction each time the rope passes round a sheave. Thus, 
supposing the tension or strain on the hauling part be 0, 
that on the next will be 5, the next 4, the next 3, and so on. 
So that if the strain on the fall of a two-fold tackle be 6, the 
strains on the parts of the rope will be represented by the 
figures 6, 5, 4, 3, and their sum, 18, will nearly represent the 

Sower of the tackle, instead of 24, which it would have been 
ad there been no friction ; or about one fourth of the force 
would have been consumed by it. 

If the rope which passes round the sheave of the block 



Plata 36 



I'i«.2a^t^/""\ 



K'ig.S^O 




iK.j::j lo 



i«Hjc.34.r 



1 I 1 



w 





w 



p«1 



P==2 



P--2 



P"3 



Fi^.S-l^S 




T 1 



I 



0) 



w 






jH^iff.aoi 



/ 



I i; 1 n 



I 



w 



P*3 



P-4 



P-4 



P--5 



F'ig.Goi^ 




l''i;X.i*o3 



ic.2o--irk 




IfMg.255 



l\^-<l\J B 



1 I 
\ 



\ 

\ 



\\ \\ 



\4 4> 

\ 




P-3 



P-5 



P-7 



P-lo 



TACKLES — FRICTION. 57 

be small, it will bo more flexible ; a less force will be neces- 
sary to "nip" it round the sheave, and there will be less 
resistance by friction against the inside of the shell of the 
block. 

From these considerations, we gather that work is light- 
ened by using large blocks and small ropes; the boat- 
swain's rule, that the hauling part of a fall bears double the 
strain of the standing part, is not far wrong ; that as the 
pin of a block is more worn on one of its sides, it should be 
frequently turned ; and that as sheaves nearest the stand- 
ing part do least duty, they should be shifted occasionally 
with the others. 

There are about five different purchases in common use, 

VIZ * 

A. Sing-le TV^iip, Fig. 256, Plate 37, which consists 
of a single stationary block and fall. By it the power can 
be more conveniently applied to the weight, but no power 
is gained. It is therefore, in reality, no purchase at all. 
The term whip is sometimes applied to tackles, as the 
wcUer^ivhips. 

A. X{.ixTiiiei*9 Fig. 257, Plate 37, a single movable 
block and fall. In this case, the fall is called the runner, 
and has a thimble spliced in the end, for hooking a purchase 
to. By it the power is doubled. The main bowline and 
topsail tyes are instances of runners. Runners, as in the 
figure, are used for setting up backstays, and generally 
wherever they can be applied to advantage. 

A. GixjLrt Taclcle l^rii-eliiiKcs Fig. 258, ^late 
37, is composed of two single blocks, strapped with )ok 
and thimble, the standing part of the fall bent to the 
becket, or spliced into the strap of the block from which 
the fall leads. The advantage derived from this purchase 
has been given already. Its gain is as 1 to 3. 

A Lull' TacUIe, Fig. 259, Plate 37, consists of a 
double and single block, each strapped with a hook and 
thimble, the standing part of fall bent to the becket, or 
spliced into the strap oi the single block. If the double 
block is hooked to the weight, the power is multiplied four 
times ; if the single block, then but three times, &c. 

A. T>vofoltl Fixreliase-, Fig. 2G0, Plate 37, con- 
sists of two double blocks, the standing and hauling part 
leading from the same block, and on opposite sides, so that 
the block will not cant. The power gained is four or five 
times, as it may be applied. 

A. Threefold. JPu.i'cliaKc* consists of two treble 
blocks, having the fall and standing part leading from the 
same block, and from opposite sides. Its power is six or 
seven times. 

The foregoing are the principal kinds of purchase in use 
on board ship ; all others are combinations or modifications 
of these, and take their names from the purpose for which 



oS TACKLES — FRICTK )N. 

or place where used, the foUowing being those in most 
general use. 

IJoom Tackle^ or boom-jiggers, used in large 
ships for rigging in and out the studding-sail booms. In 
schooners, the tackle which guys the main boom forward, 
when going large. 

I3ii.i*toriH are light tackles. The term burton by itself, 
is generally understood to apply to those which are nearly 
always kept hooked to the pendants, at the topmast heads, 
ready for use, and called tojy burto7is. They are the same 

fmrchase as a luff, but instead of the common double block 
ike a luff, it has a fiddle block, both for neatness and con- 
venience, there being but little room close up under the eyes 
of the topmast rigging. The falls of these burtons are long 
enough to permit both the lower block and hauling end to 
reach the deck, with plenty to spare, while the upper block 
is hooked to the topmast pendant. 

SpaniKli llvxi'tonw are of various styles. 

A single Spanish burton, Fig. 2G1, Plate 37, consists of 
two single blocks, the standing part spliced in to the strap 
of the movable block and the bight seized or bent to the 
hook. This increases the power three times. 

The double Spaiiish burton, Fig. 253, Plate 'M, has one 
double and two single blocks ; the standing part spliced in 
the strap of one single block, then rove through the double 
or fixed block, and tlie bight seized to the strap of the lower 
block, to which the weight to be lifted is hooked. The end 
is then rove up through the double block, through the lower 
and lastly through the single block to which tne standing 
part is secured. This purchase gives an increase of five 
times the power applied. Figure 254, Bell's purchase, in- 
creases the power seven times.* 

A. I>eeli: Tttcflile is a heavy purchase, of a double 
and single, or two double blocks. It is used for rousing in 
chains, and for heavy work generally. 

f iwli Tacltle is a heavy purchase of double or 
treble blocks, used for fishing the ancnor ; that is, for raising 
the crown to get the inner nuke up to the bill-board after 
catting. 

^V l^"^<>i*e-Jiiicl-af% Taeltle is one used to get 
the awnings on a fore-and-aft stretch. The term is also of 

general application to any tackle whose use, for the time 
eing, may be in the direction of the length of the ship. 
In the same way we have thwartsh ip-tackles. 

C^rivtliness are, generally, single whips. The name 
applies particularly to those used at the mast-head in get- 
tmg up tops, riggmg, &c., when rigging ship. Hammock 
Girtlines are simply lines on which to stop scrubbed ham- 
mocks for drying. They are fitted in various ways, and 

* Seo also Boll's purcluise, and Plat-, Cliapt^^r IX , ITai^liards. 




^^ 




TACKLES. '^'.^ 

formerly had permanent (nettle) stops attached ; but now the 
"long" or harbor clothes-lines are used for the purpose. 

Hateli Tackles. These are common luff pur- 
chases, and are used generally in the hatches over the 
holds. When the upper block is required to be above the 
spar deck, it should not be permitted to hook to the lower 
stay, but to a long pendant, hooking to the lower cap and 
stopped out to the stay by a lizard. 

•Jeers, for sendmg up and down the lower yards, are 
variously rove. The plan now is, to have one or two double 
or treble purchases according to the size of the yard. For 
small vessels the blocks (iron) are fitted in one with the 
slings. Fig. 262, Plate 37. 

•Jig-g-ei's, Fig. 264, Plate 38, are small luffs, having 
the double block strapped with one or two tails, and are used 
for a great variety of purposes about decks. 

1^1x11' Tackle. Double and single block, as already 
de?;cribed. But rigging Ivffs used in setting up rigging are 
either double or single. f5ouble rigging luffs may oe ordi- 
nary luff tackles or double purchases, used for setting up 
lower stays, and called stay luffs. Sinp^le rigging luffs have 
two single blocks, and are used in setting up shrouds. 

In former days when ship's batteries were light, the gun 
tackles had only two single blocks, hence the term, gun- 
tackle purchase. 

Rigging luffs in former days were composed of double 
and single blocks, but in time were made up with two 
single blocks instead, as the double block was too large, 
much in the way, and liable to split in setting up shrouds. 

I^endant Tackles are large tackles, composed 
of double blocks. They hook to the mast-head pendants, 
whence their name, and are used for setting up lower rig- 
ging, staying the mast, or steadying it under certain emer- 
gencies. 

R/eef Tackles are for rousing the leeches of the 
top-sails and courses up to the yard arms for reefing. They 
are variously fitted, and may be either a luff or a gun- 
tackle purchase, as will be explained hereafter. 

JEielie vin^ Tackles are for the purpose of hook- 
ing to the tiller, m order to steer the ship in the event of 
the wheel ropes being shot away in action, or to assist in 
steering in very heavy weather, when the motions of the 
rudder are sudden and violent. Double and single block. 

R^olling" Tackles hook to the quarters of thc^ 
yards (lower and top-sail) and to the mast, for the puipose 
of steadying the yards in a heavy sea, when the ship rolls 
much, and to relieve the strain on the trusses, slings, or 
parrel. 

Huclder Tackles hook to the rudder chains or 
pendants, to steer the ship in case of accident to the tiller or 
rudder head. 



00 TACKLES. 

A. IX.\iiiiiei* a^rid Taelcle^ Fig. 205. Plate :^S, 
is simply composed of a tackle (double and single block) 
attached to a runner. They are for aiding in staying the 
lower masts. The power gained is eight times. 

Sta^v^ Tackles are those which hook to the triatic 
stay, or a lower stay, and are called respectively, forestay 
tackle and mainstay tackle — used in getting the boats in ana 
out. These are large double or treble purchases with a 
hook and several links of chain on the lower blocks. One 
link is round, and into it hooks the yard tackle. 

jV Sail HTaeUle, Fig. 200, Plate 3S. The upper 
block is often double ; the small single block below is to act 
as a fair leader, and the fall to act as a guy in keeping the 
sail clear of the yards and top when swaying aloft. The 
burtons are used as sail tackles. 

Stoclc and Dill Taelile is a small tackle used 
when securing the anchor. 

Tricing- Linew are generally single whips. Some- 
times, however, they are gun-tackle purchases, as the fore- 
topmast studding sail boom tricing lines. 

W'ateli Tacrlde. A common luff purchase or 
jigger. 

^ >\ liip Jiiid TfcviiiiKM'. Similar to a runner 
and tackle, but smaller. The main bowline of a large ship 
is a whip and runner. 

^"ard TacltleK are large tackles used on the 
lower yards, in connection with the stay tackles, for get- 
ting the boom-boats in and out, purchasing anchors, &c. 
They are called fore and main yard tackles, respectively, 
and are fitted with large double or treble blocks, strapped 
with single hooks. Fig. 230 shows an inside iron-strapped 
treble block for yard tackle. 

A\"atei' A^V^liips^ are tackles for hoisting in water, 
when it is brought ofif in gang casks ; or for medium 
weights generally. 

Besides the yard and stay tackles described above, for 
hoisting in and out boats, lighter purchases, known as the 
yard and stay water whips, are used for getting in provi- 
sions, Fig. 207. 

This purchase consists of two water-wliips. The upper 
block of the stay whip has a pendant which hooks into the 
lower cap, and is fitted with a lizard hauling it out to the 
collar of the lower stay, where it is secured. 

The upper block of the yard whip is fitted with a strap 
as in Fig. 207 to go around the yard arm. Both lower blocks 
may be fitted with chain pendants and hooks. Sometimes 
the lower stay block alone is fitted with chain, the lower 
yard block having a hook only. 

Besides the foregoing, there are various jiggers and 
whips, all of which will be explained when used. 

<jrenei'al lteiiiai*li.*s. One great advantage of a 



*•'•■'"" *■«.=<« 




TACKLES. (>1 

tackle on board ship, which renders its application of con- 
, stant occurrence when mere power is not wanting, must not 
be overlooked ; as, for example, when hoisting, a jerking is 
to be avoided, and a steady, gradual strain required, as in 
staying a mast. Another advantage of a purchase, when 
titt^d to any part of a ship's rig^ng, is that on coming up, 
when some little must necessarilv oe given back, only a 
mere fractional part is lost on the rope itself, as in the 
laniard of a dead-eye, &c. 

The p:r(^ater the amount of purchase used, the steadier 
will be the strain. 

The swallow of a block should be full large in proportion 
to the size of the fall ; generallj^ one-tenth of an men swal- 
low for every one-fourth of an mch in circumference of the 
rope. 

The fall of a purchase should have as clear a lead as 
possible, and the nauling part be in a line parallel to the 
rest of the purchase. 

A score is generally cut in the breech of a block to admit 
the standing part of the fall being passed under the strap, 
so as to splice the end into its own part. When this is done, 
the splice should be tapered and neatly served over with 
marline. But in jiggers, luffs, deck and pendant tackles, 
the standing part is oent to a becket, worked around the 
strap of the single block, with a sheet or becket bend, and 
the end stopped down. This is to allow the fall to be 
shifted, end for end, or to be unrove at pleasure. 

Bv reason of friction, the becket in the breech of the 
standing block may be much less in size than the fall, as 
the fall there bears less strain than at the hauling part, and 
the greater the number of parts of a fall, the greater will 
this difference be. Notwithstanding this, in neavy pur- 
chases, where great weights are to be moved, the standing 
Eart is hitched around tne neck of the strap, between the 
lock and the thimble ; and it is a good precaution, when 
using any tackle for a great strain, to cast off the standing 

Eart from the becket and hitch it around the strap. In large 
locks, the standing part is made to go on the side opposite 
to that from which the fall leads, making it lead fairer, and 

Sreventing the tendency of the block to slew in the strap, 
ig. 2G8, Plate 38. 
VSThen a racking is to be put on a purchase fall, the haul- 
ing part is racked to the part next to it. 

Sometimes, as in the case of a boat's fall, by the block 
capsizing, or through carelessness in overhauling, the fall 
gets a thorouqhfoot in it — that is, the parts get crossed ; be- 
fore use the thoroughf oot must be taken out. 

The following is the result of a carefully-executed ex- 
periment with tackles : 

A tackle of 2 upper and 1 lower sheave requires on the 
fall I of the weight of the resistance in order to raise it, but 






02 TACKLES. 

only \ to sustain it in its place. In hoisting, the standing 

Eart takes a strain of about J of the weight suspended, 1 m 
eeping it suspended, and | in lowering tne weight. WheB 
composed of one upper and one lower sheave, the fall of thi 
tackle requires the exertion of a power equal to about t ol 
the weight to move it, and ^ to keep it in eauilibrium, s< 
that the strap should be 3 times the strengtn of the fall, 
or lltimes its size. 

The Pui-clia^e g-stiried l>y Swig-ging" OlE 
What is called swigging off — ^that is, pulling at right anglel 
to a rope, is, at first, a very great power ; but it decreas< 
as the rope is pulled out or the straight line. A purchat 
upon this principle may be conveniently applied to severe 
purposes. By it a boat may be hauled up on the beach. Al 
some distance up from the water, drive m a stake, and neai^ 
the water, in a line with the boat, drive in another. To the 
upper stake secure the boat's painter, passing it along^ 
against the lower one. Now, bv swigging off upon the" 
painter midway between the stakes, the boat's crew will- 
pull with an increased power, and if this be insuflScient, ill 
may be increased by moving the stakes farther apart. 



I 

r 



f^^ 



^E 




r^'-yVf-i^^t^ 





CHAPTER VI I. 

MASTS AND Y ARD S - RUDDER.-M A STING. 

'W^ood.eii Lo"wer*-maeits are made of several 
pieces, united by dowels or coaks, and hoops. 

In the United States Navy, the made masts consist of 
four principal pieces, each of which consists of two or more 

f)arcs, scarfed together, when a whole piece, of sufficient 
ength, cannot be obtained. These pieces are placed as in 
Plate 39 P. The inner corner of each piece is taKen off so as 
to leave a square hole .extending tnroughout the whole 
length of the mast, in its axis. This admits of a closer con- . 
tact of the parts of the mast with each other when the 
hoops are set up, and does not take from the strength of the 
spar. This hole is one-tenth of the diameter of the mast in 
size. 

The hoops are placed from three to three and a half feet 
apart from each other, and are from four and one-quarter 
to five inches wide, and from four-eighths to five-eighths 
of an inch thick, according to the class of ships the mast 
is made for. They must, liowever, be kept clear of the 
wedges at the partners. The scarfings of the piece must be 
kept clear of each other (that is, the points of junction in 
one piece must be as far as possible from those in an- 
other piece), and equally distributed in the mast. There 
is a chafing batten on the forward part of the liiast, about 
one-fourth the diameter of the mast in width, and one- 
eighth in thickness. 

The principal parts of a mast are the heady hounds, bibbs, 
neck, partners and heel. 

The Bovi^sprit is represented in full length in 
Plate 39. At the side the bees are shown extending from 
the cap to the housing, or where the octagonal form com- 
mences. 

The Jih-Boom is represented in its place. The 
heel is cut to fit in a saddle bolted on the top of the bow- 
sprit, and is clamped down by an iron strap; a short dis- 
tance outboard is a sheave for a heel-rope. 

The Topmant has the cross-trees and cap on. 

The Lo^^'ei' "Varcl has in the centre a stout iron 
span, to which hook the slings. 

The truss is fjihown in a separate figure. 

The Topsail "Vard., in two views, shows the 
jaws, tve-blocks, bending- jackstay, quarter-blocks for top- 

68 



04: MASTS. 

gallant sheets and additional blocks, forward, for topsail 
clew-lines. 

Yarcl-Slingrs, Y, Plate 30, are of chain, in length 
twice that of their respective mast-heads ; to which must be 
added half the length of the forward lower cross-tree, that 
being the distance the yard should hang below the top. 

Ii-on >f!£iHtH. Iron and steel are now almost exclu- 
sively used for making masts and yards. 

Figs. A, B, C, and D, Plate 40, are cross sections of iron 
masts, showing some of the methods of construction. 

Plate 41, illustrates the general method of construction 
of a military mast of a modern battle ship. 

Figs. E and F, Plate 40, show the mode of fitting wooden 
trestle-trees to an iron mast. As there are no shoulders at 
the hounds, special provision has to be made for supporting 
the trestle-trees, and this is accomplished by worKin^ a 
plate and a ring of angle-iron around the mast, and fittmg 

Slate-knees, k k, which correspond with the bibbs usually 
tted below the trestle-trees of a wooden mast. The plan E 
shows the spread of the knees and the arrangement of tho 
plaie and angle-iron below the trestle-tree. 

It is usual to work doubling plates upon the lower masts 
in tlie wake of the wedging decks. These plates give addi- 
tional rigidity in wake or the wedges, and also prevent 
corrosion in the mast-plate itself. 

Fig. G, Plate 40, shows the ordinary mode of forming the 
heel of an iron lower mast. The end of the mast is closed 
by a circular plate fitted against and connected with the 
outside plating. In the centre of this plate there is a square 
hole, around which the angle-iron frame a is fitted, the 
vertical flange of the angle-iron thus forming the sides of a 
mortice in. the heel. When in place, the mast rests on a 
stepping plate, upon which is riveted a rectangular box- 
shaped frame of iron 6, and the tenon thus formed fits into 
the mortice in the heel of the mast. 

A man-hole is usually cut a few feet from the lower end 
of an iron mast to give access to the interior and for ventila- 
tion ; oth^r openings are also made at various heights for 
the latter purpose. 

Iron and steel have also been used in the construction of 
topmasts, topgallant masts and yards, but in these spars the 
advantages resulting from the cnange from wood are not so 
great as in the case of lower masts. The details of con- 
struction for the lighter spars do not differ greatly in prin- 
ciple from those described for lower masts. The plating is 
usually flush-jointed, and the larger spars have angle-iron, 
or other interior stiflfeners. 

IVXa.Htinjg'. In fitting out our men-of-war, advantage 
is taken of every facility which a navy -yard affords. The 
ringing is cut out by the draft furnished by the constructors, 
using the Equipment Book of Allowances as a guide. The 




.jl:."'~a.. 



i fn 



MASTING. 65 

masts are placed by the navy-yard sheers, and the hold 
stowed by regular stevedores. 

When the navy-yard sheers are used, the mast is brought 
down from the spar-shed and placed with its head toward 
the ship under the sheers, or masting-derrick. the garland 
lashed on and the main purchase toggled, tne fall being 
taken to the capstan, or crab, built for the purpose. Con- 
venience determines which mast is to be taken in first. 
After placing one mast, the ship is hauled ahead, or dropped 
astern, to bring the other partners plumb under the purchase. 

In the following outline of masting, the work is assumed 
to be done without the conveniences of a yard. The vessel, 
a frigate, is supposed to be lying in the stream, and her 
spars, &c., towed off. 

Proceed to support the spar-deck for the weight it will 
have to sustain, oy shoring it up fore and aft,* particularly 
those beams immediately under the places to be occupied 
by the sheers when getting in the masts. 

Sling skids outside leading from the gunwale to the 
channels, and from the channels to tlie water's edge ; block 
up a half -rounded spar in the hammock netting, the upper 
surface being well slushed, to lead the parbuckle over, and 
proceed. 

To lieeve the Pai-bxTelcle, Fig. 269, Plate 
42. The main parbuckle consists of a hawser of a suitable 
size — say 5-incn — which is middled and the ends rove 
through the spar deck ports, a few ports apart (the distance 
depending on the length of the sheer legs), from out, in, 
leaving tne bight outside. The sheer legs having been 
towed alongside, with their heads aft, pass the after end of 
the parbuckle down under the head of tne first sheer leg, up 
over the gunwale to the opposite water-ways, where the end 
is snatched and led forward, having a long luff clapped on 
it, if found necessary. The forward end of the parbuckle 
is led in like manner, taking it under the heel of the sheer 
leg, and thence to the capstan. 

Tlie Coixntei* lr*ai'l>iiclcleK^ a a, Fig. 269, are 
rove in a contrary way, for easing the sheer legs inboard. 
They are rove through the same ports, from in, out, leaving 
the centre bight inboard, and the two end bights hanging 
down inside to catch the sheer leg when it comes over the 
gunwale ; the ends are led down through the gun deck ports 
and taken around spars lashed fore and aft in the ports, 
having hands to attend them to ease the sheer Icffs down. 
Have a stout spar laid across the gunwale well ait to rest 
the heads of the sheer legs on when on board. 

When ready, clap on the luff, man the bars, and '^ walk 
airay." When "high enough," or up with the gunwale, 

* Shores are stout pieces of timber or joist, placed under a Ix-am and resting 
on a block. To give the deck abore a projier support, tliey must bt* \vecJg(»d up. 



66 MASTING. 

^' avast heaving,'' arrange the counter parbuckles under 
head and heel, and set taut. Now pull up on the main, and 
ease away on the counter parbuckle, land the heel on the 
deck, the head resting on the thwartship spar placed for the 
purpose, roll it over, lift the heel over the capstan and get 
it in its proper position for forming the sheers ; a spar may 
be placed from the gunwale to the capstan, and the sheer 
leg got thence to the opposite water-ways. The second 
sheer le^ is got on board in the same manner, and placed 
for lashing. 

Note. Instead of using parbuckles, the sheer legs may 
be got on board by means of a pair oi small sheers, raked 
over the taff rail. 

Fore and main topmasts or lotver yards may be used for 
sheer legs ; in the latter case, the yard-arms must be well 
strengthened, or fished and woolded, by lashing around 
them small spars, or made fishes of stout oak plank, using 
well-stretched rope, and tautening the lashes by wedges. 
The lashing around the spar is termed a woolding. 

The SlieerK. The sheer legs oein^ on board, cross 
their heads (with the port leg uppermost if the masts are 
taken in on the starboard side), square the heels and spread 
them about two-thirds the breadth of beam at the mizzen 
partners, so that when spread out to their full extent, the 
sheer head lashings may be tautened. 

For sheer head lashings, take a piece of good 3^ or 4-inch 
rope, well stretched, middle it and make one end fast to the 
sheer leg, near the cross ; with the other end pass the requi- 
site number of figure-of-eight turns round both spars and 
take a couple of half -hitches with the end around one leg. 
With the first end, pass a number of round turns, filling up 
the intervals between the figure-of-eight turns, pass irap- 

Eing, or cross turns, and secure the two ends with a square 
not. 
After passing the sheer head lashing, spread the heels 
and place them in the shoes. The shoes should be of stout 
oak plank, long enough to rest upon at least two of the 
spar deck beams. A saucer is cut out of the centre to rest 
the heel in, and on the forward and after side an eye-bolt is 
placed for lashing the heel to. There are eye-bolts in the 
forward and after ends, for hooking fore and aft shoe- 
tackles to, to aid in the transportation of the sheers. Lash 
the heel to the shoe temporarily. Hook the after heel 
tackles to straps around the heels and set them taut, and, as 
an additional security, when raising the sheers, shift the 
forward heel tackles ait. 

The >£ain. I^u.i'chase. Lash on the upper 
block of the main purchase, so that it will hang directly 
under the cross. It should be a large threefold block, 
strapped with two single straps and fitted with a large 
thimble, to hang by a lashing passing over the cross of the 
shear head. 



r\-* — SignaJ Laoitra 

1 



-^ 




Enlaigcd SecHon on Xiat AJ^ 
Showing Ffiuning of MasU 



MASTING. 67 

The straps of the main purchase blocks should be well 
parcelled and marled. The lower block is double-strapped, 
with eyes for tojg^gling, Fig. 235, Plate 35. Take the lower 
block of the main purchase to the bowsprit hole, and toggle 
it there with a suitable spar. 

The fall should be new 5^-in. Manila rope. Begin with 
the stfinding part and reeve it from forward^ aft^ through 
the side sheave of the upper block, beginning on the side 
opposite to that intended tor taking in the masts ; thence 
through the corresponding sheave in the lower block, and 
so on until rove full, when clove hitch it around one of the 
forks close to the lashing, and stop the end down to its 
own part. Snatch the fall in some convenient place near 
where the lower block has been toggled, and take it to the 
capstan. 

If apprehensive that the upper purchase block will slue 
in its strap, by the greatest strain coming on one side, the 
fall may oe rove so as to lead from the centre sheave — 
but this brings a cross in the fall, and is, therefore, objec- 
tionable. 

Tlie Siiia.ll FurcliaKe^ Griivs, &c. The 
upper block of the small purchase is double, and lashes to 
the after fork so as to play clear of the main purchase. 
Lash a single block to each fork above the small purchase and 
reeve stout girtlines. For sheer-head guys, clove-hitch a 
couple of stout hawsers over the sheer head, leading two 
ends forward and two aft, and to each clap on a luflE-upon- 
luff for convenience in setting up and easing off, without 
surging. Belly guys are put on in the same way, about 
one-third the distance down each leg, cleating the hitches 
to prevent slipping, and clapping on luffs. On Qach sheer 
leg just above the shoe, put good straps, and hook and 
set well taut a thwartship tackle to ease the strain on the 
water-ways ; lastly, pass a bulwark lashing either to the bul- 
wark, or to a stout toggle placed outside of the spar-deck 
ports. 

Raisins* tlie Slieers. The main purchase fall, 
being led to the capstan, the heels temporarily lashed to the 
shoes, and the forward and after shoe and heel tackles, both 
hooked aft, to prevent the sheers from launching forward 
as the strain is brought on the main purchase ; the thwart- 
ship heel tackle set well taut, and plenty of hands to take in 
the slack of forward guys, and others to attend after ones, 
man the capstan, and heave around, catching the sheers as 
they rise, by the thwartship spar. 

When nearly up and down, or at an angle of about 
eighty degrees with the spar deck, " avast heaving," lash 
the heels in the shoes securely, shift the forward heel and 
shoe tackles, cast off the bulwark lashings, and transport 
the sheers to just forward of the mizzen partners (having 
previously wet the deck), by moving one leg at a time. The 



<I8 MASTING. 

sheers should have a slight rake aft, and the main purchase 
hang plumb with the mast-hole. The fall may lead through 
a blocK toggled through the ward-room sky-li^ht and thence 
to the capstan. When the sheers are in position, set up the 
after head and belly guys, leading to the quarters ; ana the 
forward ones, leading well forward ; set taut the th wartship 
tackle, and pass the bulwark lashings, or substitute for it a 
good tackle — the main object of which is to prevent the 
opposite heel from rising when raising the mast from the 
water. Now overhaul down outside the main purchase and 
toggle to the garland on the mizzen-mast. Fig. 271, 
Plate 42. 

Tlie r>er*i*icl«:. It may occur that the angle of 
the sheers with the deck, before raising, is so small that 
the main purchase will not be effective, in which case 
it will be necessary to start them up with a derrick, as 
follows : 

A small stout spar (say a stump top-gallant mast) is 
placed between the cross of the sheer-forks, where it is re- 
tained by a loose lashing. Hook a stout tackle from the 
head of this spar to the sneers, and attach two other (cant- 
ing and heel) jiggers together with head-guys, as in Fig. 
272, Plate 43. With these, get it erect, slushing the spar 
and the forks at their points of contact. Now, with the 
assistance of the tackle, the head of the sheers c&n be 
elevated to a considerable degree, and the main purchase 
made to act, at an an^le sufficiently great, to raise the 
sheers without further difficulty. 

Gretting- in tlie Lo>vev l^Ja wt k. The mizzen 
mast is taken in first, because the breadth of beam is less 
aft, and the sheers, as they are transported forward spread 
the heels and tauten the sneer head lashings ; and for the 
reason, that getting in the foremast last, the sneers may be 
better secured and raked for getting in the bowsprit. 

Tlie Oartancl, Fig. 273, if used, should be of good 
four-inch rope, made selvageo fashion, marling it with small 
stuflf. It is lashed on the forward side of the mast about 
six-tenths from the tenon, so that the mast will hang a little 
heel heavy. The distance from the heel must in any event 
be such that the garland may not take in the partners be- 
fore the heel is landed. The garland lashing is passed as 
in Fig. 273. After passing enough turns, dog the ends 
down the forward part of the mast and seize them together. 
The garland should be lashed on before the mast is put in 
the water, not only for the greater convenience, but the 
subsequent wetting tautens the lashings very considerably. 
If the small purchase is used — as in getting in the main and 
foremasts, its garland is placed on the mast as far above the 
main garland, as the small purchase block is lashed on 
above the main. If practicable, the lower purchase blocks 
are lashed to the mast and the garlands dispensed with. 



MASTING. (il> 



To talce lii t lic^ >IizKe]iL->f;a^st9 Fig. 271. Tow 
the mizzen-mast alon^ide with the head aft. Having over- 
hauled down the main purchase abaft, shove the two eyes 
of the lower block strap through the garland and toggle it, 
usine a small lashing to s^uard against slipping. 

^Man the capstan and "heave around, observing that 
the skids and mats, or whatever has been placed to protect 
the ship's side from chafing, are properly adjusted. When 
the mast-head is up with the gunwale, "avast heaving," 
lash a couple of stout single blocks to the tenon, one on each 
side, and reeve girtlines, taking the precaution to knot the 
ends together to prevent unreeving. Put a couple of good 
straps around the mast, just above the futtock band, for 
pendant tackles, and bend the canting girtline, froip the 
sheer-head to the mast, just below the bibbs ; sway up again 
until high enough ; ease the heel inboard by a jigger, com- 
ing up the belly guy, which must be set up agam. Pull 
up on the canting line and point the mast fair for stepping, 
wipe the heel dry, and white-lead the tenon and mortise, 
have hands on the gun-deck to keep the mast on the right 
slue, and carpenters on the berth-deck to attend at the step, 
lower away and step the mast. Sway up three pendant 
tackles and hook them to the straps aoout the mast- 
head — the two at the side set up in the channels, and one 
fore-and-aft to act as a stay ; set taut the tackles and 
wedge the mast temporarilv. When nearly stepped, a 
stout strap and heaver may be used to get the mast on the 
right slue. 

Come up the purchases and take off the garlands. Cast 
off the bulwark lashing, man the guys, shoe and heel 
tackles, and transport the sheers, one leg at a time, observ- 
ing to wet the decks and come up the thwartship tackle in 
the wake of obstructions ; get them a little forward of the 
main partners, rake and secure them as before. 

If the sheers are high enough or can be made available 
by spanning the fork above the sheer-head lashing, send up 
the tressle-trees, &c., of each mast, before transporting 
them to take in the rest. 

Take the main and foremast in, in the same manner, 
with the additional use of the small purchase. 

Should the sheers prove too short, the fork above the 
lashing may be spanned by a stout rope and the upper block 
of the small purchase lashed to the span. If the garland 
takes in the partners before the mast is stepped, tlie heel 
may be rested on blocks, or stout planks, the mast steadied by 
the guys and the garland shifted higher. Should the sheer- 
legs be found too slender and to complain, a spar may be 
lashed across from one to the other, in the wake of the 
guys. 

When both purchases are employed in getting in heavy 
masts, a good plan, and one which obviates the necessity of 



70 MASTING. 

heavers on the heeler, is to lash the garlands, a little on each 
side, and not in the same right line with the axis of the 
mast. Then, bv slacking one purchase and holding on the 
other, it may be slued at pleasure. The position of the 
small garland should be at the distance of its purchase 
block, from that of the large one, on the sheers, above the 
main, so that the falls cannot come two blocks except at 
the same time. 

When, in dismasting, a mast is jammed in the step, a 
gentle roll given to the ship will start it. 

To «-et in tli<- I Jowsspi-it, Fiff. 276 A, Plate 44. 
Transport the sheers as far forward as the bows will permit ; 
send a hand to the sheer head, bend a girtline to the small 
purchase block and light it up ; unlasTi and shift it to the 
forward side of the sheer head. Pass a strap around the 
foremast head, to which hook the double block of a large 
tackle ; the other block take aft and set well taut. Lash a 
couple of large blocks to the foremast head ; middle a haw- 
ser and clove-hitch it around the sheer head, reeve the ends 
through the blocks at the foremast head, lead them aft 
and set them up ; take aft the forward head-guys, which, 
with the after ones, are to be set up, and the forward belly 
guys to the cat-head ; hook the after-shoe and heel-tackles 
forward and set them taut. Rake the sheers over the bows 
so that the main purchase will clear the billet-head. 

The bowsprit is towed under the bows, with the head for- 
ward, the cap on, and the main garland lashed on a little 
over one-third its length out from the heel, or so that it will 
hair^ head heavy. The small garland, lash on just inside 
of til '^. cap. Have guys or whips from eye-bolts in the cap 
to the cat-heads, and an eye-bolt in the heel for the bedding 
tackle which leads from the bitts on the gun-deck out 
through the bowsprit partners. 

In getting in a bowsprit in modern vessels, the thrust of 
the heel, owmg to the necessary lead of the purchases may 
be so great as to push the heel inboard too soon, before it is 
pointed fair for placing. To diminish the thrust and get the 
spar on the right slue use a fore-and-aft outrigger (stunsail 
vard) with one end against the neck of the strap on the 
lower purchase block, and the other controlled by two 
heel tackles. 

Sway away on the main and small purchases, steadying 
the spar by the guys. When the heel is high enough, nook 
the bedding tackle. Wipe the tenon dry, and white-lead it 
and the mortise. Keep fast the small purchase ; ease away 
on the main and bowse on the bedding-tackle and cat-head 
guys, and get the bowsprit in its place. Come up the pur- 
chases and guys, and unlash the garlands. 

The bowsprit rests on the stem nead, between the knight- 
heads, and steps in the bowsprit partners — on the gun-deck 
in a frigate and on the spar-deck in a sloop-of-war. It 



MASTIN(i. 71 

comes inboard about one-third its length. If the cap was 
not on, it may be shipped by means of a small pair of 
sheers, stepped on the bees. 

If, by taking the forward head gujs well aft, and setting 
them up, the support is found sufficient, the hawser at the 
sheer head may be dispensed with. 

To I>i«iiiantle tlie Shoei's. Proceed now 
to dismantle the sheers. Take the after heel tackles aft, 
come up the bulwark lashing, and rouse the heels aft, easing 
away the forward heel tackles, the head guys and the 
hawser, and lower away until the sheer heads rest on the 
kni^ht-heads ; strip the sheer legs, cast oflf the sheer head 
lashing and get each leg aft in the gangway ; unreeve the 
hawser from the foremast-head and send down the single 
blocks. Put straps on the ends of the sheer legs and hook 
the fore and mam pendant tackles to them, liaving the 
opposite tackles set well taut. Hook to the same straps, 
jiggers leading in from the channels. Pull up on tne 
t^kles, rouse out by the jiggers and lower the sheer leg 
overboard, taking care to have skids in the proper places to 
prevent chafe, or the spars taking against the dead-eyes 
m the channels. Or, the sheer-legs may be got down by 
lashing their heads separately to the lower mast, casting 
oflf the cross lashing and lowering them by means of the 
pendant tackles. 

In masting or dismasting with one's own resources, it is 
necessary to measure the lengths for slinging the masts 
very accurately, so as to make sure of carrying the heel 
clear of the iipper deck, and yet avoid, if possible, top- 
heaviness. Wnen the spars are shork for the work (as in 
the case of the topmasts of a high ship), the masts must be 
sluDg so low as to make top-heaviness unavoidable. In 
^oing out, when the heel of the mast is near the upper- 
deck partners, tackles are put on above from each side of 
the upper-deck, and one strong and long one, led from 
below tnrough the lower mast holes, is lashed to the heel, 
and well cleated each way. The tackles are tautened until, 
the heel being clear of the partners, they are eased 
away, and the mast lowered head foremost overboard. 
Fig. 274. 

In coming in, the mast is slung above the balancing 
point and hoisted with an extra taclde alongside the sheers ; 
the purchases are then lashed low enough down, and the 
heel is confined to the side by the turns oi a greased hawser 
passed through the ports ; or, in a merchant ship, through 
the ballast-hole. When the heel is nearly up to tne highest 
bight, deck-tackles are lashed on from all sides, which are 
cleated in their place. These are tautened as the mast 
rises, and guy the heel, when high enough, into the mast- 
hole. 

In handling a bowsprit with your own resources use the 
jibboom and spare topmast for sheer legs ; or, if the fore- 



7t MASTINd. 

topmast is sent on deck, it may be used as one of the le^s. 
The sheer head may be supported by the foretop pendants 
thus : Each pendant is talcen through its top block at the 
lower mast head, thence through a top block on the upper 
side of each sheer head in waSe of the lashing, and made 
fast at the foremast-head. The after ends of tne pendants 
have the top tackles clapped on to them, led from as far aft 
as possible. Take the usual precautions in shoring the 
decKS, etc. Bring the inner purchase as close in to the 
heel of the bowsprit as the housing permits, and the outer 
purchase well inside the cap. Use the spar above described 
to counteract the thrust in coming in. The position of the 
purchase blocks on the bowsprit is determined by the length 
of the sheer legs, which in this case would be comparatively 
short. The bowsprit might have to come up athwartships, 
when suspended, to clear the billet head. This slueing is 
effected by the tackle from one of the catheads ; the tackle 
from the opposite cathead will slue the spar fore and aft 
again when above the billet head, the heel tackle being 
previously hooked to assist in placing the bowsprit. 

A long topgallant forecastle wiU make it diflScult to 
handle the bowsprit with improvised sheers alone, as they 
are too short to get sufficient cant and make the main pur- 
chase clear the billet head. In that case the sheers may be 
assisted by a topmast used as a derrick. Fig. 276 B, Plate 
44, shows such a derrick, the sheers being represented as 
formed of two lower yards, fished. 

Vessels with long topgallant forecastles are likely to 
have comparatively light head booms and short bowsprits. 
In such cases a topmast alone, used as a derrick, might suf- 
fice to get in the bowsprit. 

A neat performance in the history of Masting on one's 
own resources was in the case of an English line-of -battle 
ship, which, having lost her own mainmast, helped herself 
in one operation to that of a captured frigate. Sheers were 
formed of the main-topmasts, whose heads were supported 
by guys set up to the fore-topmasts, which were rigged out 
through the main deck ports on the off-side. A derrick 
was made of the main yard, which was secured at its lower 
quarter to the sheer leg on the working side, the pressure 
at this point being relieved by an athwart-ship spar, thrust- 
ing outward, by means of a tackle led across the deck. The 
purchase on the upper arm of the derrick took the mast out, 
the frigate was dropped astern, the mast lowered until the 
sheer purchase "looked" well up and down, when that 
tackle Drought it in. Fig. 275, Plate 43. 

Besides carrying duplicates of some of the important 
spars, vessels of war are supplied with iron fishes of various 
sizes. With these and the heavy planking, &c., furnished in 
the outfit, there is a large amount of material available for 
effecting repairs to the spars and masts when necessary, or 
for rigging jury masts and yards. 



Plate 45 



BMB.srs 




fM 1 « * ♦ ♦ < 7 » » tf 



•CALI OF FEET AND INCHES. 



THE RUDDER. 73 



THE RUDDER. 

Fig. "277, Plate 45, represents the ordinary forrn of rudder 
of wooden vessels. Around the pintles, A A A, the wood is 
removed so as to allow the rudder to ship on tiie gudgeons. 
C C C. In all but the topmost space the wood is removed 
so as to leave a vacant place, as shown in the figure, but 
by the topmost pintle the wood is cut square, as seen in the 
figure at d. This is in order to admit a small piece of oak 
under the upper pintle after the rudder has been shipped. 
This piece of oak is called a wood lock (d), and is intended 
to prevent the rudder from unshipping. Under the second 
gudeeon a strong cleat is sometimes placed, on which the 
pintle partly rests. This relieves the gudgeons of much 
strain. 

For modem vessels of war the rudder consists of a frame 
of cast iron or steel of the required shape, covered with 
metal plates riveted to both sides of the frame ; the space 
between the plates being filled with wood or some light 
material. 

BAck - Olistins. It is frequently necessary for 
steamers to back against the helm; but in doing so the 
strain brought on the rudder and its fitments is immense. 

Tug-boats guard against such accidents by using back- 
chains. These are cnain pendants which attach to the 
after-part of the rudder and to some point under the 
counter, one each side, and of such a length as to give 
ample support to the rudder when backing with the helm 
hard over. 

Instead of these chain pendants, many tugs and small 
steam craft have chocks bolted to the rudder-post on each 
side, and of such shape as to limit the motion of the rudder 
to an angle of 45"" in either direction. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

STANDING RIGGING.* 

The standing rigging of a ship consists of a quantity of 
ropes for the support of the masts, yards, and booms. 

Each mast is supported from forward by stays, from aft 
by backstays, and sideways by shrouds. The foremast is 
supported in a great measure irom the bowsprit, therefore 
theoowsprit has a number of extra stays, called bobstays. 
These, and such ropes as are stationary, constitute the stand- 
ing rigging. 

The standing rigging of modern vessels is composed of 
steel wire rope. 

Wire rope now in use in the U. S. Navy for standing 

* rigging, is right-handed, of six strands. The individual 

wires forming the strand are of a size (larger or smaller) 

corresponding to the full size of the rope, ranging from 

Xos. U to 1 •.> A. W. G. 

In the Navy, all wire rope is measured and designated by 
its circumference, but bridge builders, and others than sea- 
men, often use the diameter to designate the size of wire 
rope. 

Wire rope is reeled for stowage or transportation on 
strong wooden reels. To take wire rope off a reel, cast 
loose the outside end. which is secured to the reel, and make 
it fast to a bolt in the floor of rigging-loft or deck.. Place 
the reel on its edges, with the rope end underneath, roll th(> 
reel along the floor to a point a little beyond the length re- 
quired, then clap on a strap and tackle near the reel, leav- 
ing enough space between the strap and the secured end to 
measure off the required length. Haul the rope taut along 
the floor, place a mark close up to the secured end. Then 
measure off from the mark the number of feet and inches 
required. Make allowance for end enough to work either 
for splice or to turn up, and place within an inch of each 
other two strong bindings or ivhippings to keep the ends 
of wire in place when it is sawed off. 

If the wire is to be served the full length, it would be 
better to get it on a stretch before cutting, but if the ends 
are to be spliced into eyes, then with a hack-saw, kept well 
oiled, saw the wire in two between the whippings, secure 
the end of the rope to the reel and put it away. 

* For much nf the information concerning wire rigging, our thanks are due 
to Boatswain John A. Brisco, U. S. N. 

74 



Plate 46 



inilcSS-^ 




s 
s 
s 



8 



X 

o 

z 





III 

-I 

(O 



a 

.9 
3 



-s 



c2 



o " » 



z -a 
5w 



e •> : 



u 



a 

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£ 5 



•2 
t 



RIGGING. 75 

Should it be required to take all the wire from the reel, 
then the reel will be rolled as far as circumstances admit, 
back and forth, till all the rope is oflf. The rope can then be 
taken up and put on a stretch just as it lies upon the floor 
without taking turns out for stretching. 

A piece of |-inch iron chain, about 3 feet lon.^, with a 
ring in each end, one ring sufficiently lar;^6 to let the other 
reeve through it, is the best strap to be used in putting 
heavy wire rope on a stretch. Plenty of protection should 
be put on the rope to prevent the chain from injuring the 
wire. 

Wire rope, not galvanized, is best protected from 
weather ana wear if painted with boiled linseed oil and red 
lead, well mixed, and filled well into the lays, wormed and 
parcelled with cotton sheeting, so cut and laid on that the 
overlapping will give two thicknesses over all the rope, then 
painted again and served tight and close over all. If 
properly done, this will keep out water for years. 

Cii-ttiiig- fUg-^ing- l>^ I>i'alt« Having an 
accurate draft of the null and spars of a ship, Fi^. 284, 
Plate 46, the measures may be reaaily taken and the rigging 
cut and fitted so that it can be sent aloft as soon as the 
masts are ready to receive it. It not unf requently happens 
that a gang of ringing is completed and triced up out of the 
way, in the rigging loft, long before the ship is ready to 
take it. 

Rigging drafts are usually made on an ^-inch scale (one- 
eighth inch = one foot). 

The half beam at each mast is usually noted on the draft 
at the respective channels, but the location of dead-eyes 
seldom, and therefore the rigger must ^et the measurements 
from the vessel. As no beam draft is now furnished, an 
qdjustable beam scale, Fig. 287, Plate 48, is employed (which 
is graduated to the same scale as is the draft) with a sliding 
rest and set screw. Another adjustable beam scale, Fig. 285, 
is in the form of a hollow square of metal, graduated on its 
four exterior sides to different fractional parts of an inch. 
The sliding rest for the point of the dividers may be applied 
to any one of the four sides to correspond with the scale 
used in the draft. 

Before working on the draft scale, measure carefully the 
square of the mast-head iust in line with the upper side of 
bolster. The measure oi the square is used to fit the pen- 
dants, but for eyes of the lower rigging, five square of the 
actual girth measure is used. The mast-heads are rounded 
for wire rigging, iron or composition plates being let in 
and secured on each comer oi the mast-head to round it 
oflE. 

Lowei? ]Mast-liead. Pendants. Should bp 
fitted long enough to hang one foot below the f uttock band, 
and both legs are now fitted the same length, with an iron 



76 RIGGING. 

thimble and large link in each end. Fig. 2H(), Plate 47. In 
measuring for lower mast-head pendants, find the distance 
from top of trestle-tree to one foot below f uttock band, add 
one thickness of trestle-tree, and half square of mast-head, 
which, doubled, will be the combined length of starboard 
and port leg. Allow enough on each end to turn in the thim- 
ble. Now paint, worm, parcel, paint again and serve, double 
serve with spun-yarn the place retjuired for the thimble, and 
splice in the thimble. Double serve from centre of pendant 
to a distance equal to one-half the mast-head, plus the thick- 
ness and depth of trestle-tree each way. 

When this is finished take tarred flax parcelling, begin 
just above where the double service ends and parcel up to 
the centre of pendant. This is called the heading. From 
the centre mark of each pendant, lay off and mark each way 
one half the square of the mast-head as the place for the 
cross-lashings. Marl on the parcelling with strong marline, 
the hitches not more than half an inch apart, being careful 
to put no hitches where the cross-lashings are to come. 
Take two pieces of wood about three inches wide and one 
inch thick, equal in length to one square of mast-head, lay 
the two pendants side by side to verify the marks, then 
spread them apart till the pieces of wood can be placed 
across from pendant to pendant, just outside the marks 
where the cross-lashing is to go, allowing room to (comfort- 
ably work the lashing. See Plate 47, Fig. 2S(i. With a piece 
of strong seizing stuff with a long eye, proceed to put on a 
regular round seizing from pendant to pendant, being cart»- 
ful to keep outside of the mark, or the sciuare will be too 
small to go over the mast-head. Having i)assed the riding 
turns of the lashing, secure its end. Then around the cro^s- 
lashing close up to the pendants put a good seizing of house- 
line, being careful to bring all parts of the cross-lashing close 
together, and marl the lashing together, parcel with thin 
stuff and woold with a strand, then with tarred flax parcel- 
ling protect the lashing, cover well the turns around the 
pendants and marl all down. Leave the wooden strips in 
till the pendants are about to be put over the mast-head. 

A link is put into the end of the pendant because it is 
so much easier hooked into than in the thimble in the stiff 
wire. 

The mizzen pendants are of smaller rope than the fore 
and main, and can be fitted in the same manner, with a cut 
splice, or spanned to a pair of odd shrouds, as is sometimes 
the case. When pendants are to be fitted in the latter way, 
the odd shroud and pendants spanned together go on the 
mast-head first. The odd shroud is fitted straight and passes 
over the bolsters from side to side abaft, as if it were an 
after-pendant, and the span is fitted as above described for 
double pendants. In small vessels, and when there is no 
odd shroud, the mizzen pendants are fitted with a cut splice, 








CAlHTOH i ln; 



RIGGING. 77 

the cut eye to be one foot longer at each end than the eye 
for a shroud, with ^ood seizings at the proper places. 
The eyes are purposely made too large to prevent injury to 
the splice in opening the eye. 

To ]M[ea«ri.i*e tox» IVo. 1, oi* Fix^st A-*aii? 
of SIii*ou.cIh. These comprise the swifter and next 
shroud, or, as called by riggers, " forward leg" and "after 
leg," and they go over the mast-head next after the pend- 
ants and always on the starboard side. 

The beam-scale. Figs. 285 or 287, being adjusted to the 
mark representing the half -beam of the vessel, minus half 
the diameter of the mast, place it on the draft just at the 
upper edge of channel at the dead-eye of the first shroud. 
Place one point of the dividers at the top line of trestle-tree 
near the forward side of mast-head ana the other point on 
the beam-scale at the mark indicating the half -beam, apply 
the dividers to the rule and observe the number of feet and 
inches it gives according to the scale on which the draft is 
made ; this will give the length of the forward shroud, or 
•'forward leg," of No. 1 pair, without the eve. Then pro- 
ceed to measure for the next shroud or after-leg in the same 
manner, moving the beam-scale to the second dead-eye. 
There will be very little difference in the length of the two 
first legs. Having the length of both legs of No. 1 pair ol 
shrouds, take their sum and add five squares of the mast- 
head, plus the diameter of the lower mast-head pendants, 
as the shrouds w^ill *'pile," or rise, that much on the mast- 
head. This will give the extreme length of No. 1 pair. 

Having the rope on a stretch, hang it, with tricing lines 
at short intervals to prevent sagging. Commence measur- 
ing from a mark near the strap on the end, the length cf the 
forward leg. Then continue along to measure five squares 
of the mast-head, being careful to leave at the centre (which 
will be the centre of eye) a special mark, usually a long 
strand. Then measure and mark the after-leg, and in the 
same manner measure and mark all the other shrouds, not 
forgetting to add for the second pair of shrouds twice the 
thickness of a finished eye ; for the third pair three times 
the thickness, &c., as each succeeding shroud must '* pile " 
that much in rising above the others on the mast-head. As 
each pair of shrouds is measured, marked and cut, it is 
l)ainted from end to end with red lead and boiled oil [being 
particular to fill well in the lay], wormed and parcelled with 
new cotton sheeting. In putting on this parcelling com- 
mence from the end of each leg, working towards the cen- 
tre of eye. The parcelling should be so put on that the rope 
will be protected with two thicknesses at every point ; paint 
over the parcelling, and serve from end to end with spun 
yam, commencing to serve from the centre and serving 
towards the ends. Measure off from the centre mark each 
way the half eye, which gives the place for the upper turn 



78 KftGIxN^a. 

of the eye-seizine. Start two feet below these eye-seizing 
marks, on each leg, and parcel with tarred flax canvas to 
the center of eye, and serve over with roundline. Double 
serve the end of each shroud from the place of the quarter- 
seizing for its dead-eye. Bring the two ends of the shroud 
together and break the eye around till the two eye-seizing 
marks come firmly together. Mark one foot below the eye- 
seizing on each leg, and with strong ilax parcelling put on 
the heading, which is just the same as parcelling, always 
commencing below and working up to the centre on both 
legs so that the edge of the ''heading" will overlap and 
form a *' shingling," which it is often termed. Use the sel- 
vage edge of parcelling stuff for shingling, leaving the sel- 
vage out ; this makes smooth work that will not fray out. 
Se(;ure the heading in place by marline hitches, which 
should be on top not more than one-half inch apart, leaving 
a space for the eye-seizing without hitches. Put on the eye- 
seizing. 

Should there be an odd shroud in the fore or main rig- 
ging, it is fitted with an eye-splice, and goes over the mast- 
head last, the eye to be splicea one foot longer than the eye 
of a pair of shrouds, and seized together above the splice 
so as to have the same size as it would have if of a pair ; the 
eye to be double served and headed in the same manner as 
all the others. 

jVEizxen IRig-g-ingr is fitted in the same manner as 
the fore and main, excepting in the case of an odd shroud, 
which is fitted ''straignt," passing over across the mast- 
head abaft and forming one leg on each side, being spanned 
at the mast-head with the pendants, of which the mizzen 
has in this case but one on each side. In large ships the 
mizzen lower mast-head pendants are often fitted witn four 
legs, in the same manner as is tho fore and main. 

Sword mats are put over the service on the ,swifters (for- 
ward shrouds) pf lower rigging. 

UowHpi-it TMg-g-ing-. Bobstays are now made of 
iron chain shackled into the cutwater and set up with four 
scored hearts secured to bands on the bowsprit. To find the 
length of bobstays, measure from the band under the bow- 
sprit at the place prepared for the upper heart, to the bolt 
or link in cutwater, then find the number of feet and inches 
the two hearts will occupy and the drift of laniard, add to- 
gether and subtract the sum from the extreme length ; the 
remainder will be the length of the chains required for the 
bobstays. Care should be taken that the bobstays have the 
same drift of laniard, as it adds to the trimness of the head 
gear. 

13o>vspi:*it Slii*oxi.<is are fitted of wire and lead 
well down on the bows, shackled to eye-bolts and set up 
with three scored hearts on the bowsprit. To find the 
length by draft, measure from the band on bowsprit at the 



RIGGING. 79 

place marked to the place in the bow, and from the extreme 
measm-e deduct the arift of laniard and one heart. The rea- 
son of but one heart being deducted, is that the measure of 
the other allows for the " carry out" of the shroud. Too 
much care cslnnot be taken in fitting the gear and securing 
the bowsprit, as it not only has all the head booms to sup- 
port, but in a great measure the foremast with its topmast 
and topgallant mast, together with the main topmast and 
topgallant mast. 

Fove Stays are fitted with lashing eye collars and 
set up with laniards and four scored hearts. Measure for 
fore stays from the after-side of foremast head, about one 
foot above the trestle-trees, to the place where the lower 
heart is to be, and allow about three feet for lashing eyes. 

To fofm. the Collax* ot'the Stay. Suppose 
the finished collar i.; to be twelve feet, then at fifteen feet 
from the upper end of the rope put on a wliipping. This 
marks the crotch of the stay. Unlay from the end to tin* 
whipping, forming two legs of three strands each; cut out 
the heart close to the whipping, and put in another one- 
third smaller than the original. 

Work in two strands eighteen feet long (the additional 
three feet for tucking at crotch) on each side, thus giving 
two legs of five strands each and a heart. These strands 
are tucked at the crotch as in an eye splice. Eye splices 
are worked in the end of each leg for lashing eyes. The 
lashing eyes are painted, wormed, parcelled, painted, and 
served in the eye before tucking. Get the stay on a stretch 
by lashing the toggles to posts four or five feet apart, get a 
strong tackle on the end, heave it up straight and trim the 
splices. Paint, worm, parcel, paint again, and serve with 
spun-yarn from end to end, being careful to have a good 
piece of parcelling laid through the crotch to shed the 
water. Tnen, from four feet below the crotch, parcel with 
tarred flax parcelling to eyes of collar, and leather over the 
parcelling, serving over the ends of the leather and over 
the splices. Having both stays double served and leathered, 
place one over the other, being careful to keep the crotches 
fair and even. Then seize both stays together with one 
good heavy seizing close up to the crotch, and smaller ones 
at every two feet along the collars. Parcel and leather 
over the seizings. Double serve the ends of fore stays to 
eight feet above the nip around the thimble. 

IVXain Stay h are fitted in the same manner as fore 
stays, excepting the double service on end, wjiich is only 
from quarter seizing around thimble to end. Sometimes if 
the smoke-stack, when up, is near the stays, a piece of 
chain is shackled into the stay just over the stact. The 
main stays generally set up witn four scored hearts, the 
lower heart oeing secured to iron straps made for the 
purpose, one on each side of the foremast. The iron rods or 



80 RIGGING. 

strapsr lead down to the berth deck, frequently passintr 
through the bitt standards and setting up with a nut on 
the forward side. 

>Iizzeii Sta^>'H are always single, with the collars 
fitted and lashed, same as fore or main stays. On some 
vessels the end is split into tv/o Icp^s to admit the main try- 
sail mast, and each leg fitted with a thimble to set up by 
laniard to bolts on each side of main-mast. On others the 
end is turned up around a thimble and set up with three 
scored hearts to the after-side of main-mast. 

The ends of all stays turn up under the standing parts. 

The ends of all shrouds turn up inside the standing parts. 

K'txttocli SliT'oxidtss are made of rod iron set up 
with turn-buckles. The required lengths are best obtained 
by actual measurement after the top is on. In small ships 
futtock shrouds are rattled down. Futtock shrouds are 
set up independently to the top rim, and not to the plates of 
the topmast dead-eyes. The lower ends secure to the 
futtock band. 

Note. — In the above measurements for shrouds it is 
assumed that by measuring from the place of the lower 
dead-eye, on the channel, enough allowance is made for 
turning up the shroud around the thimble of the upper 
dead-eye. But if the drift of the laniard added to the 
diameter of both dead-eyes does not allow enough shroud 
to turn up, extra length must be added for that purpose to 
each measurement taken. 

The amount allowed for turning up is six feet for the 
forward shroud of large rigging, a proportionately smaller 
amount for smaller rope. After shrouds have somewhat 
more turn up than forward ones, in order to bring the ends 
themselves parallel to the sheer. 

Upper dead-eyes are usually in line with or below the rail. 

When lower rigging has been set up for some time, or 
after a ship has experienced heavy weatner, it will be found 
that the shrouds will not lie exactly above one another, but 
settle, the necks of the eyes working partly inside of each 
other. The effect is to slacken the rigging, particularly 
the after shrouds, which settle most, and which may re- 
quire turning in again to keep the dead-eyes in line, a 
diflicult operation with wire rope. If the allowance for 
piling were two-thirds of a diameter of the shrouds, instead 
of a whole diameter, as at present, it is believed that much 
of this inconvenience could be avoided, although a few of 
the after dead-eyes might not come quite to their places 
when the shrouds are first set up. 

Topmast ItMg-g-ing-. To measure for topmast 
shrouds from the scale draft, proceed on the same principle 
as for lower shrouds. Set the beam scale to one-half the 
spread of the top from the side of the mast, allowing for the 
rounding of the top ; place the beam scale on the draft 



RIGGING. 81 

abreast of the proper dead-eye, and measure the distance 
with dividers from the top of the sliding rest to the top of the 
trestle-tree. Add for each pair the diameter of the mast plus 
the thickness of the trestle-trees, and make the usual allow- 
ance for turning up from the nip of the dead-eye thimble. 

Topmast rigging is fitted in the manner known as 
^' straight that is, the shroud goes from the upper dead-eye 
on one side over the trestle-trees to the upper dead-eye on 
the other, two shrouds being seized on each side of the mast 
.thus forming the eye, which gives two '•lifts" or thick- 
nesses on the mast-head, with four shrouds on each side, 
making a snug and neat mast-head. This answers very 
well for ships intended to do most of their cruising under 
steam ; but cannot be recommended when sail is to be carried 
to any extent. All the strain comes on the seizing. 

It should be painted, wormed, parcelled, painted again, 
and served the entire length. The shrouds double served 
from centre of eye to three or four feet below the futtock- 
staff. The length of heading from centre of eye down to 
one foot below the eye-seizing is put on the same as for the 
lower rigging. 

Catharpins are of wire rope, wormed, painted, and par- 
celled, and double served throughout ; fitted with eyes in 
each end, and go abaft the mast and seize together in the 
centre. • 

The topmast-head ' (burton) pendants are wire rope, fitted 
with a shackle in one end and a link in the other ; the 
shackle connecting to a link under the trestle-trees. Each 
topmast has two pendants. The lower ends of pendants 
hang six inches below the catharpin legs. 

Pendants are fitted the same as topmast rigging, without 
double service, except around their thimbles. 

Sword mats are substituted for double service on the 
Bwifters of topmast rigging. 

Topg-allant Sliroxi<i». The easiest way to 
measure for length of topgallant shrouds is to draw a figure 
to scale, showing the top, the position of the futtock-staff, 
and position and spread of cross-tree. Measure on that 
draft from the topgallant mast-head to the horn of the 
cross-tree, thence to futtock -staff and into the top, where 
the shroud sets up. Allow for each pair enough for a neat 
eye around the funnel, and ends for turning up. 

The shrouds are painted, wormed, parcelled, painted 
again, and served the entire length, and go over the funnel 
on the mast-head. They are fitted in pairs, with eyes formed 
like the eyes of lower rigging, and seized so as to fit snug 
over the funnel. 

The forward legs are double served from the centre of 
eve to one foot below the f uttock-stafli of topmast rigging ; 
tne after leg is double served from centre oi eye, three feet 
down ; then from a point one foot above cross-trees to one 



82 RIGGING. 

foot below the f uttock-staff : both legs are leathered in the 
wake of cross-trees, and set up in the top with dead-eyes. 
R/oyal Slix*oiicli§i9 Stay « and Backstays* 

Measure for each to where it leads and sets up, allowing" 
enough end to turn up in the wake of the thimble. 

Fore. — Are painted, wormed, narcelled, painted again* 
and served the entire length, and ntted to an iron funnel or 
band, which has three eyes at equal distances apart, one on 
each side and one forward. The shroud and backstay are 
one piece, rove through a side eye of the band and seized 
around a thimble there. Double service one foot down on 
the shroud and backstay from centre of eye, double service 
on the shroud, leathered in the nip of the jack. The stay is 
spliced around a thimble on the lorward eye of the band, 
double served and leathered in the nip of the flying jib-boom, 
in the clamp on the dolphin striker, and also where it reeves 
through the leader on the bowsprit. 

Royal shrouds set up in the top with a purchase ; stays 
and backstays with dead-eyes. 

Main, — Fitted and set up the same as the fore ; double 
service and leathered at the nip of the chock in the fore- 
topmast trestle-trees. 

Mizzen, — Fitted and set up the same as the main ; double 
service and leathered at the nip of the chock in the main- 
topmast cross-trees. 

IH^oi*e-topiiias5t Sta,yK. Measure from after 
part of topmast-head to the bees, thence to place of setting 
up ; make allowance for turning up. They are fitted sepa- 
rate ; single service throughout ; collars the same as fore 
and main ; double service From ten feet above the bowsprit 
to one foot inside of the leader under the bees ; leathered 
over double service from four feet above the bees to eight 
inches inside the leader, under the bees. Set up with three- 
scored hearts. 

The service on the port (spring) stay is omitted in the 
wake of the stay-sail hanks. 

•Til> Sta^y. Measure from after part of topmast- 
head to where it leads and sets up. To be fitted like fore- 
topmast stays, with split collars, lashing-eyes, &c. ; served 
from four feet above the boom to the end where it sets up ; 
double service and leathered in the nip of the clamp on the 
dolphin-striker, and also where it goes through the bees, 
leathered over the surface from four feut above to eight 
inches below the boom ; collars of jib and topmast stays 
seized together below the crotch around the stays, seizings 
parcelled and leathered. Set up with three-scored hearts. 

i\Jaii:i-t<>x>in.ast Sta^'H. Measure and fittings 
similar to fore-topmast stays } in long ships, with great dis- 
tances between fore and mam masts, they may be brought 
directly to the deck near the foremast ;* out in short ships 

* It would bo better if this lead could be adopted in all ships, Ixit the smoke- 
stack frequently interferes. 



RIGGING. 83 

they pass through chocks between the fore trestle-trees, and 
set up on deck with three-scored hearts. Nips double served 
and leathered ; collars seized together in the loft. 

3J[i2SKeii-topiiia,st Ststy. Measure and fittings 
similar to main-topmast stays, and set up in the raain-top 
with three-scored hearts. 

Fore-topg-allant Stay. Measure to where it 
leads and sets up, allowinc^ for neat eye-splice around funnel. 
Painted, wormed, parcelled, painted again, and served the 
entire length ; double served on the eye around the funnel, 
and from twelve feet above to one foot below the jib-boom ; 
also in the wake of the nip of the clamp on the dolphin- 
striker, and where it reeves through the bees, or leader 
under the bees. All nips to be leathered. Stay set up with 
dead-eyes. 

3i]Ai]:i-topg'a,lla.]:it Sta;^-. Measure and fit like 
the fore, and set up with dead-eyes in the fore-top. Double 
served and leathered at the hole in the fore-cap through 
which it leads, also leathered about three feet oelow tne 
crotch of the eye-splice. 

>Xi2czeii-top^a.ll£tiit Ststy^ Measure and fit as 
above. Served, leathered, and led through a hole in the 
main-cap and set up in the main-top. 

I^l>^iiig'-«Til:> Stay. Measure and fit with an eye- 
splice, similar to topgallant stay. Double served ; served 
and leathered three feet below the crotch of splice, in all 
other respects fitted like the jib stays. Set up with dead-eyes. 

•ril> Cttiivh are of wire rope, painted, wormed, par- 
celled, painted again, and served the entire length ; double 
served and leathered in the wake of whiskei-s, over which 
they fit with horseshoe cringles ; outer ends shackle to a 
band on the boom end : set up to the bows, or cat-head, with 
three-scored hearts. 

I^'^lviii<*--.Iil> Cir\\y>i are of wire rope, fitted, set up 
to the bows, or cat-head, with three-scored nearts, and con- 
nected with the boom, same as jib guys ; reeve through 
thimbles in a strap out on the whisker yard-arms. Double 
served and leathered in the nip of the thimbles. 

Ar"V^liiHl£ei*-«Txiiiiperw are of wire rope ; painted, 
wormed^ parcelled, painted again, and served throughout ; 
fitted witn an eye-splice, double served and leathered, to fit 
over the whisker-boom end ; the inner end leathered in the 
nip, and set up on its own part through a bull's eye con- 
nected to a bolt 01^ the cut-water. . 

^Baok HopeH are fitted either of hemp or wire, 
served throughout, hooked or shackled to the dolphin-striker, 
and set up at the bows with three scored hearts. 

•Jil> >Jai:^ingfale-Sta;y' is of wire rope, wormed, 
parcelled, and served the same as guys. Pitted with 
shackles and thimbles in each end, witn double service 
around the thimbles. Shackles to the dolphin striker and 
to the band on jib-boom. 



84: RKUilNii. 

Flyinff-Jili ]VIai*tiiipr«l**-Htay. Fitted the 
same as the jib martingale, of wire ; aouble served around 
the thimbles m the outer end, in the waJce of the sheave on 
the dolphin-striker, and where it reeves through the bees, 
or leader. Sets up with dead-eyes. 

Foi*e oncl ]\Iain Topmasst Baclcstavm. 
Fitted and measured off the same as the after-shrouds of 
the fore and main rigging. 

I\Iizzeii-Toj>in.iXKt Uaoliwta.^v'^K are fitted with 
horseshoe eyes, or, properly speaking, a span. Measured 
like the fore and main. 

Foi^e, IVIaiii, and iVIixzeii Topprallant 
HaclcKta,yK are painted, wormed, parcelled, painted 
again, and served throughout. Fitted with spliced eyes, 
which are double served, without outside parcelling. Mea- 
sured from the funnel to the place of setting up in the 
channels, with allowance for the eye and the usual allow- 
ance for turning up. 

Uoat-I>avit T<>i>ping- T^ilTtH^ Spaax and 
Cjtvxa-k, are of wire rope, and served throughout. Spans 
to which topping-lift pendants are attached are leathered 
in the middfe. 

l>ead-K,veK. The dead-eye now used in the Navy 
is shown in Fig. 288. Plate 48. 

The end of the shroud passes around a heavy iron 
thimble, which is confined by a pin to the lugs of the iron 
strap of the upper dead-eye. 

Dead-eyes are made with one hole without a score on 
the inboard face, the edge being left square so as to present 
a solid shoulder to the knot of tne laniard. 

The shroud being passed around the thimble is secured 
by five seizings — throat, quarter, middle, upper and end 
seizing. 

The two lower turns of the throat seizing are racking 
turns, over these come riding turns. The seizing is crossed 
and hitched in the upper part. 

The quarter, middle ana upper seizings are riding seizings. 

The end seizing is flat, crossed ana hitched, and holds 
into place the canvas cap placed over the ends of all stand- 
ing rigginff. 

Lower dead-eyes connect with the chain plates by bolts, 
so as to be readily unshipped. The bolts are fitted with 
forelocks. 

In setting up stays and some other portions of the 
standing rigging, scored hearts are used mstead of dead- 
eyes. These hearts have iron straps, and the upper ones 
are supplied with iron thimbles similar to those around 
which a shroud is taken. Fig. 289, Plate 48. 

Care must be taken in turning the ends of shrouds or 
stays around their thimbles that it is done properly, as, in 
the event of a change becoming necessary, it is difficult to 
get the old nip out of the wire. 



RIGGING. S5 

Wire rigging in the Navy as a rule sets up with hemp 
laniards, which impart all the ** give " necessary. Rigging 
screws. Fig. D, Plate 48, are, however, frequently used. 

Topmast rigging of fore and aft vessels may be set ux> 
on end. 

In many vessels of recent construction the standing rig- 
ging is simply shackled to the eyes in bands around the 
masthead, and set up inside the rail with rigging screws. 
In some ships the lower rigging is shackled into pendants 
from the lower mastliead, so that in going into action it can 
be entirely removed to give a clear held for the guns. 



CHAPTER IX. 

^ RIGGING SHIP. 

When a ship is taken in hand to be rigged, her lower 
masts are standing, temporarily or permanently wedged, 
and with girtlines on each side of the mast-heads. The 
bowsprit is in place, as are also the lower dead-eyes for 
the lower rigging. Hearts on the bowsprit and shackles 
on the bows may also be supposed in place before the 
riggers begin work. 

We will rig the bowsprit first, as the staying of the fore- 
mast depends upon it, and would otherwise be delayed. 

The Gramiiioi^ing- of the bowsprit in "modern 
vessels consists of one or two iron straps as shown in Figs. 
293 and 294, setting up with nuts and screws. It serves to 
keep the bowsprit m place, and should be set up before the 
ship is turned over to the riggers. 

Secure the heads of two small spars together in a lash- 
ing hung from the bowsprit-end, the heels resting on the 
bows, where convenient, and seized to prevent slipping. 
Lay boards across from one boom to the other as a plat- 
form for the men to stand on. 

Tlie Bol>Kta>^s are placed first, shackling to the 
cutwater, and with laniards irom hearts in their outboard 
ends to similar hearts under the bowsprit. There are two, 
or three, bobstays fitted ; if three, they are termed innery 
middley and cop Dobstays. 

I3o^wspi*it-Slii*on.<ls« Shackle the bowsprit- 
shrouds one on each side to eye-bolts, well down on the 
bows. The hearts in their outboard ends set up with lani- 
ards to similar hearts on either side of the bowsprit near 
the cap. 

Now set up the bowsprit-shrouds and bobstays. Both 
may be set up by using luff upon luff on each end of the 
laniard, as in Fig. 301, Plate 51, racking every turn after it 
has been hove taut, and finally seizing down the ends. 

This is termed "setting up on a bight," and the object is 
to keep the hearts from slueing. Or, secure one end of the 
laniard and set up on the other, one turn at a time, by means 
of stout luffs hooked into a strap on the laniard and into 
another strap on the standing part of the bobstay or shroud. 
Fig. 302, Plate 51. 

T^atiiarclH for wire rigging are of the same size as 



Plate 49 




Tf T 



RIGGING SHIP. 87 

the ringing itself; for hemp ringing as used formerly, 
laniards were one-half the size of tne corresponding shroud, 
stay, &c. 

Laniards are four-stranded hemp. It is considered bet- 
ter to clap straps on the laniard when setting up than to 
turn in catspaws, either with or without toggles thrust in 
them, as the strap does less damage to the laniard and does 
not nip it out of shape. All straps should be smaller than the 
rope around which they are taken, to insure a good hold. 

Il.ig-g-iiig"-iii BowKprit. When a vessel is fitted 
as a ram, the bowsprit and jib-boom must be so arranged 
as to be readily gotten out of the way in clearing ship for 
action. For this purpose the bowsprit is either fitted to 
rig in, or to be lifted clear of the bows. 

Fig. 295 shows the general arrangement of a rigging-in 
bowsprit. The spar is rectangular in section, and projects 
horizontally ; its rigging is simplified as much as possible. 
The bobstay and fore-topmast stays go to the cap or to a 
dtrap just inside the cap ; the f orestays set up inside the 
rail, and the bees are dispensed with. The bowsprit runs in 
on the forecastle, as shown in the figure, being held in 
position when rigged out bv a fid forward of the heel bitts, 
temporary gammoning ana a boom-iron (fitted with interior 
rollers) at the bows. The heel of the jib-boom secures in a 
clamp above the bo^^sprit-iron, Fig. 296. 

LiOTver IMastn. Proceed now to rig the lower 
masts, and send up first the trestle-trees, as follows : 

Trestle-trees, The mast-head girtlines should be stout 
enough to send up the trestle-trees ; if not, send up heavy 
whips on each side, and lash their blocks at the lower 
mast-head, over the tenon or just below it. The men 
required to work aloft are sent up by the girtlines. 

rlace the trestle-trees on deck, forward of the mast, Fig. 

307, and take out the after chock, as the forward one, by 
having to support the heel of the topmast, is more securely 
bolted and not intended to be removed. Hitch the ends of 
the whips to the forward ends of the trestle-trees, and stop 
down on the top side, along to the after ends. Bend on a 
guy from forward, sway aloft, and as the after ends of the 
trestle-trees rise above the bibbs, cut the stops and work 
them into their places. Send up the after chock and bolt it. 

Whole Tops are sent aloft with the two girtlines used in 
sending up the trestle-trees, and a good-sized single or 
double tackle, hooked to a strap abaft tne mast and directly 
between the girtlines, as in Fig. 308. 

Place the top on the deck abaft the mast, with the for- 
ward part uppermost. Overhaul down the girtlines and 
tackle, pass the ends of the former underneath the rim and 
make them fast to their own parts, around the after-part of 
' the top, stopping them out to each girtline-hole, as in Fig. 

308. Hook the lower block of the mast-head tackle to a 



88 RIGGING SHIPS. 

stout strap around the after-part (to which a j^uy is also 
attached, leading aft), and secure the standing parts of the 
tackle and girtlines to the pigeon-hole by means of a 
squilgee-toggle, over which the bights are laid. The mast 
head tackle should be passed underneath the top. Bend on 
a tripping-line to the toggle (which should be greased), 
man tne tackle and girtlines and sway away, pulling up 
steadily on all. When the forward rim comes up to the 
block, jerk on the tripping-line (which disconnects the 

{)arts and permits the girtlines to go out to the side, and 
ead oflf fair) ; sway on the tackle until the lubbers-hole is 
clear of the mast-head, and lower away by means of the 
girtlines, sending the top aft or forward with the tackle 
and guy as need be. The cross-trees are either secured to 
the top before sending it aloft, or sent up by means of the 
girtlines first. 

Haljf Tops. The half tops are placed on deck with the 
outer rims uppermost, on their respective sides of the deck. 
Pass a strap or lashing around the centre of each, steadying 
it in its place by a small lashing through one of the f uttock 
holes. Overhaul down the whips used in sending up the 
trestle-trees, and bend each to the strap around the haff top 
of its respective side. Sway the halves up close to the 
blocks, and let them hang there until the cross-trees are 
sent aloft and bolted in their places. Then lower the halves 
down and secure them ; sway up the upper cross-trees and 
bolt and confine the whole with iron bands. Fig. 309. 

Now send up and place the bolsters, which are made 
of soft wood and covered with three or four thicknesses 
of tarred parcelling, and then get over the lower pendants, 
which are swayed up by the girtlines. If the mast 
needs support while the rigging is being sent aloft, the 
pendant tackles may now be hooked ana hauled taut, but 
they are dispensed with, if possible, as being very much in 
the way. 

Lower Irt/ig-^in^. As the routine of rigging is 
nearly identical on all the masts, the method for the fore 
will answer for a description of the others. 

In the merchant service, as soon as the lower pendants 
are over, the lower mast is steadied by the pendant tackles, 
the topmast is pointed about four or five feet above the 
lower mast-head, and to it are attached the girtlines for the 
shrouds, after the manner of a derrick. Navy-yard riggers 
proceed as follows : 

To Send xxp tlie SIii'oikIk. In heavy ships, 
two girtlines will be required to support the weight of tne 
shroud ; the block of the main girtline being toggled to the 
midship girtline-hole in the top; the second, or ** short" 
girtline, being at the mast-head tenon and worked in the 
top. Send hands aloft with marline-spikes, tar, slush, com- 
mander,* &c. 

* Commander ; a large wooden maul. 



RIGGING SHIP. • 89 

Now proceed to get the shrouds up, and over, in the 
order of their succession, Fig. 310. jOiof the ends of the main 
jPrtline together, and fit a toggle in one part, just above. 
Thrust this between the two parts of the first pair of star- 
board-forward shrouds, from out, in, somewhat more than 
^e length of the mast-head below the eye-seizing, and put 
^ stop around both parts to retain the toggle in its place. 
Jjjop the girtline along the shroud towards tlie eye, and at 
^^e croimiy and sway aloft. When as high as the top, bend 
^^ tho short mast-head girtline just below the eye-seizing, 
^feing the end from in, out, and stop it as in the other 
^e. Cut the lower girtline adrift, as tne shroud comes up, 
5^d steady it to the hand of the man aloft, who will bear 
|2^ 6ye over the mast-head, and cast off the upper girtline. 
5^^e it fair and beat it down with the wooden commander, 
a^i^S careful to carry the shroud well aft, as the angular 
tx\ V ^ of the strain, in setting up, has a constant tendency 
*^ Oring it forward.* 

Send up the port forward pair in the same manner. We 
mi^ht now rouse the legs of the shrouds well down amid- 
ships, i. e., in a line parallel with the mast, to give the eyes 
a good fit on the bolsters, and set up all four legs at the 
same time, with the pendant tackles, to ensure getting the 
eyes well down, in place. But this is seldom done, and we 
proceed, as a rule, to get over the other pairs of shrouds in 
their proper order witnout stopping to set up. It is well to 
remember that too much care cannot be taken to beat the 
ejes well down in their places at once, and in this connec- 
tion attention mav be called again to the effect of the eves 
settling down at the mast-head, and the means suggested in 
the previous chapter for avoiding slack after shrouds. 

To Send VLy> tlio l-<^<>i-o-mi<l-sTit Sta.vs. 
All the shrouds having been got over, shift the girtlines 
from the top up to the mast-head, and lash them to the 
sides and well aft. Dip them down through the lubber's- 
hole, and bend the starboard one to the fore-stays below the 
crotch, stopping it to the starboard legs ; bend the port 
girtline on in the same manner to the port legs, and sway 
aloft, cutting the seizings as the legs reach the top. Fig. 312. 
Use a third girtline overhauled down forward of the top, 
and bent to the stays below the crotch, to assist in raising 
the stays. Pass the collar-lashings (one end of each lashing 
is spliced into one of the eyes oi its stay), and either rest 
'-'ic collars on the lower rigging or on a lieavy cleat some- 
times placed for the purpose on the after side of the mast. 
The stays are now seized around the thimbles of their upper 
hearts, if this has not been done in the rigging loft ; the 

* U wiU save troable aloft if the eve of the shroud i*^ bent forward b<»fore 
gfwng up, and stopped to the legs, which lays it fair for goiiija: over. Cast off the 
stop from the less when the eye comes through the lubber's- hole, and use the 
stop to assist in nauling down the eye when over. Fig. 811. 



90 ' RIGGING SHIP. 

lower hearts should be found in their places shackled to the 
fore-stay straps on the bowsprit, or to eye-bolts on the fore- 
castle. These straps are iron bands passing around under 
the bowsprit ; one end of the strap has an eye for the heart, 
and the other an eye for the forelock which secures it. 
Reeve oflE the stav laniards. 

On the ^tstnding* oT IMat^tsj, Experiment 
proves that by raking masts forward^ in a vessel of ordi- 
nary form, we increase the tendency to pitch, besides 
increasing the difficultv of trimming the yaras on account 
of their confinement when hy the wind. The vessel is given 
an increased readiness to wear, but with a corresponding 
indisposition for coming to, and an increased need of lee 
helm to keep her to the wind. In scudding, this disposition 
to fall off increases the danger of being brought by the 
lee. 

When masts are stayed perpendicular to the keel, the 
wind acts in a horizontal direction on the sails, and the ob- 
jectionable features of the preceding plan are avoided. 

Finally, when masts rake aft, there is an increase in the 
after sail of the ship, a disposition to approach rather than 
recede from the wind, the tendency to pitch is obviated, 
and the difficulties of bracing due to forward staying are 
avoided. . 

The general custom is to stay the foremast plumb, or 
with a rake aft varying from } to 1 inch to the foot, the 
mainmast rakiuj^ 1^ inches to the foot, and the mizzen 
IJ^ inches to the foot. 

Hta^vingr tlie I-^^oi-eniast. The foremast is 
stayed by means of a double purchase leading forward to 
the bowsprit, and two pendant tackles hooked to the for- 
ward legs of the pendants, the after pendant tackles being 
set up to eye-bolts well aft. Fig. 313. 

With these purchases and the wedges eased up, the mast 
can be stayed either plumb or with a slight rake, as required. 
The amount of rake, if any, is determined by the constructor, 
and a plumb-line is made to plumb the deck at a distance 
from the after-part of the mast equal to the amount of the 
rake for the length of the plumb-line used. If the line is 
hung from the mast-head, seventy feet from the deck, a 
rake of half a inch to the foot should cause it to plumb the 
deck thirty-five inches from the after-part of the mast, &c. 
Lateral staying is effected by measurement with a small 
line, secured at the centre of the after-part of the mast-head 
and carried to the water-ways on either side in line with 
the after-part of the mast. Bucklinj2^ a lower mast and get- 
ting it out of a vertical plane are by no means uncommon. 
In such a case the ])reparati()ns above described for staying 
must be made and tlie wedges knocked out. 

Tlie mast being in th(^ right position, belay and rack the 
falls, put in the wedgi's for a full due, and put on the mast 



Plate 5f 




RIGGING SHIP. 91 

coat, which is used to keep the wat^r from rotting the mast 
at the partners. It is made of heavy canvas and painted, 
and covers the heads of the wedges and the mast up to 
eighteen inches above the deck. 

To set xxp the Lo^wei* Sta^vn^ Fig. 313. At 
a distance eight or ten feet up the stay clap on one block of 
a "stay luff '"(double purchase), having canvas underneath 
to avoid chafe, and hook the other block into a strap on the 
stay laniard. Into the fall of the stay luff hook the lower 
block of a pendant tackle, and having got the stays taut, 
rack the laniards and proceed to set up the shrouds. 

To set up tlie Shroixds. The laniards are 
fitted in the riggmg-lof t, having a laniard knot (a Mathew 
Walker knot snowing two or three parts) cast into one end. 
This knot rests against the unscored hole in the upper dead- 
eye, which is forward in the starboard shrouds, aft in the 
port shrouds, and inside on both sides. Reeve off the lan- 
iards through the upper and lower dead-eyes, the hauling 
end always coming up from the lower dead-eye. 

Place canvas on the shroud about half-way up to avoid 
chafe, and tail the upper block of a rigging luff (gun tackle 
purchase) over it. Hook the lower block of the luff to a 
strap on the end of the laniard, and lead the fall of the luff 
up to the pendant tackles as in Fig. 315. The luff tails should 
be dogged on long so as not to nip the shroud. 

Set up all the snrouds in this manner, a pair on each side 
at a time, racking the laniards. The rigging is left standing 
in this condition as long as circumstances may permit, to 
give it a chance of settling in its place, when, with the same 
purchases used before, the stays and then the shrouds are 
set up for a full due. The final setting up should not be 
given, if avoidable, during very wet or cold weather. 

The rigging being set up for a full due, rack the laniards, 
seize on the sheer poles with a cross seizing to keep the 
dead-eyes from slueing (on account of the tendency to 
unlay in the shrouds), naving a strip of tarred canvas or 
leather underneath to prevent chafe. Secure the ends of 
the laniards by hitching them around the strap of the upper 
dead-eye thimble above the sheer pole, as in Fig. 318, bring- 
ing the end down inside the other parts and securing it 
with three seizings. Remove the racking from the laniard 
to bring an equal strain on all parts. Finally, send down 
the rigging luffs. 

In setting up the stays temporarily, one end of the 
laniard is splicea around the upper heart ; take two or three 
turns through both hearts, set up and rack the laniard. 
When setting up for a full due, reeve off the remaining 
turns, set taut, cut the rackings and set up. Rack again 
with stout rackings ; come up the tackles and pass riding 
turns of the laniard, heaving each turn taut in succession. 
Put several good seizings on the upper turns of the laniard, 



92 RIGGING SHIP. 

the end of the laniard being stopped in between the turns 
out of sight. The rackings are removed and only the 
seizings remain. 

Fi^. 317 shows a proposed form of dead-e^re of metal. It 
is similar to the modern dead-eye of the British service. 

Remarks on the tension given to rigging. It is of inore 
value to have a moderate and equal strain on each shroud, 
rather than a great strain upon all the shrouds. 

Much of the trouble experienced in former days with 
hemp lower rigging, by reason of stretching, is obviated by 
our present use of wire rope. But in placing the eyes of 
the snrouds over the mast-head, the permanent position of 
the eye may be lost sight of in the endeavor to complete 
the operation in as short a time as possible. The conse- 
quence is that the eyes of the rigging keep shifting their 
position on the mast-head for many months afterwards, 
producing slack rigging. 5^ was suggested, after getting 
up the first pair or shro\?Js, to set up each two jjairs 
separately at the time they are placed over, but this is 
seldom done. On the other hand, the beating down of the 
eye upon the mast-head should be carefully attended to, 
to insure a permanent and solid bearing. 

With regard to the stays, particularly when the after- 
parts of the collars are not rested on supporting chocks, any 
settling of the eyes of the rigging causes the stay to settle 
also, but the slack shroud is much more likely to receive 
attention than the stay. The final result is a Truckling of 
the mast at the partners, or else an attempt is made to 
overcome the increased rake by setting up the topmast 
stay, since the rake will be more apparent at the height of 
the topmast-head than at the lower mast-head. The con- 
sequence of hauling forward the head of the topmast, with 
a comparatively slack lower stay, is to strain the head of 
the lower mast, owin.^ to the leverage of the heel of the 
topmast and the play in the lower cap. Some officers will 
recollect at least one sloop-of-war in which the lower mast- 
head was sprung in this way. The conclusion is, that no 
setting up even of the two after shrouds should be under- 
taken witnout an examination of the lower stay, which will 
probably be found to require a pull even more than the 
rigging. 

A serious evil arises from setting up rigging too taut, 
which is particularly noticeable in small vessels. 

Let the shrouds of a schooner be pulled up as taut as 
harpstrings, then the liability is that when she goes to sea 
she will lose her masts ; for when she rolls, the shrouds, 
which we will further suppose to be half worn, and witli 
little give, keep the mast-head to windward, while the ten- 
dency" of the rest of the spar is to buckle to leeward, and 
this IS particularly the case when reefed down. 

To Hat tie I>o>^"ii. Draw a line parallel to that 



p-iE^o? ria^os 




RIGGING SHIP. 0:J 

of the vessel's sheer across the shroud-legs on both sides 
through the points where it is intended to seize on the lower 
ratlines, so that the latter may correspond with the line of 
the sheer-poles. If these marks are continued up to the 
trestle-trees at the proper di&tance (fourteen inches; apart, 
the work of rattling down can be carried on in several parts 
of the riggiuj^ at once, without referring constantly to the 
measuring stick. 

Hook or shackle the futtock-shrouds* to the plates in the 
top and to the f uttock band, and set them up, observing to 
have the points of the hooks inboard, so that bights of rope 
from aloft shall not catch over tliem. Girt or swifter the 
shrouds in by securing a piece of ratline stuff to the for- 
ward shroud, take it aft and around the next shroud and 
haul as taut as possible, drawing the two shrouds together. 
Repeat the operation with the next shroud, and so on to 
the after shroud, girting all in together, nipperine each 
turn with a hitch. Place three or four swif tering nnes in 
the rigging at equal distances apart. Lash oars or spars 
athwart the rigging, about four f e^t apart, for the men to 
stand on while at work. 

The ratlines, Fig. 319, are usually of eighteen-thread 
stuff, fitted with a small spliced eye, thrust once and a half. 
This eye is seized on to the first shroud with marline, 
Figs. 820-321, or with a rope-yarn, twisted up and rubbed 
smooth, placing each ratline fourteen inches from the pre- 
ceding one. A clove hitch is then formed outside around 
the next leg, put on so that the crossing of the hitch will lie 
with the lav of the rope, and the ratline hove taut, with a 
marline-spike. In this manner it is made to reach the last 
shroud, and then seized on as at the commencement ; every 
fifth or sheer ratline being extended to the swifters and 
after shrouds, which, with these exceptions, are omitted 
when there is any great spread between the swifter and 
shroud next abaft, or between the after shroud and the one 
next forward of it. 

The eye-seizing of the ratline must be passed so that the 
eye will lie in a horizontal plane, and witn the strand first 
tucked uppermost (if the otner part of the splice were upper- 
most it would form a pocket for water). Having splicea in 
the marline, pass it around the shroud through the eye of 
the ratline, back around the shroud, and so on as in Figs. 
'520 and 321, the turns of the seizing crossing in the eye. In 
cutting a ratline, say starboard side, the stuff being thorough - 
footed and stretched, take one end of the coil and carry it 
into the rigging at the height for the ratline. Hitch it to 
the after shroud, keeping end enough to reach to the for- 
ward one, clove-hitching loosely around each shroud from 
aft forward. If you have not end enough, render more 

* At sea tliere is generally an \x^\y chafe between the lower and the fattock 
•broads, to prevent which go^i'l irou Scotchmen should be seized to the former. 



94 RIGGING SHIP. 

through the loose hitches. When the forward shroud or 
swifter is reached, form the eye in the end of the ratline and 
seize it on, then work back toward the after shroud, tauten- 
ing the clove-hitches. When the after -shroud is reached, 
you can mark the exact place for the after-eye, and cut the 
ratline at the proper place without waate. If in the port- 
rigging, proceed in the same way, except that the temporary 
hitches are put on from forward aft, as riggers generally 
work from right to left when seizing on and hitching the 
ratline for a full due. 

If the eye has been badly measured, and the ratline is 
lust too long to be seized on, but not long enough to allow 
for turning in a new eye, heave turns in it with the lay of 
the stuff until shortened up, or if it is too short, a few turns 
may similarly be hove out. This is called an Irish splice. 

Now come up the girts employed in swiftering in the 
shrouds, which tautens the rigging. After which, square any 
shroud ends which may have required turning in afresh, 
capping the ends. Send down the spars and blacken down. 

In sparring down rigging the forward ends should be 
square with each other, the spare ends aft. In rigging. of 
nine shrouds one man should clap on four ratlines in an hour. 

The lower ratlines as far up as the ends of the shrouds, 
are now made of rod iron, to prevent getting out of shape 
when the rig^ng is manned previously to laying aloft. 

The description of rattling down is ^ven here as in its 
natural order under the head of lower rigging ; but instead 
of rattling down at this stage of the work, nggers usually 
fit a few temporary ratlines for their own use in getting 
up and down from aloft, and postpone fitting the regular 
ratlines until after all the rigging, masts and yards are in 
place. 

nropiiia.HtH. We suppose the ship to be in the stream, 
to show, while ringing, the methods adopted for getting the 
various spars on board. 

Tow the topmast alongside with the head forward, and 

Sarbuckle it on board. Then secure a large buH's-eye to the 
ounds on each side, in the same plane with the lower 
sheave hole ; hitch the end of a hawser at the lower mast- 
head, above the eyes of the rigging, leading through the 
hole in the trestle-trees, and reeve the other end through 
one of the bull's-eyes on the topmast and the sheave-hole ; 
thence up through the opposite bull's-eye, and a block 
lashed at the mast-head, through the lubber's-hole, as in 
Fig. 322, Plate 58. leading it to the deck, and clapping on a 
pendant-tackle, or take the hawser to the capstan. With 
this purchase, sway the mast up and down the lowermast.* 
Should the topmast prove too long, the head must be swayed 
up outside the top rim ; then open the deck-scuttle, and 
lower the mast, until clear of the top rim ; sway it up, and 

* Supposing it to be the foremast. 



RIGGING SHIP. 95 

point it through the trestle-trees and round-hole of lower 
cap. The latter is sent up " before all," with the girtlines, 
immediately after rieeinff the lowermast, by bending them 
on through the round-nole, and stopping them along to the 
after-part, Via. 323, observing to keep the bolts upf^rmosf, 
so that they do not come in contact with the top rim, &c. , 
in the cap's passage aloft. When in the top, place it right 
side up over the square hole in the trestle-trees fair tor 
pointing the topmast. 

Now i>ass a stout strap through the fid-hole of the topmast, 
to which hook both the pendant-tackles ; take off the bull's- 
eyes at the hounds and mast-head, unreeve the hawser, and 
prepare for shipping the cap, which is done as follows : 

To Ship the Lo^wex* Cap, Fig. 324. The 
topmast being pointed through the round hole of the cap, 
slue the cap as nearly fore and aft as the doublings of the 
mast will admit, with the square hole aft. Pass a secure 
lashing through the cap eye-bolts and over the topmast- 
head, and give the lashing as much drift as possible, for 
which purpose the head of the topmast shoula be several 
feet above the upper part of the cap. Now sway up on 
the pendant tackles until clear of tne tenon of the lower 
mast, then slue the cap around, as it hangs in the lash- 
ing, until its square hole is fair with the tenon. If the 
lashing has not been given drift enough to pennit of slue- 
ing the cap fair, the topmast itself must be slued by 
means of a lon^ heaver thrust in the fid-hole and worked 
by guys from its ends. This ou^ht not to be necessary. 
Sena up the capshore (with a laniard attached, to secure 
it aloft) and lower away, beating down the cap into place, 
and tacking over a piece of sheet-lead as a protection from 
the weather. 

HTo send up the Topmast Cross-Ti^eew. 
Fig. 325, Plate 59. Cast off the lashings and sway the 
topmast-head a few feet above the cap. Lash a couple of 
stout burton-blocks to the tenon, send the fdlls down abaft 
for the cross-trees (placed on deck well abaft the mast). 
Secure the lower blocks to the after ends of the trestle- 
trees on the upper side, and stop the standing parts along 
the forward ends, in the same manner as that resorted to in 
sending up the lower trestle-trees ; having a guy from the 
mainmast-head (if the fore-topmast cross-trees), to keep them 
clear of the top in going aloft. Sway up on the burtons, 
bear off, cut the stops as necessary, and land them on the 
lower cap, where they should be securely lashed, having the 
forward part inclined upward, with the chock resting 
against the topmast. Oast off the burtons, remove the 
buxsksfrom the tenon or — ^if girtlines are used to get the 
cross-trees aloft (as is sometimes done) — ^shift them at once 
to the after-horns, ready for the rigging ; lower away on 
the pendant-tackles, until the cross-trees come fair over the 



00 RIGGING SHIP. 

mast-head, cutting them forward, or aft, as may be neces- 
sary. 

To H/igr TTopmatiBt. Now sway up on the pen- 
dant-tackles, and lodge the cross-trees on the nounds oi the 
topmast, prying up the after-end, and beating them down 
in their places. Hook the top-blocks in the lower cap and 
reeve the top-pendants, by passing eachpointed end through 
its respective olock, and sheave m the heel of the topmast, 
arid clinching it to the eye-bolts, then hook the top-tackles 
to straps on the other ends, and remove the fid-strap and 
pendant-tackles used in pointing the topmast. Send up and 

{)lace the composition funnel (square) over the topmast, its 
ower edge resting on the trestle-trees and fitted with 
flanges to receive the bolsters, which are well protected 
with tarred parcelling. The gin-bar, if not sent up with 
the cross-trees must now be placed. It consists of a stout 
flat bar of iron placed across the top-mast and trestle-trees 
between the doublings of the mast, with links for the g^n- 
blocks. 

Send up next the burton pendants which shackle to bolts 
in the under side of the trestle-trees. Using girtlines from 
each after-horn of the cross-trees, and an eye girtline from 
the topmast tenon, proceed to get up the shrouds and stays 
in the following order, after the manner employed m 
getting up lower rigging, except that ttvo pair, starboard 
and port snrouds, come up together. 

First. Starboard and port shrouds, in pairs. 

Second. Backstays. 

Third. Fore-and-aft-stays and jib-stay, in one, the latter 
uppermost. 

The ends of these shrouds and stays are allowed to hang 
down outside the top in their proper directions, on each side, 
forward, or aft as the case may be. 

To Send xip tlie Topmasst Cap, Fig. 326. 
Shift the girtlines from the cross-trees to the topmast-head, 
lashing the blocks below the tenon ; send down the ends for 
the topmast-cap, which is sent up from forward with the 
after-part uppermost, the ends oi the girtlines hitched to 
the forward eye-bolts, and stopped down toward the after- 
part of the cap, similar to the mode of sending up lower 
trestle-trees. It is slipped into place on the tenon of the 
topmast-head by the men aloft, cutting the stops, as neces- 
saiy. 

The topmast cap may be shipped, with the assistance of 
the topgallant-mast, in a similar way to that followed in 
placing the lower cap, but the method given is much the 
easiest. 

If the topmast is fidded, and topgallant-mast is not aloft, 
riggers frequently handle the topmast-cap as follows, par- 
ticularly in stripping ship. A suitable small spar (studdmg- 
sail yard) is pointedthrough the round hole of the cap and 



»c 



RIGGING SHIP. 97 

the cap is securely lashed to the spar. The spar is con- 
trolled by two whips whose blocks are lashed to the mast- 
head below the cap. The whip ends secure to the spar^ one 
near its heel and tne other a little below the cap and not in 
the same vertical plane as the first whip. By means of 
these whips the spar (and cap) can be lifted and slued as 
required. 

Keeve the topmast-stays through the bees in the bow- 
sprity turn them around the thimbles of their hearts and clap 
luffs on them to steady the mast when Adding ; reeve on 
aAoo the laniards of the backstays, and tend the stays and 
backstays while the mast is being swayed aloft by the top- 
tackles and fidded. The topmast being fidded, reeve off the 
laniards of the topmast rigging andprepare to set up. 

To Set ixp Topmast ^Ri^g-ing*. Hook the 
lower blocks of a rigging luff to a strap on the laniard ; 
tail the upper block to the shroud six or eight feet above the 
upper deaa-eye, hook the top burton into the end of the luff. 
Having riven the mast the proper stay, by means of the 
luffs on the topmast stays and backstairs, set up the shrouds 
in a manner similar to that adopted in the case of lower 
^SS^^?* Stays, backstays, and snrouds should all be first 
set up temporarily, and later for a full due, in the order 
named. 

For light rigging^ a runner may be used instead of a 
riggine luff, in setting up. Fig. 316, the top-burton being 
hooked in the thimble of the runner. Avoid the use of 
catspaws in the laniards, unless the ends are long enough to 
admit of cutting off afterwards. The rigging being set up, 
lash on the sheer poles, secure the ends of the laniards ana 
come up the rackings on them. Lash on the f uttock staffs 
below the eyes of the topmast rigging and inside of the 
shrouds. These are of rod iron, well served and leathered 
in order not to chafe the topgallant rigging which passes 
over them in its course to the top. Seize the forward cat- 
harpin leg^ on each side to the forward shroud and the 
after-ones abaft the mast to the after-shroud on the oppo- 
site side. The two cat-harpins thus cross abaft the mast 
and are seized together in the cross. General view of eyes 
of topmast rigging, Fig. 331. 

When ready to rattle down, girt in, and proceed precisely 
as in rattling down lower rigging, but without omitting 
ratlines at any shroud. 

Sometimes, after the lower and topmasts are rigged, a 
tarpaulin coat, fitting snugly, is placed over the eyes of the 
rigging, as a protection from weather. This answers very 
well, and if painted, does not detract from the neat appear- 
ance of the mast-head. 

«Til>-!Booni. Being in the stream, bring the boom 
alongside with the head forward, and reeve a spare 
piece of rope (studding-sail halliards if at hand), through 
the shoave-holes in each end, a sufficient number of 
times, and make it fast. Overhaul down the main pen- 



^8 RIGGING SHIP. 

dant-tackle, and hook it into a cuckold's neck formed in 
the bight of the span, having the boom to hang slightly 
heel heavy. Sway it up, bearing it clear of the ship's side 
— ease it inboard, and land it in the gang[way^ ; unreeve the 
span, and carry the boom forward, pointing" it through the 
bowsprit-cap, and reeve the heel-rope, whicn is done as fol- 
lows : Pass one end through a single block, hooked to an 
eye-bolt on one side of the bowsprit-cap ; thence through 
tne sheave in the heel, and clinch it to the other bolt, on tne 
opposite side of the cap. Man the heel-rope, and rig the 
boom out, until the shoulders are just forward of the dow- 
sprit end. * Put on the band if not already on. This band is 
fitted with eyes on each side and underneath for the jib- 
guys and martingale. 

The foot-ropes are fitted with eyes in their outer ends 
which seize to the jib-guys close to the shackle on the 
band. The foot-ropes are then stopped out to the guys, that 
on the starboard side for a suflScient distance to keep it clear 
of the fiying iib-boom. Turks-heads are worked on the foot- 
ropes at equal distances, to keep the men from slipping on 
account ot the inclination, or steeve, of the boom. The inner 
ends of the foot-ropes are formed into eyes which are seized 
to the upper bolts in the bowsprit cap after the jib-boom 
has been rigged out. Thus fitted, the foot-ropes should be 
long enough to allow the men who go on the boom to stand 
with the lower parts of their breasts against it. Reeve the 
jibstay through the inner sheave-hole of the boom end. 
Dway the dolpnin-striker to its place by means of a tackle 
from the bowsprit cap and a whip from the jib-boom end 
and hook it to its eye-bolt ; shackle to it the lower end of 
the jib-martingale and the back-ropes. Fig. 333 shows jib- 
boom end, ana Plate 52, general view of head-booms with 
detail of whisker and dolphin striker. Place the jib-guvs 
over the whisker ends (see Whiskers) ship the wythe for tne 
flying jib-boom : man the heel-rope and rig out, placing the 
heel m the saddle and clamping it. Unreeve the heel-rope, 
set up the jib-guys, when ready, and the jib-martingale, the 
latter being set up by pulling on the back-ropes. Lastly, 
set up the ]ib-stay. 

The jib-netting is made of ratline stuflf, with 6-inch 
meshes, and laces to the guys and whiskers. 

A^liifslters are swayed on board with a tackle from 
the forward swifter. A whisker is got into place ready for 
rigging by means of a jigger from the fore-topmast stay, 
hookea to a strap about one-third the length of the whisker 
from its outer end, and another jigger from the bowsprit 
cap to its inner end. When far enough out the whisker is 
hooked to a bolt in the bees. When hooked, put on the jib 
guy, which is fitted with a neat eye to go over the whisker 

* In handling; a large boom, it will be necessary to have a tackle from tUe 
fore-stay hooked to a strap on the head of the boom, to raise and guide it through 
the cap. 



RIGGING SHIP. 99 

end, and then the whisker jumper. This jumper goes over 
the whisker with an eye, and sets up to the cutwater, or it 
may lead through a clump block on the cutwater to the 
ship's head where it is set up. 

When the flying-jib-boom has been placed and ri^c^ed, 
the flying-jib-guys are rove through a hole in the whisKer, 
or through a thimble strapped (with wire rope) to the 
whisker, outside of all, thimble on top. Jib and flying- 

i'ib guys set up to the bows, or cathead, with three scor^ 
tearts. 

The whisker being rigged, slack the stay jiggers, which 
serve as lifts, and haul on the jib-guys to brmg the whiskers 
athwartship. For detail of rigging^ on whisker, see Plate 52^ 
Fig. 305, wnere standing part of forward guy is omitted to 
avoid confusion. 

nPopg-a^llant i^fa^sttsi. Get the topgallant-mast on 
board by means of the mast rope. Hook the topgallant top- 
block to a bolt in the topmast cap, and reeve the mast rope 
first through the block,* then through the thimble of a stout 
lizard, the tail of which is hitched m the royal sheave-hole ; 
lastly, through the sheave in the heel, and cast an over- 
hand knot in the end, or hitch it around the mast to its own 
Sart. When the topgallant mast is on board, and up and 
own forward of the lower mast, secure it there temporarily 
by a lashing around the head from the lower stay collar, 
passed clear of the mast rope ; cast off the hitch in the end 
of the mast rope and carry the standing part aloft, hitching 
it to a bolt in the topmast cap, on the side opposite to where 
the block is hooked. Fig. 327. Set taut the mast rope, 
cast off the stop at the stay collar and sway the mast aloft, 
bending a tripping-line to a bolt in the heel to guy the mast 
clear on its passage up. Point the head of the royal-mast 
and sway it up three or four feet above the topmast cap, 
taking off the lizard, which is now of no further use. 
When the topsail yard is in its place, the gate, a broad iron 
band across tne forward part of the trestle-trees, hinged on 
one side, should be opened while the mast is being swayed 
aloft to enable it to pass up. The gate is closed as soon as 
the heel has cleared the topsail yard, and the swinging end 
secured with a pin. 

nTopg-aillant IRig-gliig-, &:e. Lash a stout girt- 
line block to the topmast cap on each side, and send down 
the ends of the whips abaft all for the jack and funnel, 
fitted in one, Fig. 328. The rim of the funnel is rounded off 
to prevent chafe. A grommet fitted on the funnel acts as 
a bolster for the rigging. Land the funnel on the topmast 
cap, lash it temporarily, lower on the mast rope till the 
royal mast-head is about fiush with the cap ; cast off the 
girtline and place the funnel. Sway up again on the mast 
rope and point the royal mast-head Veil clear of the funnel. 
Then witn the girtline from the cap, sway aloft and get 
over the stays and rigging in the following order : 



100 RIGGING SHIP. 

First, Fore-topgallant stay. 

Second, Flying-jib stay. 

Third, Shrouds. 

Fourth, Back stays. 

The eyes of this rigging are made to fit the funnel 
exactly. Fig. 330. 

A clump-block seized between the topgallant shrouds, be- 
low the eye, is for the topgallant lift. Tass the ends of the 
topgallant shrouds 'over the f uttock staffs, and thence into 
the top, where thev are to be set up with hearts. Do not 
clamp these shrouds into the horns of the cross-trees until 
swaved aloft, as it gives just so much more gear to over- 
haul. The mast can be steadied sufficiently, until fidded, 
by the fore and aft stay and back stays. Take the back 
stays to the channels, and reeve the fore and aft stay 
through its sheave in the jib-boom. 

R^oyal liC/ig-gliig'. Send up by means of the girt- 
line at the topmast cap the royal band, with the rigging 
fitted upon it as described In the previous chapter. Place 
the band on the mast-head, Fig. 329, reeve the royal 
shrouds through the arms of the jack to the top, take the 
b^ck stays to tne Channels and the fore and aft stay through 
its sheave in the flying-jib-boom, when the latter is reaay 
for rigging out. 

A small clump-block for the royal lift is seized in be- 
tween the shroud and back stay, below the band. 

Place the truck, with signal halliards rove and spindle 
and lightning conductor (copper wire) attached, man the 
mast rope and swav up the mast, overhauling well the 
royal shrouds, &c. When the mast is fidded and the fiying- 
jib-boom is rigged out and clamped (see below), set up the 
stays, back stays and shrouds with liggers, not forgetting 
to clamp the topgallant shrouds in tne noms of the cross- 
trees before setting up. 

The Fove-Topg-allaiit Sta.v reeves through 
the outer sheave in the jib-boom, the fore-royal through tne 
hole in the fiying-jib-boom, outside the sheave for the flying- 
jib stay. 

The jril:> and F'lyino'-Jib Staj^ reeve through 
the inner sheaves or holes in their respective booms. 

The IVIain Topg^allant wta>^ reeves through 
a hole in the after-part of the fore-cap, setting up in tne 
fore-top. During continued exercises in sending up and 
down topgallant-masts this stay is frequently led down to 
the deck, abaft the fore-mast. 

The jMaln It^o^yal Stay reeves now through the 
after chock of the fore-topmast cross-trees, so that if the fore- 
topgallant-mast goes the main royal-mast is not in danger. 
In sending up topgallant-masts the main can be stayed with- 
out waiting for the fore. Sets up in the fore-top. 

The 3f;izzeii Topg-allant Stay reeves over 



RIGGING SHIP. 101 

a small roller in the after-part of the main-cap. Sets up 
in the main-top. 

The IMCizzen lEtoysLl Stay leads through a 
sheave in the after chock of the main-topmast trestle-trees, 
and down into the main-top. 

All these stays set up with hearts and laniards. 

Fly ing— J il3-l>oom. Figs. 304 and 332. Sway it on 
board with a span, as directed for the jib-boom, and rest it 
on the head-ran ready for going out. Hang the heel by a slip 
Tope from the fore-topmast staj^s, reeve off the heel rope 
through a block secured to the jib-guy, through the sheave 
in the heel of the boom, securing the end to the. neck of the 
wythe. Pull out on the heel rope and point the end of the 
flying-jib-boom through the wythe, with the shoulders clear 
of the jib-boom end. rut on tne head of the flving-jib-boom, 
the band fof iron) fitted with eyes for the flying-jib guys 
on each siae, and one eye underneath for the flying martin- 
gale. Reeve the end of the flying martingale through a 
sheave in the end of the dolphin striker, and the guys 
through the holes (or thimbles) at the whisker-boom ends. 
Reeve also the flymg-jib and fore-royal stays in their re- 
spective sheaves, ana under the cleats on the dolphin 
striker. Seize the foot ropes to the shackles for the flying- 
jib guys, stopping them out a short distance to the guys, 
and seize the inner ends (when the boom is rigged out) to 
the jib g^ys. Rig out, taking off the slip rope from the 
fore-topmast stays, clamp the neel to the side of the cap, 
unreeve the heel rope. Set up the flying-jib martingale, 
then the fore and aft stays, lastly the royal back staj'^s, 
shrouds, and flying-jib guys. 

Observe that in staying all masts the stay is usually set up 
first and then the bacK-stays, if any, and lastly, the shrouds. 

TopKail "i^ai'ds?. Having towed the yard off to 
the ship, say on the port side with the starboard yard-arm 
forward, lash a large single block at the topmast-head, 
into a strap sufficiently long to permit it to hang clear 
of the trestle-trees. Through this reeve a hawser down 
(outside of all;, and bend it on to the slings of the yard, 
either stopping it to the forward (in this case starboard) 
quarter, with stout lashings, or use a lizard, and secure 
tne ship's side from chafe by fenders and skids. Hook the 
port pendant tackle also to a strap on the after-quarter, and 
man it and the hawser (taken to the capstan), swaying the 
yard on board, which must be kept from canting aft against 
the mast by means of a purchase or guy leading from for- 
ward. Ease the lizard (or stops) as necessary, sway on the 
pendant tackle until clear of the ship's side, and lower 
away, landing the yard as you had it alongside (viz., with 
the starboard yard-arm forward), in the port gangway, on 
chocks, which should also be placed underneath the inner 
quarters, to keep the yard from becoming bowed in the 



102 RIGGING SHIP. 

slings through its own weight. Now cast off the hawser 
and tackle and prepare for rigging. 

It is customary to place the fore-topsail-yard in the port 
gangway for rigging, and the main-topsail-yard in the 
starboard. 

For detail of slings see Fi^ 336, of yard-arm, 339. 

T>oixl3le Topsail iTarcls. In the merchant 
service the single- topsail is rarely met with. There are sev- 
eral patents of the double topsail rig. The original inventor 
was an American shipmaster named Howe. 

There are two topsails and two topsail yards. The lower 
topsail yard- is trussed to the lower cap, being supported by 
a crane underneath, the heel of the stay of which works in 
a socket on the forward side of the mast. Slings are not 
used. The outer yard arms have short jackstays fitted on 
the upper side to which the clews of the upper topsail are 
shackled instead of being hauled out by sheets. 

The upper topsail yard is fitted and hoisted in the same 
manner as the ordinary topsail yard. There are several 
patents for rolling the upper topsail up as the yard comes 
down either around the yard or around a rolling spar on the 
forward side of the yard. The lower topsail is fitted with 
sheets and clewlines, the clewline blocks being placed well 
out on the yard on account of the short leech. In large 
ships double topgallant sails are sometimes carried. 

<r^ij.ar*tei? I31oel£H are iron-strapped, with friction- 
rollers, shackled to bands on the quarters of the yard, un- 
derneath. In case of accident compelling the use of a rope 
strap, it should be single with lashing eyes. There should 
be separate bands ana blocks for the clewlines, as shown 
in Fig. 336. If not, the quarter block is either double for 
the topgallant sheet and topsail clewline, or treble, if the 
topsail reef tackle leads under the yard. 

Bixrton Strap^ii. Iron bands a few feet inside of 
the yard-arms, with an eye in the upper part to which the 
top Durton may be hooked. 

Bolt ioi- rXeacl-KMi-iiify-, Fig. 372, Plate 72. A 
bolt on the forward side of the yard, just inside the shoulder 
and well up on the yard ; or it may be an eye in the shoulder 
band. 

Bacliei' Tor Ileacl-Kai-inor, Fig. 372, Plate 72, 
is a broad piece of sennit nailed around the yard, inside ana 
clear of the topgallant sheet, and fitted with a thimble in 
its hanging end. The head of the topsail is hauled out bv the 
turns of the liead-earing taken through the bolt and held up 
on the yard by the turns taken through the backer, as will 
be described more fully under Bending Sails. For backer, 
see Fig. 372. 

Jaclc Sta.yjsi for bending are of rod iron, those for 
reefing, on the topsail yard, may be of wire rope, rove 
through staples abaft tlie bending jack-stay on the upper 



RIGGIKG SHIP. 



103 



part of the yard, outer ends going over the yard-arm with 
eyes, the inner ends set up to each other in the slings by 
means of smaJl eye-lashings. A i'od iron jack-stay often 
replaces it. Fig. 372. 

Foot !Ror>e!S. These are of hemp, fitted with an 
eye going over tne yard-arm. They are worme^^l and the 
splice served. The neck of the splice lies a little abaft the 
top of the yard, so as to be clear of the topgallant sheets. 
Foot-ropes are fitted rove through the stirrups, and the ends 
taken aoaft the mast {when the yard is crossed), and secured 
to the opposite quarters on topy by means of an eye-lashing 
passed over the yard, round on the forward side, under- 
neath, up, and back throujB^h the eye again, a sufiicient 
number of times ; after which two half hitches are taken 
around all parts to secure the end. This plan of fitting 
them is recommended, on account of the facility with which 
the men can j^et on and off the yard. 

Instead of the eye the outer ends of foot-ropes may be 
fitted with hooks connecting to an eye-bolt on the after-side 
of the shoulder-band, or else as described under Flemish 
HoBSBS. Inner ends of foot-ropes omitted in Fig. 336 to 
avoid confusion. 

Stirnnxps are fitted with an eye in the lower end ^no 
thimble), through which the foot-rope reeves and to which 
it is seized. The upper ends, fitted with small eyes, are 
seized to the jack-stay staples. 

Flemisli Ho]:*ses. These are spliced around a 
thimble on the pacific iron for that purpose, and the eye in 
the other end secured on top of the vard to the iack-stay, 
the length of the yardarm inside of the sheave hole, with a 
rose-seizing. These are foot-ropes for the, yard-arm men 
when reefing, &c. It would be better, as is already done 
on some modem ships, to do awav with the flemish horses 
by carrying out the foot-rope to the pacific iron, fitting the 
necessary extra stirrups. * 

Tye Blooks are iron-strapped and connected by a 
bolt to a band around the slings of the yard ; or, in case of 
two tyes, the tye-blocks shackle to bands fitted at the 
slings, at a distance apart equal to the diameter of the* 
topmast. The bands are joined by a span, which is used 
for the purchase to hook in when sending the yard up 
and down. In case of an accident to the straps of tye- 
blocks, requiring them to be fitted with rope-straps, it is 
well to remember that two single straps are needed to 
make the block stand fair on the yard. 

I^o,in*oI. A parrel fitted of wire rope is commonly 
used. This consists of a long ana a short leg, leathered 

• The flemish horso was introduced when lifts and brace-bh)ck straps went 
over the ytfrd-arm with eyes, and it enabled these to be removed or jnit ov- 
without coming up anything but the inl)<)ard lushing: of the flemish horse. 
Now that all this gear is differently fitted, a separate outboard foot- rope ie 
superfluous, and is going out of use. 



104 RIGGING SHIP. 

singly, marled together, and again leathered in the wake cf 
the mast, Fig. 33G. Eyes are spliced into the ends of the 
two legs, and stout quarter seizings placed on both close to 
the eyes of the short leg. The long leg then passes around 
the quarter of the yard, half the diameter of the topmast 
from the centre, and secures to the short one by a rose- 
seizing on the upper after side. When the yard is crossed 
the remaining leg is passed on the opposite side and secured 
in the same manner. There are additional seizings through 
holes in the jaws to keep the parrel in place. In time 
these parrels will probably be replaced by an iron cylinder, 
sliding up and down the topmast, to which the topsail yard 
is secured by a truss similar to the one on the lower yard. 
This cylinder, or tub, keeps the yard well trussed to, and 
its lower edge is low enough to keep the yard off the cap. 

Urace lJlocls:&^. Iron-strapped, with friction- 
rollers^ and shackle to the after-bolts m the shoulder-band, 
block sheave standing up and down. In case of accident 
to the strap or bolt, use a grommet strap arouud the yard, 
single strap around the block, the two straps connected 
by lock thimbles. 

Litit.^ are four-stranded, hemp, and blacked. Hook to 
the shoulder-band, reeve through lower sheave of a sister 
block seized in between the swifter and next shroud in the 
topmast rigging, just below the eyes, thence to the top, 
where they turn up through clump blocks. Set up with 
jiggers. 

•Jewel I31oekH. Single, rope or iron - strapped, 
hook to the pacific iron with sister hoolcs. Not put in place 
until the studding sail gear is rove off. 

Tvesis. Flexible wire rope. The lower end has a 
thimble spliced in, to which hooks the fly-block. Passing 
through the mast-head gin-blocks, they reeve through the 
tye-block on the yard from out, in, thence up through the 
topmast trestle-trees, and made fast around tne mast-head. 
The heel of the topgallant-mast is scored out on purpose to 
admit the tye. 

Small ships have a single tye only, which in this case 
reeves through a sheave in the topmast, instead of a gin- 
block. Bell's purchase (see Topsail Halliards) is used in 
connection with such tyes. 

The length of the tyes should be such that the fly-blocks 
will be square with the lower cap when the yard is down. 

See that the yard is fitted with boom irons, reefing cleats, 
saddles (inboard from sheave holes) for topgallant sheets, 
&c., and prepare for sending it aloft.* 

Hook a stout double purcnase from the topmast-head to 
the tye-band (or a strap) in the slings of the yard, Fig. 335. 

* It may be noted here that tlie iron work, bands*, &c., described in connection 
with the jard fittings are all in place, as a rule, before the yard is sent on board, 
and are enumerated only to com[)lete the list of the fittings. In former times 
nearly all of the above described fittings were of rope. 

9 



Plate 59 




RIGGING SHIP. 105 

Coil the lifts on the quarters of the yard (stopping them to 
the jack-stays), and reeve marrying-lines for the braces, 
observing to dip the starboard (or upper) one over the 
lower stav. Overhaul the top-burtons from aloft, and hook 
them to the yard-arms ; as also a fore-and-aft tackle to the 
slings to keep the yard from chafing against the mast, as it 
goes up. 

Man the purchase and walk away, taking through the 
slack of the starboard-burton, keeping control of the port 
^or lower) yard-arm, and placing a mat under it to prevent 
injury to "the deck. As soon as the upper yard-arm is 
well up and clear of the lower stay, commence crossing by 
^keeping to the slack of the fore-and-aft tackle, hauling on 
the lower burton and starboard brace. Reeve the lifts 
through the sister-blocks, and as the yard rises above the 
lower cap, square it : bring to and pass the parrel. Reeve 
the tyes, hook the fly-block with the halliards rove, and 
take the strain from the burtons and purchase, which may 
now be unhooked, and the latter sent down, together with 
the fore-and-aft tackle. Observe, lastly, to place a block of 
wood between the slings and lower cap, to keep the yard 
from bowing, in case the halliards should be slacked or let 
go ; or, as sometimes practised in large ships, have a mid- 
ship-lift fitted, of such a length as not to permit the yard to 
touch the cap. 

N.B. — This routine supposes the yard to be lying in the 
port gangway, with the starboard yard-arm forward, 

Lio^vei* "Vai'clss. Of the many methods suggested 
for getting a lower yard on board, the following may be 
selected as the safest and most seamanlike : 

The yard is towed alongside, on the starboai^d side, with 
the port end forward. Top up the fish-boom. Fig. 3o7, by 
its topping lift T, the upper block being hooked at the fut- 
tock band. Swing the boom around to the starboard side 
with the usual forward and after guys. (For description of 
fish-davit, see Ground Tackle.) Should there be no sheave 
in the boom, as at A, lash a block at tliat point. Lash 
together two large single blocks, as at B and C. Reeve a 

Eendant through A and B, securing the outboard end to the 
ead of the boom, and take a turn with the other end of the 
pendant at the sheet bitts. 

Through the block C reeve a hawser, make fast to the 
bight above C the lower block of a treble purchase from the 
topmast-head. The other end of the hawser is secured at 
the slings of the yard, and stopped along the port yard-arm 
to the pacific iron, with rope stops. 

Protect the hammock rail where the yard is to be landed 
by blocking up in the netting above the level of the rail. 

When ready, tow the after (starboard) yard-arm out 
from the ship, keep it end on to tne vessel with a guy from 
forward. Walk away with the treble purchase, and as the 



ion RIGGING SHIP. 

yard comes over the rail, cast off the stops in succession ; 
the pendant easinj^ the yard in to the mast. Use, in addi- 
tion, a fore-and-aft tackle, and thwartship jiggers to assist 
in placing the yard across the nettings.* 

Sliii«r-l>aii<lK, These are two stout iron bands Roing 
around the yard, each side of and near the centre, and con- 
nected by an iron span, to which the slings are attached by 
means of the slip-hook, or " pelican " hook. Plate 39. 

There may be two additional bands, one on each side, for 
preventer slings, or for the jeer-blocks, if the latter shackle 
to the yard instead of lashing. 

Tlio Oixaiii-Hlingrts are sent aloft by one of the 
top-burtons, and fit over the lower cap in a saddle for the 
purpose, or they may be fitted with two shackles that secure 
to the eyes of a crescent, bolted over the cap. A back- 
lashing abaft the mast, about one-third the doublings from 
the mast-head, keeps the strain on the slings in a vertical 
direction. Plate 39. 

Ti'iiss«-l>aiicl?<« Iron bands, outside the sling-bands, 
to which the arms of the truss are secured. See also 
Fig. 338. 

15s:iel£<>i* and Staple loi* Heacl-earingr. 
There is usually an eye in the shoulder-band for the head- 
earing. In its absence, a grommet strap of small rope is 
put on the yard-arm first, with a thimble seized in on top. 
Backer of rope plaited, fitted similar to the one on topsail 
yard. 

T^it"tK are of wire. In large ships they are rove as 
luffs, with the double block at the cap, and single block 
hooking to the shoulder-band. The standing part hooks to 
the breech of the vard-arm block, or to a bolt on the shoul- 
der-band. In smaller vessels the lift is a gun-tackle pur- 
chase, the standing part hooking to the breech of the upper 
block. Lower lift blocks at the cap are of iron, the fore 
usually has additional sheaves (the after ones) for the lower 
boom topping-lift. 

The end of the lift on deck is turned up around a thimble, 
into which a double (or lighter) purchase is hooked. 

I3i'aeo'-l:>locli>s. Iron strapped, with friction-rollers, 
hook to shoulder-band, sheave up arid down. 

<^xiai'tei"-131ocltw for the topsail-sheets, are iron- 
strapped and shackle to the band, underneath the yard, 

* For the mnin yard tlie fish-booiu is taken aft and the heel secured in one 
of the jeer bolts forwarl of the mast. In the case from which this description is 
taken, the main-yard of the "Colorado" was the spar handled. There were 
no precautions necessary, except as alcove stated in protecting the netting. The 
ship was in port, at Hong Kong, the waistljoats remained hoisted, and the gang- 
way ladder shipped. The spar, 110 feet long and weighing nearly 10 tons, waa 
landed on board inside of 20 minutes. Treble purchase 6-inch fall.j hawser 
10 inch, pendant 4i-inch hemp, stops on the yard and hawser 2 J -inch manilla. 
In the absence of tlie fish-boom, use any suitable spar as an outrigger. 



RIGGING SHIP. 107 

Plate 39. In case of accident to the strap or bolt, seize 
the 5[uarter-block into a doubled grommet-strap with a round 
seizing, the bights being secured to the yard on top by a 
rose-seizing. 

Clevr-Ci-ax'net-moeliH, Plate 39, are iron- 
strapped with friction-rollers, and hook to a band around the 
yard, being forward and inside of the quarter-blocks. They 
should be ntted with a link or swivel. In case of accident 
requiring them to be rope-strapped, use single strap with 
lasning eyes, the latter seized together on top of the yard. 

Ciiiarter*-Ii*<>nis, Fig. 347 6, for the topmast-stud- 
ding-sail-booms, are screwed to iron bands on the yard about 
two-thirds out, and are fitted to clamp and unclamp around 
the boom. 

]3o<>iia IroriH for the same spars are keyed to the 
ends of the pacific-irons, and fitted with a roller in the 
lower part. Fig. 334, also Fig. 347. 

Kixi'ton. Sti*fipH. iron bands with eyes at top, 
fitted to the yard inside the sheave for topsail sheets. 

•J^icliHtays^ both for bending and reefing, are of 
iron, the former with staples, the latter passing through 
eye-bolts on the yard above the bending jack-stay. 

K'oot Xl.opefe«. Fitted similar to those on the top- 
sail yard ; the outer end hooks to the shoulder-band. Fig. 
334. The foot-ropes cross forward of the mast, each inner 
end secured to the opposite arm of the truss and seized to 
the arm on its own side. The two foot-ropes are seized 
together where they cross. 

The necessary cleats, &c., having been attached to the 
yard, it is sent aloft by ^the jeers ; should these not be 
available, use two pendant-tackles. In either case, hook 
both top-burtons to tne burton-straps on the yard, and reeve 
and man the braces and lifts — the latter rove single until 
the yard is aloft. Keep the yard clear of the mast by a 
fore-and-aft tackle. 

The jeers are two double (better treble) purchases, the 
upper blocks in small vessels being secured permanently to 
the chain slings aloft. (See Jeeb Blocks). 

The lower blocks lash around the yard on either side 
of the slings ; the upper blocks hang by long lashings or 
chain slings from the lower cap, over the forward part of 
the top rim. 

Swaj aloft, keeping control of the fore-and-aft tackle ; 
when high enough key the truss, hook the slinks, square 
the yard by the lifts and braces, unhook the jeers, bur- 
tons, &c. 

The cross-jack yard differs somewhat in its fittings from 
the fore and main, as no sail is set upon it. The braces 
hook to a band well inside the shoulders, so that the brace 
(which leads forward) may clear the main topmast back- 
stays. 



108 RIGGING SHIP. 

The cross-jack yard is got on board by a purchase from 
the topmast head, and swayed aloft by the same purchase 
and the burtons. 

The lower yard is sometimes taken first in order, in 
rigging ship, but by sending the topsail-yards up first, time 
may be saved. 

T'opg-allant-A^iiiulK. The yard being alongside, 
sway it on board with the yard-rope, rove tnrough the 
sheave-hole in the topgallant-masthead, hooking it to the 
slings, and stopping it down to the forward yard-arm. 

The fittings are as follows, Figs. 3J:0 and 341 : 

Hliii«fw« An iron band around the center of the yard, 
with a link for the hooks on the yard-rope. 

l*iii*i*el. A grommet on each side of the slings fits 
around the yard and the jaws, a score being cut in the lat- 
ter. Both grommets are leathered, and are seized to form 
eyes abaft, abreast the opening of the jaws. A third grom- 
met strap, also leathered, is seized to one of the eyes, and, 
when the yard is crossed, passes around the mast, and 
lashes to the other eye. In port, exercising, a single lash- 
ing is substituted for the third grommet-strap. Instead 
of the first two grommets there might be eyes m the jaws, 
but these foul in sending the yard up and" down, and are 
liable to get knocked out. 

If the the topgallant-yard is not provided with jaws the 
parrel is formed as above, or with a long and short grom- 
met. The larger strap is long enough to go around the 
yard and meet the short one, being secured by a lashing of 
small stuff. Both straps leathered. 

C.^imi'tei' IJloeliK. These are double, iron- 
strapped, friction-rollers, and hook to a band on the yard. 

Hti-sip !<>!• tlie J_^iziii'cl« A grommet strap 
slipped over the yard with a thimble seized in the bight, 
on top of the yard, the strap itself being a few feet from 
the slings, and called a quart erst rap. To prevent slipping 
this quarter-strap should be seized to the jackstay. 

liiiekei^ liiKl CJi'iiig-li* !<>!• Ilesicl-oni'iiijr. 
Backer same as on top-sail yard. Instead of a head-earing 
staple, there is a small cringle worked into the eye of the 
foot-rope, clear of the royal sheet. Figs. 341. b, 

r^oot-JL^opes^, Fig. 341. Fitted with eyes to go 
over the yard-arms. At sea the inner ends generally cross 
abaft the mast (preventer parrel) and in port they cross for- 
ward of the mast. These inner ends are variously secured. 
They may be fitted with an eye, lashing to the yard with a 
flat-seizing, eye abaft and on top of the yarcl. Or, for 
convenience in shifting, these ends of the foot-ropes may 
be fitted, as in Fig. 340, with sister hooks to connect with 
the thimble of a strap on the quarters of the yard. Or, 
finally, if the neck of the eye-bole for the quarter-block is 
long enough, the ends may hook there;. 



Plate 61 



iniK.33S 






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r'"^-r>r"-_^::y^^"::r^ 7 


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^^^^^^^^W 



Fiir.330 



E 












— 


T 




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L 




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m^ 


r 




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.\' 



RIGGING SHIP. 109 



Hending- .Tsvclc Sttx;^'^ of iron. There is no reef- 
ing jack-stay. 

I^ift, Fig. 341 a. Single, with a round eye, the splice 
of which is served. The eye goes over the yard-arm when 
swayed up for crossing. The lift is cut long enough to 
reach the top after reeving through the bull's-eye or cmmp- 
block between the topgallant shrouds. It is marled to the 
eye of the brace, so that both lift and brace go on and off 
together, the double eye being leathered. 

The lift and brace may have their ends secured to eyes 
projecting from an iron ring which is leathered and goes 
over the yard-arm. 

Ui'aces!. Fitted with an e}^e in the end, marled to 
the lift, or hooked into the iron ring above described. It 
may be single or a whip and pendant. 

Mll<>l•tel•^*, Fig. 341 a, are in length a little less than 
half the yard, the outer end spliced into the thimble of an 
eye-bolt at the yard-arm ; the inner end has an eye for the 
tripping-line, and is secured by a stop to the slings when 
not in use. 

I^o d*os8K n Toi><inllsxn1 ^"fii-cl. Fig. 342. 
The yard rope, having a lizard attached (overhauled down 
forward, and outside of all), is rove through a ffood-sized 
grommet passed over the upper yard-arm and nooked to 
the link in the sling-band, the lizard being rove through the 
upper quarter-strap thimble, and hitched to the one on the 
opposite quarter. Take the eye of the lower lift and brace 
in the topmast rigging, and that of the upper one to the 
opposite side of the topmast cap, and sway aloft. When 
the upper yard-arm rises within reach of the man on the 
topmast cap, take off the grommet ^ slip on the lifts and 
braces over the snorters, gathering up the slack of the 
lower one, and sway away until the slings of the yard 
are well above the topmast cap, take through the slack of 
the lower lift, then talce a turn of the parrel-lashing abaft 
the mast, through the eye in the opposite strap, tend 
the lifts and braces, slack up the Uzard, and **sway 
across," squaring the yard, and passing the parrel for a 
full due. 

Note. — The outer ends of snorters are generally plaited 
like sennit, that they may lie flat, and permit the eye of the 
lift and brace to fit over snugly. 

tlo^yal ^^ai*cls« The routine of rigging and cross- 
ing is precisely similar to that of the topgallant yards ; the 
differences being that the quarter-blocks are single, there 
are no backers, and the foot-ropes never cross abaft the 
mast. 

In many ships small hand grommets are worked around 
the jack-stays for the men to hold on by when at sea. 



110 TRY8 AIL-MASTS, GAFFS AND BOOMS. 



TRYSAIL-MASTS, GAFFS AND BOOMS. 

These spars are usually swayed on board by means of 
the fore or main yard and stay tackles: purchases most 
frequently in use, and convenient at tnis stage of the 
equipment. 

Ti'jV'ft^ail-^i^M^^^tK. The trysail-mast is shipped bv 
means of a tackle hooked to a strap above the f uttock-band, 
the head being pointed through a hole in the after-chock, 
and the heel (over which the hoops are passed) stepped in a 
socket or mortise, on the fife-rail, or on the deck. After 
which, the head is secured by a lashing through a B-cleat 
underneath the top, or with iron keys ; copper having been 
put on in the wake of the gaff. 

The spanker-mast may oe fitted with an iron spindle in 
the heel, stepping into the heel-strap of the spanker-boom. 

Cjra.ll is. Figs. 343 and 344. The plan at present gener- 
ally adopted in the service for trysail and spanker gaffs 
is to fit them with jaws and in connection with a trysail- 
mast, there being hoops on the gaff and trysail-mast for 
bending the sail. Gaffs may be seen in some vessels secured 
directly to the lower mast by means of .eye-bolts within 
each other, like lock thimbles. Another plan is to have a 
scored batten secured on the after side of the mast in place 
of a trysail-mast, with metal slides furnished with bending 
loops sliding up and down in the c^roove of the batten. In 
this case the gaff attaches to a sliding chock, which also 
moves up ana down in the score of the batten, ''railway 
fashion, as it is termed. 

The ordinary gaff first described may be fitted with a 

Kermanent span of wire rope or chain, from the shoulder 
and to the after part of the cap, and a similar throat 
pendant shackling to the upper part of the gaff between 
the jaws and to a bolt under the top ; or, tlie span and 
throat pendant may be replaced by peak and throat hal- 
liards, sometimes rove in one, as described under running 
rigging. The blocks for these halliards are iron-strapped. 

vangs are fitted with a pendant that hooks into a band 
on the siioulder of the gaff. 

The vang pendants having been liooked, the gaff is sent 
aloft by means of its halliards, or by a top burton hooked 
into a strap around the peak pendant and another tackle 
from under the top, shacKliiig- the pendants as soon as the 
gaff is aloft, and passing the jaw rope or parrel. 

In view of the frequent use of trysail gaffs as derricks in 
raising weights through the hatches which they plumb, the 
gaffs and their fittings should be as substantial as possible. 

A very important part of the fitting of a gaff is the 
saddle (a), Fig. 344, Plate 04. This consists of a block of 
wood, which bolts in between the jaws and is hollowed out 



Plate 62 





-f^^^ 



H^g.338 





L_ 



TBY8AIL-MASTS, GAFFS AND BOOMS. HI 

to fit the mast. It facilitates the hoisting of the gaff, for at 
whatever angle it may be, the same smooth surface of the 
saddle is presented to the mast. 

Saddles are particularly useful in small vessels where 
the eaff is frequently lowered and hoisted. 

Tne «panfccr-g^aff should always be fitted with throat and 
peak halliards to hoist and lower, as necessary ; for other- 
wise it would be almost impossible to reef the sail. In 
brigantines and schooners it is not unf requently the case 
that eye-bolts are attached to each side of the jaws, for 
preventer lashings in heavy weather ; and a single block 
(grommet-strapped) is put over the gaff end for a down- 
haul : vangs being dispensed with as useless, on account of 
the sharp angle at which they act, in consequence of the 
height of the gaff. 

booiiiH. That for the spanker is neatest if shipped 
with a goose-neck to an eye-bolt on the mizzen-mast, Fig. 
345, and fitted with an iron oand over the boom-end for the 
topping-lift and the guys, both of which connect to it with 
sister nooks. The sheet-blocks are best if strapped with 
rope-groDMnets, on account of the jerks and checks in jib- 
bing, which render eye-bolts liable to snap and break at the 
necK. These blocks are fitted with clip-hooks if the eye is 
up and down. The foot-ropes hook into a band on"^ the 
boom end, and seize to eyes on the sheet band. Fig. 346. 

The topping-lifts (one on each side) are usually fitted 
with sister hooks in the end and hook to an iron band, 
about one-fifth of the extreme length of the boom from the 
outer end ; while the running parts reeve through blocks, at 
each side of the mizzen tressle-trees, and thence to the deck, 
where gun-tackle purchases are attached. In men-of-war 
of the smaller class, and in the merchant service, the 
topping-lift is not unfrequently single, and rove through the 
gaff -end, and a roller in the after-part of the mizzen-topmast 
tressle-trees ; the end is turned up around a thimble into 
which a jigger is hooked. 

On the main-boom of brigantines and schooners the 
topping-lift is usually fitted with the standing part secured 
at the mainmast-head by hooking in an eye-bolt of the 
wythe ; while the lower end is spliced around a double 
block, in which a fall is rove, leading through a single one. 
and a sheave in the boom. In this class of vessels the clew 
of the sail shackles to a band around the boom. A heavy 
strap (which is cleated forward), with thimbles at each sid(\ 
is put around the boom at the sheet-block for the booni- 
tacjcle pendant, which is fitted with a hook in the after-end 
and a thimble in the forward, and is used only in going large. 

The boom is got in its place by means of the throat-hdiy 
hards and topping-lift, assisted by guys and thwartship 
tackles, as requisite. 
Stuclclinsr-So.il JiooniK. That for the lower 



112 TRYSAIL-MASTS, GAFFS AND BOOMS. 

Studding-sail is fitted with an iron goose-neck and key, 
which connects to a bolt in the forward part of the fore- 
channels, and is shipped either by means of the fore and 
main yard-tackles, or with tackles on the fore topmast back- 
stay and forward swifter of the fore-rigging. On the outer 
end, about two-thirds from the goose-neck, an iron band is 
fitted on the boom, having eye-bolts on the forward, upper, 
and after sides, for the topping-lift and the guy-blocks ; moor- 
imj pendants with large thimbles in the lower ends for the 
boats, and a Jacob' s ladder are hooked, when in port, to the 
boom. The eyes for the pendants are underneath the boom, 
and those for the Jacob's ladder are on the upper after side. 

The topping-lift is of wire, it hooks to the upper eye- 
bolt in the band on the boom, reeves through a metal block 
hooked to an eye in the bolt which shackles the fore brace- 
block to the yard, thence through a block at the lower cap- 
usually the after sheave of the lift-block. The inboard ena 
of the topping-lift is turned up around a thimble, into which 
a purchase is hooked. 

The guy-blocks are iron-strai)ped and hook to the band. 

When the boom is rigged out in port a life-line is seized 
to the topping-lift, about breast-high from the boom, with 
its inner end secured inboard in the chains, in line with the 
boom. 

When the boom is not in use it is hauled alongside by the 
after-guy, and rests in cranes, shipped for the purpose in 
the waist, the topping-lift being unnooked and tncea up out 
of the wav. 

The lower boom is so called at sea, and is known as the 
swiiiqing-hooin in port. 

'lOpiiiitKt Htixclcliiig'-Sitil 15c><>lll^4• Round, 
spruce, or yellow pine spars, unpainted excepting their pro- 
jecting ends. The outer end is fitted witn a permanent 
tack block, swivelled upon it. Fig. 347, and in line with the 
axis of the boom, or else there is an iron pin driven through 
the boom vertically, near its outer end, Fig.i348. 

The inner end, or heel, has a deep score lor a heel-lashing 
when the boom is rigged out. Outside of this score there 
are two holes bored in the boom, one up and down, and one 
fore and aft. Fig. 347. A erommet strap is worked through 
each hole, one having a thimble for the in-and-out jigger, 
and the other a thimble for the tricing-line. 

The inner strap is fitted through tne hole bored fore and 
aft, in line with tne score. It is used for the boom tricing- 
line. Splice a heel-rope around the neck of this inner strap. 

Unclamp the quarter iron. Fig. 347 6, on the yard, and 
prepare for sending the boom aloft. 

Carry out a whip on the fore-yard, secure it well up on 
the fore-lift. Hook a clew-jigger from the lower cap to one 
of the grommets on the heel of the boom ; the whip from 
the fore-yard is hitched to the boom far enough out to clear 



Plate 63 



iri«.330 




iTiiS/i I i. a 



l' 



TRYSAIL-MASTS, GAFFS AND BOOMS. 113 

the quarter-iron, using the heel-lashing for a back-lashing. 
Have a gnj from forward, sway away on whip and clew- 
jigger, keeping the outer end uppermost. Land the boom 
on the quarter-iron. Now sway up on the heel and point 
the boom fair through the boom-iron. The blocks for the 
lower studding-sail halliards and topmast studding-sail ! 

tack, when placed, go over with straps fitted to go neatly 
around the boom-end, and are kept from slipping in by the i 

iron pin above referred to. \ 

When the tack-block is a permanent one, with a swivel, ' 

the halliard-block hooks with sister-hooks to the neck of the ' 

swivel for the tack. i 

The above blocks are taken off in port, except the swivel- ' 

ling tack-block, wliich, when fitted, is a fixture. 

Clamp the quarter-irons, hook the boom tricin^-line, rig 
out to the square mark and take off the clew jigger and 
whip. Lastly, seize a hook horizontally on the vard, just i 

inside the burton strap, with the point outboard, for the 
purpose of securing the boom, when setting the sail,* and I 

shirt the in-and-out jigger ready for use. 

Top-jarallant Htiiclfliiig'-^inil T^ooitik^, Fig. 
349, are rigged nearly in the same manner, but have no hal- I 

liard-block at the outer end, and the tricing-line goes directly 
through the inner hole in the boom (no grommet), with a 
Mathew Walker knot in the end. There is no quarter-iron ; 
instead, a quarter-strap of rope mav be fitted. This forms 
a figure eight around the yard and boom, seized where it 
crosses on the yard. One end is split to form two eyes. 
The other end has one eye (all eyes leathered), and the two 
ends are held together, when the boom is rigged out, by a 
toggle. The toggle is taken out as soon as the boom is 
rigged in, to be ready for tricing up. Fig. 350. 

Instead of the rope quarter-strap, some ships use a rope 
jackstay, seized to tne eye of the topsail lift, and set up to 
Its opposite in the slings of the yard! In this case a becket 
is fitted in the heel of tne boom, which toggles to a travelling 
bull's-eye on the jackstay. ' 

The tricing-line leads from the top up through a single 
block seized to the forward swifter of the topmast riggings, 
close up to the eyes, thence down to the boom, where it is 
rove through a single block, and is then secured to the heel 
of the boom. When it is required to rig the boom out, the 
tricing-line is converted into an in-and-out jigger, thus : — 
The tricing-line is let go in the top, and the single block, 
through which it passes at the heel of the boom, is taken 
out on the vard, takiing out the bight of the tricing-line with 
it, and hooks to a thimble on the yard. 

The boom, when required for setting the sail, is secured 

* The heel-lashine is passed over the book, and back tbroagb tbe score in 
the boom, and two hair-hitches taken with the end around all parts. 



lU RUNNING RIGGING. 

by means of a lashing passed over a hook on the yard, 
like that for the topmast studding-sail boom, already men- 
tioned. 

The booms on the topsail-yard are usually sent up by the 
halliards, rove through a block, secured to the forward- 
swifter of the topmast rigging, the boom being slung in a 
span. 

RUNNING RIGGING. 

Besides enabling us to measure for, and cut. standing 
rigging, a fore-and-aft draft of the ship gives the length of 
all running rigging. To measure for main-topsail clew- 
lines, for example, supposing them to be double, take 
twice the distance from the clew of the main-topsail, Fig. 
284, Plate 43 , to the quarter-block on the topsail-yard, to 
which add the distance thence to the deck, plus end enough 
to lead out ; double this to get the other clew-line and 
divide by six to reduce it to fathoms, and so for any other 
rope. One half of each upper yard should be represented 
as on the cap, in order to measure for lifts, &c. 

When a rope leads direct and is not exposed to unneces- 
sary friction, it is said to have a clear or a fair lead, an 
extremely desirable condition, and one too frequently neg- 
lected. 

Rope supplied in coil has had turns hove in it in the coil- 
ing. To get these turns out, the rope must be '* thorough- 
footed." To do this, if the rope is right-handed, lay the coil 
-flat, with that end inside wnich goes around ''with the 
sun" (to the right), now haul that end up through the 
coil and coil it down, left-handed. Then dip the new upper 
end down through and coil again left-handed, and repeat a 
third time. The rope is then stretched, and the gear cut 
and rove oflF. First in importance may be mentioned : 



BRACES. 

Foi-e-T5i*tiO€^K, Fig. 351. Hemp, left-handed, stand- 
ing part of wire to extend forward of smoke-stack. Stand- 
ing part hooks to eye-bolts in the bibbs or to the neck of the 
brace-block bolt at the bibbs, as in Fig. 3516, thence through 
blocks on the yard from up, doiDt, back through other 
blocks on the outside of bibbs and down to sheaves in the 
fife-rail (usually from aft, forward) . 

iVJ[aiii-JE3raees<« Standing part hooked into the 
bumpkins aft, or into an eye in the breech of the block, 
then through brace-blocks from down, up, back to othei*» 
on the bumpkin {inside the standing parts) and through 
sheaves or leaders in the bulwarks. 

On board large ships where there is much drift to the 



BRACES. 1 1 ^ 

main-brace, it will be found very convenient to fit the 
standing part with a jigger, thus : Into the end of the brace 
splice a single block, and to the eye in the strap of the 
brace-block on the bumpkin, hook the double block of a 
jigger. Reeve the fall, the hauling part leading in through 
the bulwarks with the hauling part of the main-brace. 
After haulinfi^ the main-brace moderately taut in the usual 
way, a few hands on the jiffger fall on the standing part 
will get the brace as taut as desirable.* Fig. 353. 

It is usual to have a permanent timenoguy f leading from 
the mizzen rigging to the main-brace, the object being to 
keep the bi^ht of tne brace from fouling the quarter-davits 
whdQe working ship. 

The same has been found needful in the main rigging- 
on board very long ships to avoid fouling the waist davits. 

The timeno^y is seized to the standing part of the 
brace, the hauling part reeving through a thimble. 

OroHs^ack: Mracess. The standing parts hooked 
into the strap of a double blockt hooked to an eve-bolt on 
each side of the mainmast, in a line with the yarcig — thence 
to the brace-blocks from down, up, and back to the inner 
sheaves of those on the mainmast. 

Fore-topsail 13races. Standing parts fitted 
with eye-splices lashed together abaft the mam topmast- 
head, laid along in the doublings of the collar of the main 
topmast-stay, and stopped down on each side to and below 
the crotch, to avoid chafe from the foot of the sail and brace 
blocks ; thence forward and down through the brace-blocks 
to clunap-blocks, seized to the main-stav, Fig. ;351, at the 
fork. Thence through blocks at the bibbs to the main fife- 
rail. Lead there through sheaves, usually from forward, aft. 

>Iaiii-topsail Uraces^. Standing part hooks to 
an iron traveller, which moves up and down the mizzen 
topmast to shift the strain lower down as it becomes greater 
(if the mizzen-topsail is reefed or taken in), thence to the 
yard and down to hanging blocks on the mizzen-mast, 
about half way between the top and the deck. 

>XiKKeti-topKail Hi'noes. The standing* parts 
hook to the strap of a block at each side of the main cap : 
thence to the yard from down, up, back to the blocks, and 
so down through the lubber's-hole to the deck. 

All the above braces are of hemp, left-handed. 

l^ore-top-orallant Bi*acew are usually rove 
single, the standing parts going over the yard-arins with 

* Tlie same principh* may be variously apfilied, as to a main tnck. tlie slieet 
of a Bchooner's lu^ rore«ail, &c. 

f A timenoguy 18 aiiy piece of rope placed to ])revent riprging from chutinjr 
or fouling. 

1 The outer sheave is for the mizzen top-bowline. 

$^ Otherwise, the angular action of the brace would cant the yard either up 
or down, and consequently slack one or the other of tlie mizzen-topsail leeche*. 



11*:> BRACES. 

the lifts, thence through span-blocks on the main-topmast^ 
stay collar, and others, under the eyes of the topmast 
rigging — whips (the standing parts of which are secured to 
the deck) being attached to the ends, in large ships. The 
whip-blocks should be iron bound with swivel-eyes. Brace 
of hemp, whip of nuniila. 

>Xaiii-t<>p-jrnllnrit T^i*ii<*€*8<« l^ide preceding, 
and substitute nnzzcu tor "main." Brace hemp, whip 
manila. 

>rizzeii-tc>i>-pfalljiiit lifsi <*<*!<• Through small 
blocks, underneath the main-topmast cross-trees, or seized to 
the main-topmast backstays. Brace single, manilla rope. 

K'oiH^-i-o.vsil Ui*sVeeK are single (without whips), 
and rove like the top-gallant braces, except that they are 
taken to the main-top-gallant mast-head. The blocks are 
now generally made of metal, and hook to eyes in the 
funnel, or are seized to the top-gallant rigging. 

ZVXiiiii-i'o.^'sil lli*ivc?OK. Same as fore-royal braces, 
except taken to >n/zzen-top-gallant mast-head. 

>Xizzc*ii-i'<>.vnl IJi-acroK. Single, and through 
sheaves in the after-chock of the main-topmast cross-trees. 
All royal braces are of manilla rope. 

''l^opiiiiist Htiulcliiijr->^siil-l><><>iii lii*ai'€*M 
may be either single, going over the boom-end with a run- 
ning-eye and leading through a tail-block on the forward 
swifter of the main rigging ; or double, with a pendant and 
whip leading to the mam rigging. 

l*i"#*veiit<*i" IJi'iiee!^ are fitted with a pendant 
and whip, the former going round the yard, hooking to its 
own part, and the latter led to the deck, well aft, when for 
bad weather. When rove for action, they are led forward.. 



HALLIARDS. 

^^op^<s^il-lInllisll•<l^«• Where double tyes and 
gins are used, the standing part of the halliards is spliced 
to a single block (which is iron-strapped and fitted with a 
swivel), in the channels, on ea(*h side, and then rove 
through a double one hooked to a thimble in the end of 
its respective tye. A double purchase is used in heavy 
ships.* 



* Bell's ])iirrha8e, as usuttlly fitted for the mizzon -topsail halliards. Tho 
tye used is single, of flexible wire, reeving through the sheave in the topmasU 
Tlie four blocks are single (see Fig. 354) ; block A shackles into tye abaft the 
luast, blocks B and C an* in the after part of the mizzen chains, one on each side 
of the ship : block D is at the height of the lower mast-head when the topsail- 
yanl is on the cap, but close down to the leading block on deck when the yard is 
hoisted. The parts markt^l 1 and 2 are securely seized together at A. Power 
gained is as 7 to 1, friction not considered. Fig. 855 shows a similar parchaoe. 
for heavier yards. 



HALLIARDS. 1 1 7 

Top-jarallant FIt:i.lliiii-clH ; rove off on going to 
sea. The top-gallant yard ropes being rove in the jack- 
blocks, a '* snort yard rope " reeves through the sheave in 
the mast with sister-hooks in one end, hooking to the slings 
of the yard, and a thimble is then seized into the other end, 
for the top-gallant purchase. This is a tackle hooked into 
the lower trestle-trees, fall sent on deck. To unreeve the 
short yard rope on going into port, turn out the thimble. 

The long yard rope is coiled down in the top, ready for 
use in sending down the yard if necessary. 

K/O.val-IIalliai'clK are best, if fitted with a gun- 
tackle purchase, thus : The yard-rope, being rove in a leader 
on deck, is passed through a single block fitted with a strap 
having an eye, and toggled on abreast the top, as repre- 
sented in Fig. 352, Plate fKl. In the event, then, of having 
to send the yard down, it is onlv necessary to take off the 
block, whicn will leave the yardi-rope clear for running. 

The strap of the block may be a temporary one and made 
of a selvagee and the yard-rope, Fig. 00:2 (a). 

Tlii»oat-IIixlliiii*<l?^. If for a spanker or trysail, 
they usually consist of a purchase rove through double and 
single blocks ; the former hooked to a bolt on the under 
side of the after lower chock, and the latter to a band and 
eye-bolt at the jaws of the gaff ; the hauling part leading 
through the upper block from aft forward, to the deck. In 
brigantines and vessels with a boom-mainsail, both blocks 
are double. 

l^e«,l£-Halliai'cls<« The best plan for peak-halliards 
is to reeve them as follows : Hook the standing part into the 
breech of the mast-head block (which is double), and reeve 
thence tlirough the inner block of the gaff, from aft for- 
ward; then up through the port sheave of the mast-head 
block, out through the block at the gaff-end, from forward 
aft ; and lastly, back to the sheave of the mast-head block. 

The merit of this system will be api)arent, if we consider 
that the hauling part, by being rove last, at the gatt'-eiid. 
permits the peak to drop the instant the halliards are let go. 

The stanaing part may be rove through the third sheave 
of the block (treble) at mast-head, and have a small single 
block spliced in the end, through which re(*ve a whip ; this 
enables the peak to be pulled up taut. The latter plan is 
adopted by all large schooners and sloops, and is on the 
same principle as applying a purchase to the standing part 
of the main brace. 

Htoiixi-Sta.vwail ITa-lliai-cljs!. The fore-storm 
staysail-stay, fitted of rope of the proper size, having in its 
upper end a stout iron toggle covered with leather, toggles 
into the crotch of the fore-stay. The lower end, after pass- 
ing through the hanks of the sail, reeves throug;h a stout 
bulrs-eve strapped to the bowsprit, and sets up with a luff. 
The halliards are sometimes a luff, and sometimes a gun- 



118 HALLIABDS. 

tackle purchase. The lower block hooks to the head-cringle 
of the sail, the upper to an eye-bolt under the top, or to a 
strap around the collar of the fore-stay. 

This gear is rove only on the probabilities of bad weather. 

Jil> stud Topiiiast-Stay»ail Ha.llia,i*d.» 
are rove through the upper sheave of iron fiddle-blocks, 
hooked to a bolt in eacn side of the topmast trestle-trees, 
thence through hanging blocks in the after-gart of the 
trestle-trees, to keep them clear of the topsail tyes and 
lifts. The jib-halliards are double, and reeve through a 
block in the head of the sail, with the standing part half- 
hitched and lashed to the crotch of the stay collar. Hal- 
liards of manilla. The staysail-halliards are single, with 
sister-hooks to the head-cringle and a whip, the T)lock of 
which comes just below the hanging block when the sail is 
taken in. Pendant hemp, whip manilla. 

The lower sheaves of the fiddle-blocks serve for the top- 
sail buntlines. 

The jib-halliards should be led on the starboard side, and 
those for the staysail on the port — ^a rule which is self- 
evident, when we remember tnat the latter is set on the 
port topmast-stay. The method of fitting these halliards 
with whips, is not approved of by seamen generally, on 
account of the liability to tangle and get foul in hauling 
down the sail ; and the obvious necessity of separating the 
parts widely from each other. 

Note, whenever a whip is used, as in the foregoing, it 
is well to use an iron-strapped swivel-block, splicing the 
pendant into the eye of the swivel, to avoid cable-laying. 

I^^l vii:ig--,Til> Jtl£Lllia.i*clH9 manilla, are rove single, 
througn a small iron fiddle-block hooked to an eye in the 
lower rim of the funnel (on the port side) under the eyes of 
the rigging, and connected to tne head-cringle on the sail 
by means of sister-hooks. In large ships, however, they 
are sometimes rove double, and the standmg part seized to 
the splice of the stay on the under side. Tne small iron 
fiddle-blocks are for flying-jib halliards, topgallant bunt- 
lines, and topgallant bunt-jigger. 

All iron hanging blocks, like those above described for 
head halliards, as well as those for the topoail-tyes, are 
commonly known as " j/m" blocks. 

GS-ail-to j;>jsail IJa^llisii^clK are single, and in barks 
and ships, are rove through a sheave in the topgallant 
mast-head, and attached to the yard with a fisherman's 
bend; or if the sail is triangular in shape, to the head- 
cringle, with a sheet-bend. On board oi schooners and 
hermaphrodite brigs, they are rove through a sheave in 
the topmast-head. 

LoAvei* Stnclclingr-Sail Ha^llia^i^ds. The 
outer halliards reeve through the lower sheave of a fiddle- 
block, which is strapped with a long pendant, and hooks to 




MAIN BRACE OF A FIRST RATE 



SHEBTS. 119 

a strap around the topmast-head above the eyes of the 
rigging; thence to the halliard-block at the end of the 
topmast studding-sail-boom^ and attached to the yard with 
a fisherman's bend, or a studding-sail halliard-bend. The 
upper sheave of the fiddle-block is for the topmast studding- 
sail-boom toppine-lif t, when one is used. Or they are rove 
through a span-block on each side, which is secured with 
lashing-eyes above* the topmast rigging, and forward of the 
shrouds, the hoisting part leading on deck through the 
cross-trees and the lubber's-hole. The inner halliards are 
usuallv formed out of the fore clew-jigger, hooked to the 
inner head-cringle of the sail and to the cap. 

Topmast Stn.clcling'-Sail IIctllia.i*d.s are 
rove on each side through a single block hooked to the 
topmast cap ; thence abaft the topsail-yard, through the 
jewel-block, and so to the deck, where they are attached to 
the central part of the studding-sail yard with a fisherman's 
or studding-sail halliard-bend. 

Toi^prallant Stri.d.cling--Sail IIsiUiaKclH 
are rove on each side, through a single block (which is 
fitted with a rope-strap and tail), hitched above the eves of 
the topgallant rigging ; thence abaft, to the jewel-block, 
and so to the top, where they are bent to the studding-sail 
yard, in the same manner as the halliards previously men- 
tioned, the hoisting part being sent down to the deck abaft, 
and clear of all. 

The halliard-blocks at the mast-head are much neater 
when fitted with lashing-eyes. 

All the studding-sail nalliards are manila. 



SHEETS. 

Fore and IVIain Sheets. The standing parts 
are connected to eye-bolts on the outside of the bulwarks 
with sister-hooks, just forward of the sheaves for the 
hauling parts : thence they are rove up through the blocks 
at the clews ot the sail, and back, inboard through the bul- 
wark sheaves. Hemp, tapered. Fig. 357. 

Topsail Slieets. When aouble, as on board of 
first-rates, the st£^nding parts are clinched around their own 
parts and go around the yard-arms outside of all, and thence 
rove from out in, through the sheet blocks to the yard 
sheaves, and the quarter-blocks in the slings ; being led, 
lastly, to the bitts on deck, forward of the mast. If smgle, 
they are simply secured to the clew-cringle with hooks ; 
but where chain is used, they are connected by small stout 
iron shackles. 

Topsail sheets are usually- hemp, Fig. 356: 



I*'i0 SHEETS. 

Toji^g-allant a^ncl Xloj^al Sheets are always 
single. The former hook to the clews of their respective 
sails, and the latter have a sennit eye, which fits over a 
toggle on the clew of the royal. Topgallant sheets reeve 
through the topsail-yards, to the a/Ter-sheaves * of the 
quarter-blocks, thence they are led through the lubber's- 
hole to the deck. Royal sheets are rove in the same way. 
except through the sheaves and quarter-blocks of the top- 
gallant yards, and thence through thimbles on the f uttock- 
staflfs of the topmast rigging (abreast of the second shrouds), 
to the top or deck, as may be preferred. 

These sheets are of hemp. 

Stc>i*iii-Stit.VKiiil HlieelK are temporarv pur- 
chases, and consist usuallv of stout luflfs hookei (and 
moused) to the clew-cringles, and brought well aft, in 
order to form, as near as possible, a line with the foot of 
the sail. The hauling part should then lead from the for- 
ward'\Aoc\ij by which a greater purchase is obtained ; 
although the reverse of this is advocated by many seamen, 
on account of the difficulty sometimes experienced in 

getting a turn with the belaynig-end, in consequence of the 
apping of the sail ; but this objection will be entirely 
overcome, if the sheet be hauled aft, and the foot taut, 
before hoisting. 

'"l^i'.VKiiil Hlie€^ts<. The best plan for fitting these 
is to have a pendant attached to the clew of the sail for the 
sheet to hooK into, as it saves the trouble of "lighting uj)" 
the blocks to hook and unhook in shifting the sheet, as in 
wearing ship, &c. The sheet is an ordinary luflf and hooks 
well aft to an eye-bolt in the deck. 

•Iil> micl l''oi>iiiiiHt-Wtai.VKnil Hlio^^tK. Both 
of these are fitted with a hemp pendant and manilla gun- 
tackle purchase, as follows : 

The pendant, which is wormed and served, shackles into 
the clew-iron, and has a single block spliced into the in- 
board end. The other block oi the purchase hooks to an eye- 
bolt in the deck. A third single block is often hooked into 
the deck abaft the purchase-block, as a leader for the 
hauling part, f 

The deck blocks for the staysail sheets are forward of 
those for the jib. 

The standing parts of these head sheets hook into 
beckets in the breech of the pendant block. 

r<^lyiiig;'-jil> Hlieetss, may be single, but are gen- 

* In v<»ssel8 whore the quarter- blocks fixe thrcefoJd, the topgallant sheet i3 
rove in tlie iiUddle sheave. 

f The ]M)sition of the bolls and bhx-ks (or sheaves) must be such, that the 
sheet, when taut shall form a line at ripht anv:1es with the hiff of the sail — for 
otherwise, either the foot or the letMJh would become slack, and the jib thus be 
deprived of a pfreat portion of its efficacy. Head sheets should have a cuckold's 
neck in the end to prevent un reeving, by accident, as in a tHjuall. 

10 



/ 



SHEETS. 121 

erally fitted with a pendant and whip, hemp and manilla. 
The pendant shackles or hooks into the clew-iron, the stand- 
ing part of the whip secures to the whisker or to the head- 
raol, and the whip reeves through a block on the end of the 
pendant, a thimble on the whisker and in on the forecastle, 
forward of the stay-sail sheets. 

The object of the pendant is to keep the weather whip- 
block to windward of the stay, if possible, and it is fitted 
accordingly, sometimes reeving, itself, through the thimble 
on the wnisker, the whip coming inside of it. 

Sp£i,nl£er* Slieetm^ are rove in one with the guy. 
The standing parts are hooked to the shoulder-band, and 
rove to the (double) block in each quarter ; thence through 
the sheet-blocks on the boom from forward afty and back 
to the second sheaves of the double olocks. 

Booiii-iiia>iiiH£i.il SIieetH. In small craft, as 
schooners, &c., a purchase of double-blocks, and working 
on a traveller, is used ; but in larger vessels, two (attached 
by separate straps, and hooked to eye-bolts in each quarter) 
are employed to manage the boom — the hauling parts in 
either case leading from the upper block. This latter 
method is by far the better, as every one who has had to 
"jibe" a boom-mainsail, with a single sheet and crotch- 
ropes, in heavy weather, will bear witness to. 

Cr£tii-topsa.il Sheets are formed of a single piece 
of rope, which is middled, and the bight passed througn the 
clew-cringle of the sail ; the ends being thrust also through 
the bight, are led down on each side of the gaff to a belaying 
cleat on the boom, near the jaws. 

Stu.dding'-so.il Sheetfs. Those for the lower 
studding-sail consist of a single piece of rope, passed 
through the inner clew-cringle like those for the gaff-topsail 
(or the two parts may be seized together), ana in setting 
the sail, one sheet is rove from forward aft, through a 
thimble or block on the goose-neck, in order to bring the 
clew close down to the boom, and the other led inboard over 
the hammock-rail, on the forecastle, by which to haul on 
board the sail, when taking it in. 

In fitting a topmast studding-sail, two sheets are also 
required, which are attached to the clew in the same man- 
ner as those for the lower studding-sail. One (called the 
short sheet), being passed forward of the topsail, and aft 
through a thimble (seized to the jack-stay or quarter-iron) 
on the outer quarter of the lower yard, into the top, where 
it is belayed to a cleat ; and the other, or deck-sheet, being 
led to the forecastle, forward of the yard. The sheets and 
down-haul are always made up with the sail. 

The topgallant studding-sail sheet is simply spliced into 
the clew of the sail (having parcelling on it tor two or three 
feet below, to avoid chafe from the foot-rope of the topsail- 
yord), and led mto the top, where it is hitched around the 



1*22 TACKS. 



forward-swifter, or it may be led on deck, where it may be 
made of much service when taking the sail in, in a fresh 
breeze. The above sheets are manilla. 



TACKS. 

F'or-e a,iicl IVIaiii Taclis are hemp, tapered, 
rove double, Fig. 357 (except now and then on board of 
small vessels, where they are single). The standing part, 
which is wormed and served for a fathom or so from the 
end (as a protection from wet^, is hooked to the bumpkin* 
and rove through the tack-block at the clew of the sail — 
then back through a leading-block inside of the standing 
part, and a hole in the bulwarks. 

Stixdclingr-sail Taclis^ manilla, hook to the 
tacks of their respective sails, and are rove from in outy 
through the blocks at the boom-ends. That for the topmast 
studdmg-sail is led aft, through a tail-block on the for- 
ward-swifter of the main-rigging ; and the tack of the top- 
gallant studding-sail, through a leader tailed around the 
dead-eye of the after topmast shroud. 

The top-gallant studding-sail tack is befit, not hooked. 

Note. The double blo6k in the main rigging for the tack 
and boom-brace should not be tailed to tne snrouds, as it 
hauls them out of line and stretches them undulv. It should 
rather hook to the eye of a long pendant, which hooks far 
enough aft in the main-chains to form a line with the tack, 
and passes through a lizard at the proper place in the main 
riggmg. 

Spanliei" »ncl 13oom.-iiiainsail Tack 
(X^aHliiii^»-i)^ are passed through the cringle (into which 
they are spliced), and an eye-bolt on the upper side of the 
boom. 

The spanker-tack lashing is more frequently passed 
around the spindle of the spanker-mast step. 

Trysail-taeli Lasliing-K are passed around 
the foot of the trysail mast, on a line with tne foot of the 
sail, or through an eye-bolt in the after part of the fife-rail. 

Where the trysail is fitted " railway-fashion," the lower 
end of the grooved batten has a chock to keep the sliding 
hanks in. This chock has an eye for the tack lashings. 

Note. In laying-to, in a small vessel, under a balanced^ 
reefed (boom) mainsail, the tack of the sail should be lashed 
up to tne jaws of the gaff, and the whole hoisted several 
feet up the mast by means of the throat-halliards. In this 
way the sail is elevated to the wind above the waves, and 

* The main tack hooks to a bolt and block in each of the waterways, or deck, 
forward of the gangway, being rove like the fore, through the block on the clew 
of the sail, standing part forward. 



TACKS. 123 

in the event of being boarded by a quarter sea, it cannot 
lodge in the belly of tne sail, but will pass between it and 
thel)oom. 

rra,ek» of Hestd Sa.ils. All head sails have a 
cringle in the tack with an iron thimble. To secure the 
jib tack there is a bail, Fig. 333, or horse-shoe of iron, 
spanning the upper part of the jib-boom, inside the stay. 
The two ends of the bail have eyes, throuj^h which j^asses 
the pin for the sheave of the jib-stay. On this bail are 
sister-hooks, which hook into the tack thimble. 

The flying-lib tack is fitted in precisely the same way, 
the bail being held in its place by the pin of the sheave for 
the flying-jib stay. Fig. 332. 

Both nails have projecting eyes, well down, for the 
down-haul blocks. 

For the staysail is fltted a lon^ strap, with sister-hooks 
in the upper end. The strap is seized to the topmast-stay, 
and has drift enough for the foot of the staysail to clear the 
heel of the jib-boom. The hooks in the strap hook into the 
staysail tack thimble. 

This does away with the necessity of tack lashings. 



CLEWLINES. 

dew-O-aniets are used only on the courses. 
Lead from the deck to the clew-jrarnet block under the 
yard from in out, through the clew block in the sail, stand- 
ing part taken between the head of the sail and the yard, 
and made fast to the arm of the truss. 

Topsail Clewlines. For small ships may be 
single, or single with a whip. For large vessels rove as 
follows ; From the deck through the forward sheave of the 
quarter- block on the topsail-yard, thence through the clew- 
line block on the sail, the standing part taken up between 
the head of the sail and the yard, ana made fast to the neck 
of the tye-block. 

It would be far better to have a separate block in the 

Jiuarter of the yard for the clewline, the same as is fltted 
or clew-garnets. This enables the clewline to be unhooked 
and shifted to the cap (as is often done) without interfering 
with the topgallant sheets. Moreover, such a block has 
enough play to give a fairer lead to the clewline when the 
sail is bellied out by a strong breeze, and 'the sail is always 
hauled up snugger. Fig. 336 shows such a block, fitted. 

Tope-allant and :R.oyal Cle^wlines, are 
both sin^e, are bent to the clews of the sails, and rove 
through the quarter-blocks of their respective yards, and 
thence to the deck bv way of the lubber's-hole. Topgallant 
clewlines rove double in large ships, standing part secured 
to the neck of the quarter-block. 



1 24 CX£WI.JNES. 

Lo'wef Htiiclclin^r-s-^til Ole^wllnow, are 

simply bent to the clews and reeve cibaft the saU. through 
small single blocks on the inner end of each lower studding- 
sail yard, and thence are led inboard to a tail-block on the 
forward swifter in wake of the futtock rigging. This clew- 
line becomes the gear tricing-line when the sail is in. The 
clewlines are frequently lea through a glut in the beUy of 
the sail. 

Ii^ore a^nd jMain Cleiv-jiorgrein^. Each con- 
sists of a gun-tackle purchase, hooked to the clews of the 
courses forward and to eye-bolts underneath the forward 
part of the tops. In furling sails, they are found very useful 
for rousing the clews and leeches up forward of the yajrd ; 
while they also serve the purpose of inner halliards for the 
lower studding-sails, and are often employed as yard-arm 
jiggers in bending, or as reef -tackles in reefing. 

Topwail CJlew-Jig-g-ei^w. Like those for the 
courses. They are found very convenient in taking the clews 
well up above, and forward of the yard, greatly tecilitating 
the operation of furling. Upper block hooks under the top- 
mast trestle-trees, or to a strap fitted around the forward 
cross-tree, close in. 

The lower blocks of clew-jiggers are secret and fitted 
with a pendant and sister-hooks. All clew-jiggers should 
be long enough to reach to the deck. 

t^oi^e nncl Alain UnntlineH. Usually rove 
double (i. 6., with two legs on each side), a double block 
hooked under the top and a sicivel-hlook. are used in reeving 
off each pair of legs. The swivel-block resembles a fiddle- 
block in appearance, except that both shells are of equal 
size, and their ends connected by a swivel. 

Reeve the standing part of the buntline through the 
upper sheave of its swivel-block, then take both ends of the 
standing parts through the sheaves of the block under the 
top, from aft forward, and toggle these ends, which are 
fitted with eyes, to toggles on the foot of the sail. 

Through the lower slieave of the swivel-block is rove a 
whip, standing part made fast on deck, hauling part led 
through a sheave in the fife-rail. 

Where there is but little drift between the top and the 
yard for the buntlines (and leechlines) there are fitted 
instead of blocks under the top a pair of double blocks on 
each side, hanging by the legs of a short pendant from a 
bolt in the forward part of the lower cap ; sister-hooks in 
the bight of the pendant hooking to the bolt. The inside* 
double block is for the buntlines, the outboard one is for 
the leechlines. Fig. 358. 

T<>|>Hiiil Uiiiit linen are single, and rove throup^h 
the loiver sheaves of fiddle-blocks * under the eyes of tne 

* Upper sheaves of fiddle-blocks at the fore for the jib and fore-topmast stay- 



CLEWLINES, ETC. 125 

topmast ringing, thence forward through the thimbles of 
lizards hitched around the neck of the tye-blocks and down 
to the foot-rope of the sail, to which they toggle — ^the haul- 
ing part leading to the deck through the lubber^s-hole. 
They shoidd be cut long enough to land the topsail on deck. 

'JTopSSkllELrxt XJuntlineH lead through the blocks 
under the eyes of the topgallant rigging and toggle to the 
foot of the sail, the hauling parts leading on deck. 

They are sometimes fittea with two legs, one toggled to 
the foot, the other to the leech of the sail, so that when the 
sail is taken in, the leech is brought along the yard ready 
for furling. 

Topgaflant buntlines have lizards at the slings the same 
as topsail buntlines. 

In small vessels there is but one buntline. It is spliced 
around a span, both ends of which are toggled to the foot 
of the sail. 



BOWLINES. 

Fore BoTV^lineg*. A single rope ; the standing 
part made fast to the breech of a single block, hooked to a 
span between the fore-stays ; the hauling end rove through 
tne bull's-eye hung from the bowline bridle, back through 
the block at the stay. In tacking, &c., let go the hauling 
end, and re-reeve when on the other tack. 

IMiain Bowlinew consist of a whip and runner — 
the latter reeving through the thimble in the bridle, and 
belayed to the fore fife-rail ; and the former passing through 
a block in the end of the runner, led well forward — ^tne 
standing part of the whip being secured to an eye-bolt at 
the fore fife-rail, and the reeving end over a pin. 

In tacking, when it is required to let go the main bow- 
line the standing part of the runner is cast off, and the 
whole shifted to the opposite side, ready for reeving. 

Top-Bo^wlineH. The fore toggle to the bridles, 
and lead forward through blocks hooked to the bees and 
back, inboard, to the forecastle. The main reeve through 
single blocks, connected to bolts in the after rim of tne 
fore-top, and thence to the deck ; and the mizzen, through 
the outer sheaves of the cross- jack brace-blocks on tne 
main-mast. 



DOWN-HAULS. 
Jib a^nd Flying-Jito I^own-liaixls, are each 



Bail halliards. At the main and mizzen for topsail bunt jigger and main and 
mizzen topmast staysail halliards, when rove. . 



126 DOWN-HAULS, ETC. 

bent to the head cringle of their respective sails, and after 
being rove through a few of the upper hanks, and a single 
block hooked to the bail (see Tacks) are led inboard. Jib 
down-haul port side, flying-jib starboard side. 

Should the bail carry away, both the tack and down-haul 
blocks would be adrift ; it is therefore safer to seize the 
blocks to their respective guys. 

rropnia^Ht Stavsail I3oMrii-hAii.l. Rove 
same as above, comes inboard on the port side, down-haul 
block seized to the stay, or an eye-bolt in the bees. 

Studdinpr-^^il^ Oo^wn-haixls. That for the 
topmast studding-sail is bent to the outer end of the yard- 
arm and rove thence through a thimble on the leech, to the 
down-haul block at the tack, leading on deck, forward of 
the foresail, across the forecastle to tne opposite side. That 
for the topgallant studding-sail is merely bent to the inner 
yard-arm of the sail, and led abaft all to the top. 

GraflP-topsall Oo wn-haul (aiid CleMT'line) 
is led from the after clew of the sail (to which it is bent), 
through a single block at the head of the sail and thence 
through the hanks on the mast down to the deck. 



OUT-HAULS. 

Spctnkei* Oixi>-lian.l. Hooks to an eye in the 
shoulaer-band on the boom, reeves through a block on the 
clew of the sail and through the sheave in the boom, belay- 
ingto a cleat on the boom. 

i^eak Oixt-liaui consists of a whip and pendant. 
The latter is bent to the peak of the sail, rove through the 
sheave in the gaff, and at a distance equal to the len^h of 
the gaff, has a single block turned in, through whicn the 
whip is rove. The standing part of the whip is made fast 
under the top, the running part leads through a single 
block and thence on deck. 

Louver Stnddingr-sail Ont-liaixl is con- 
nected by sister-hooks to the outer clew of the sail, and 
led through a single block (hooked to the boom with clip 
hooks) to a sheave above thai for the gujr in the bulwarks. 

Graff^topfe^ail Ont-liaixl is hitched to the clew 
of the sail, ana rove through a sheave at the ^aff-end, down 
to the deck, where it is belayed to a cleat on tne boom. 

Ti?j^sail Out-hauls. They are always single, 
and attached to the outer head-cringle of the sail, bem^ 
rove through a sheave in the gaff-end to a leader hooked 
under the top, and having a whip, which is led thence to 
the deck* 



BEEF-TACKLES, ETC. 1^7 



REEF TACKLES. 

Topsail reef -tackles reeve up through the lubber's-hole, 
through the upper sheave of a sister-block in the eyes of the 
topmast rigging (or better, through a single block at the 
topmast cap), thence through a sheave in tne topsail yard- 
arm and a secret block on the leech of the topsail. The end 
of the standing part secures around the pacinc-iron. 

Sometimes the reef -tackles are fitted thus : The standing I 

part is spliced to the strap of a block shackled to the leech 
of the sail, below the close-reef band, thence led upward 
through the forward sheave of a double block on the yard- 
arm outside of all, down through the block on the leecn, up 
to the remaining sheave of the double block, and so to the 
after sheave of the quarter-block, and lastly, through the 
lubber's-hole to the deck. In this case the quarter-block is 
three-fold, if there is no special block for the clewline. 

Fore a^nd IMsLin K^eet-penclants are hooked 
to the cringle and rove through a single block with lashing 
eyes, fitted to the yard just outside the lift. There is a 
thimble in the other end to which hooks the lower block of 
the clew-jigger, upper block being hooked at the cap. 

Instead of these pendants regular lower reef -tackles are 
being fitted. These consist of a ^un-tackle purchase, the 
lower block hooked to the reef-cringle, upper block to an 
eye-bolt on the under forward part of the yard-arm. The 
hauling end leads to the deck through a block seized to the 
arm of the truss. These reef -tackles are cut long enough 
for yard-arm jiggers in bending sail. 

LEECH-LINES. 

These are confined to the courses and are clinched to the 
leech — outer one about one-third down from the head-earing 
cringle, and the inner one about two-thirds — and thence 
rove uj) through leading blocks on the bending jack-stay * 
to the inner and outer sheaves (respectively) of a double 
block hooked under the top, the hauling part of the leech- 
line reeving through fair leaders on the lower rigging to 
the side racK, on deck. 

See also lead described under Buntlines. Fig. 358. 
• 

* These blocks should be so placed that the leech of the sails will be taut 
along the yard 'when haaled up, and fitted with straps, which permit them to 
hang about a foot below the yard— -a plan obviating the necessity of attending 
the leech- lines in bracing up. The hauling parts of the leech -lines, after pass- 
ing through the double block are often rove through a large thimble or hank 
tailed to the lower part of the forward f uttock-shroud. This keeps them from 
being jammed between the yard and the rigging when braced up. 



128 BBAILS, GUYS, ETC. 

Note. In large ships they are sometimes temporarily 
rove on the topsail-yards (through tail-blocks on the for- 
ward swifters) for furling sails, where the leeches are 
heavy. 

BRAILS. 

SpAnkeT* e^nd Trvsail Brails are middled, 
and the bights secured to their respective eyelet holes on 
the leech of the sail by cross-seizings, the ends rove through 
single blocks seized to the hanks on the trysail-mast. 

in addition to the brails there is a down-haul for hauling 
the head of the sail down on the gaff, rove through a block 
hooked in the jaws of the gaJff. On the opposite side, 
through a similar block, is rove a clew rope for taking the 
clew up toward the throat. . 

A. »la.l3 Z^ine is sometimes used on the foresail. It 
is rove through a tail-block secured to the slings of the 
yard, abaft, and hanging down clear of the yard. The end 
is taken down abaft tne sail and spliced around a span 
fitted with eyes, which toggle to the inner buntline toggles. 



GUYS. 

Lower Boom Grixvs. When double, the stand- 
ing part of the forward one nas an eye, seizing to the jib- 
guy just forward of the whisker, seizing to cross at every 
turn to make the eve lay flat. Rove thence through a 
single block on the Tboom, and back to a block with clip 
hooks at the bees, the hauling part leading inboard to the 
forecastle. When single, they connect to the boom by 
sister-hooks, and the block at the boom is omitted. The 
after guys are rove in the same manner, except abaft, to a 
bolt in the side and a sheave in the chess-tree, just forward 
of the gangway. 

Spanker-boom Grii^n. Vide Sheets. 



BUNT-JIGGERS. 

Bixnt^lg-grers are used for the topsails, course^ and 
sometimes topgallant-sails. Courses and topgallant sails 
have single bunt-jiggers (or bunt-whips), topsails, a whip 
and pendant. The topsail bunt-jigger pendant for the fore 
leads through a single block lashed to the topmast-stay col- 
lar, close in to the trestle-tree. For the main and mizzen 
through the starboard and port upper sheaves, respectively, 
of the fiddle-blocks at the mast-heads. From the olock the 
bunt-jigger leads down forward of the topsail, under the 



BUNT- JIGGERS, ETC. 129 

focrt, and hooks to the upper glut. The after end of the 
pendant has a single block (an iron-bound swivel) spliced 
m and a whip rove, abaft all, to the deck. 

The bunt-jiffgers of the courses lead in the same way, 
through a single block under the top. Rove single. 

Topgallant bunt-jiggers lead in a similar way through a 
small iron block at the topgallant mast-head, and into the 
top. 

In manv vessels topsail bunt-jiggers * are led through a 
single block hooked to the eye-bolt in the heel of the top- 
gallant-mast. This gives a better lead. When sending the 
mast up and down, the block is transferred to a small strap 
on the collar of the topmast-stay. 



CHANGES IN THE LEAD OF RUNNING RIGGING. 

The above list comprises the principal running rigging 
of men-of-war, together with the leads usually adopted. It 
sometimes happens that the lead of the gear on deck is 
modified for special reasons. For instance, in vessels with 
little quarter-deck space, the hauling part of the fore-brace 
is often led aft, and that of the fore-topsail brace, forward. 
The object is to have the f oretopmen nearer to tneir own 
parts of the ship when bracing in to reef, arid to keep them 
out of the way of the men on the main-topsail brace. 

X^ea.d of Greai* al>on.t the Smolce- 
Sta.ek. In making long passages under steam against a 

1)revailing contrary wind, it is not unfrequent to see the 
ead of gear in the neighborhood of the smoke-stack, tem- 
Eorarily altered for the preservation of the rope. The 
auling part of the fore topsail-brace and both parts of the 
fore-brace are brought down ; the standing part of the fore- 
brace being hooked to a band on the mainmast ten or 
twelve feet above the deck, or to a launch's davit, if waist 
launches are carried. 

Main-topsail-sheets are unrove from the quarter-blocks ; 
gear about the mainmast is hauled up ana covered with 
tarpaulins. All this takes little time to do, and in the event 
of a favoring slant, the gear can be readil^r rove off for 
making sail. The head braces have a fair lead when 
shifted as above described, and if a favoring breeze 
freshens, or seems likely to hold, preventer braces can be 
clapped on, and the regular ones shifted to their proper 
places aloft without shortening sail. 

Temporary changes similar to the above are unobjec- 
tionable, in so far as they affect the lead aloft. But care 

* The tenn bunt^ger Ss preferred by many officers to the more correct word, 
hurU-u^ip, The latter is likely to cause confusion in hailing the men aloft, from 
the similarity of its sound to bunt line. 



130 



CHANGES. 



should be taken not to alter leads about the deck except for 

good cause. So much of the handling of gear is done in 
le dark that the men may be confused, perhaps at a criti- 
cal moment, if the position of any running rigRinff is 
frequently varied from that sanctioned by weU-establisned 
custom. 



CHAPTER X. 



SAILS. 



Canvas is made of hemp, of flax, or of cotton. 

All canva43 used in the navy for sails is flaxen, made in ' 
cloths of eighty yards in lenfftn, and in breadth of twenty 
inches. These cloths are rolled up in separate packages, 
called bolts. The stoutest canvas is No. 1 ; from this num- 
ber it increases in fineness, and diminishes in strength, to 
No. 9. 

In selecting canvas for sails, considerable practice and 
close observation are required. A good test is to bore a fid 
through the canvas, when, if bad, the threads are easily 
broken. 

It is of importance that canvas should have a good and 
even selvage, and be free from tightness. 

There is a great deal of difference in the stretching of 
canvas — ^that which is badly struck stretching most. 

The principal sails of a ship are — ^the courses, or sails on 
the lower yards ; the topsails, which are next in order 
above the courses, and the top-gallant sails, which are 
extended above the topsails. 

For sails, see Plate 4, and corresponding reference num- 
bers. 

In all quadrilateral sails, the upper edge is called the 
head; the sides are called the leeches ; ana the bottom, or 
lower edge, is termed the foot If the head is parallel to 
the foot, the lower comers are denominated clews, and the 
upper comers head-earina cringles. 

in all triangular sails, and in those four-sided sails 
wherein the head is not parallel to the foot, the foremost 
comer at the foot is called the tack, and the after lower 
comer the clew ; the forward comer of the head the nock, 
the after comer the peak, or head. The foremost edge {or 
side) is called the fore-leech, or luff, and the aftermost edge 
the after-leech, 

Stav Sa.ils« These are extended upon stays be- 
tween tne masts, taking their names from the stay on 
which they set. Those used in the navy are the fore-top- 
mast staysail, main-topmast and main -topgallant staysail 
and mizzen topmast staysail. 

Studdlngr SO'IIm are set out beyond the leeches of 

131 



132 SAILS. 

the foresail, topsail and topg:allant sail, also beyond the 
main-topsail and topgallant sail, being known as the lower, 
topmast and topgallant studding-sails. Their upper edges 
are extended by studding-sail yards, the lower edges dv 
booms riffged out beyond the extremities of the ship^s 
yards. These sails are used only in favorable winds and 
moderate weather. 

Additional Sailn. Above the royals may be set 
sails called moonsails, sky-scrapers, &c. In the navy 
nothing is set above royals. In the merchant service 
rarely anything above a skysail. The sails usualljr set 
forward of the foremast are the fore-topmast staysail, jib 
and flying- jib. Some vessels carry outer- jibs, jib-of-jibs, or 
jib-topsails. 

Stoi'in-SailH are made of the strongest canvas, 
and are used, as the name indicates, only in the hieaviest 
weather. 

These consist of the fore^ main and mizzen storm stay- 
sails and the ^^ storm-mizzen.^' The storm-staysails set on 
the respective lower-stays, or better, on a temporary storm- 
stay, toggled in the collar of the lower stay. 

The storm mizzen is a triangular sail set abaft the miz- 
zen-mast on a vertical **stay," hooked under the after 
trestle-tree, and set up on deck. 

The fore and main trysails are also used in bad weather 
and frequently take the place of the main and mizzen 
storm-staysails. 

The term light sails is generally understood in the ser- 
vice to apply to the topgallant sails, royals, flying-jib, and 
studding-sails. 

Jibs are of great command with any side wind, but 
especially when the ship is close-hauled, or has the wind 
abeam ; and their effect in casting the ship, or turning 
her head to leeward, is very powerful, and of great utility. 

Although the yards on the foremast are termed head-- 
yards y yet the fore-topmast-staysail and the jibs alone are 
Known as the head-sails. 

The after-sails, which are those that belong to the 
mainmast and mizzenmast, keep the ship to the wind ; on 
which account ships sailing on a wind require a head-sail 
and an after-sail — one to counteract the other, so that 
the spanker being at one end of the lever, as it were, and 
the jibs at the other, they are of great assistance in steering 
and working a ship. 

When a ship sails with a side wind, the clews of the fore 
and main courses are fastened by a tack and sheet, the tack 
being to windward and the sheet to leeward. The tack is, 
however, not in use with the wind aft, whereas the sail 
is never spread without the assistance of one or both of the 
sheets. 

When on a wind, ships are said to have their starboard 



Plate 69 




1^12.350 




3^i2.360 



l-"ia.301 





SAILS. . 133 

(or port) tacks aboard, according to the side presented to 
the wind. 

On the other hand, schooners have their port (or star- 
board) sheets aft. 

Wnen speaKing of topsails, or such sails as are set hy 
halliards, the altitude is termed the hoist, thus one topsail is 
said to have '^more or less hoist" than another. 

When speaking of courses the same idea is conveyed by 
the word drop, as one mainsail has ^^ more or less drop " than 
another. 

It is under the topsails that many important evolutions 
are made, and they are justly accounted the principal sails 
in a ship. 

The draft of the ship and spars, Fig. 284, Plate 46, is of 
great service to the sail-maker, as well as to the boatswain, 
for by it he can measure for and cut out a suit of sails. 

The sailmaker generally makes his own draft to work 
by. 

Were a sail to be exactly square, there would be little 
art in making it. But a ship's sails are, mostly, anything 
but square ; there is much skill required in the arrangement 
of every cloth. In cutting out and making them up, it is a 
primary object to adapt and cut the numerous gores* so 
that, when brought together, they will produce the ulti- 
mate form required, with the least possible waste of canvas. 
This is effected by so casting the number of inches contained 
in each gore, that when they are brought together they 
shall be equal to the number contained in the after leech- 
cloth. This is in reference to fore-and-aft sails, but the 
same theory applies in the parts of square sails. 

Sails should set as nearly flat as possible. 

The American schooner is an illustration, where even 
the lib is frequently laced down to a yard or boom, fitted 
for tne purpose, in the desire to have everything set flat. 

In pilot Doats and yachts the sails are set as taut and as 
flat as the sacking-bottom of a bed. The utility of this plan 
was exemplified in the race between the yacht " America" 
and the English yacht squadron. Going free, there was 
not much difference ; but on hauling up to make a stretch 
to windward the flat canvas of the ** America" enabled her 
to distance her competitors. 

The efficiency of the '* America's" sails, as well as those 
of all of our small craft, is due to their goreless shape, the 
canvas being cut as much as possible on the thread or woof, 
and also to tne practice of lacing sails down taut to spars or 
booms. In Fig. 359. Plate 01), the foot of the sail is gored, 
and as it cannot be laced down, it bellies out to leeward, on 
a wind, and consequently much of the effect of the wind is 
lost. 

* In all sails those cloths which are cut in any direction except straight 
with the thread or woof are said to be gored. 



134 . SAILS. 

In Fig. 360, Plate 69, on the contrary, the only gore is at 
the mast to which the sail is attached ; each cloth is pulled 
downwards bodily, and every single thread is stretched. 
There is, with this sail, but little concave surface, and 
therefore but little of the effective pressure of the wind is 
lost. The same principle applies to all sails. 

Cutting- oiit ^a^ilts. Sails are cut out cloth by 
cloth, the width being governed by the length of the yard, 

faflf, boom, or stay ; the depth by the height of the mast, 
he width and depth being given, find the number of cloths 
the width requires, allowing for seams, tabling on leeches, 
and slack cloth ; and in depth, allow for tabling on the head 
and foot. Sails cut square on the head and foot, with gores 
only on the leeches, as some topsails are, the cloths on the 
head between the leeches are cut square to the depth ; and 
the gores on the leeches are found by dividing the depth of 
the sail by the number of cloths gored, which gives the 
length of each gore. The gore is set down from a square 
with the opposite selvage, and the canvas, being cut diago- 
nally, the longest-goreoL side of one cloth makes the shortest 
side of the next : consequently, the first gore being known, 
the rest are cut oy it. 

In the leeches of topsails cut hollow^ the upper gores are 
longer than the lower ones. By drawing on paper the 
gored side of the sail, and delineating the breadth of every 
cloth by a convenient scale of equal parts of an inch to a 
foot, the length of every gore may be found with precision. 

The foot of square sails is roached so as not to Tbe chafed 
by any boat, netting, or stay, that may stand in the line of 
tneir middle parts. Topsails are hollowed on their leeches, 
to avoid long yard-arms for the lower reef earings. 

Sails are supplied to vessels complete, with points, ear- 
ings, bowline-bridles, beckets, and robands. Their edges 
are tabled and stitched to the bolt-rope. The tabling of 
large sails is strengthened at the clews and foot by a third 
fold of canvas sewn in it. The tabling and clew-pieces are 
sewn on the after side of square, and on the port side of 
fore-and-aft sails. 

Sea^mss. Sails have a double flat seam, and should be 
sewed with the best American-made cotton twine of three 
to eight threads, and have from one hundred and eight 
to one hundred and sixteen stitches in every yard in 
length. It is the erroneous practice of some sailmaters not 
to sew the seams any farther than where the edge is creased 
down for the tabling ; but all sails should be sewed quite 
home to the end, and, when finished, should be well rubbed 
down with a rubber. The twine for large sails used in the 
navy is waxed bv hand, with genuine beeswax. 

The seams of courses, topsails, lower staysails, trysails, 
and spanker, are 1^ inches wide. After the larger sails have 
become somewhat worn, they are sometimes treble-seamed 







iliiJllijili;^ 



lilillilgssij^ 

— — *■ — ' — n * — — iiiii-LUJJ [\ 



i" 



!i» 



/ijjfliji 

Muji " 

'Jimiiiit 



I'HilJliJll 
fi!fi[IM'li '" 




SAILS. 135 

down the middle of the seam^ to strengthen them. Seams 
of other sails are 1 inch wide. One man can sew 100 yards 
in 91 hours, single seam. 

Tabling-s. The tablings of sails are of a propor- 
tionate breadth to the size oi the sail, and sewed at the 
edge with sixty-eight to seventy -two stitches in a yard. 

Holes. Holes are made by an instrument called a 
stabber, and are fenced round by stitching the edge to a 
small ffrommet, made with a log or other line. When 
finished, they should be well stretcned or rounded-up by a 
pricker or a marling-spike. 

Sails have two holes in each cloth at the heads and reefs 
of courses, top-sails, and other square sails ; one hole in 
every yard in the luff of flying-jibs ; and one in every 
three-quarters of a yard in the luffs of other staysails. 

Reef and head holes of sails have grommets of small line, 
worked round with stitches. 

In order to strengthen sails, the holes in the heads and 
reefs should be placed thus : One hole to be made in the 
seam, another in the middle of the canvas, and so alter- 
nately ; the holes in the seam to be half an inch lower than 
the hole in the middle of the canvas. By this, the strain 
would lie upon the holes in the seam, which are more capable 
of bearing it than the holes in the middle of the single can- 
vas. It is likewise recommended to cut these holes witn a hol- 
lowpunch, instead of making them with a stabber or pricker. 

ILiining's. Sails are strengthened with additional 
canvas at those places most exposed to strain and wear ; in 
square sails, in the wake of cringles along the leeches on 
the foreside, called leech-lining, c. Figs. 363 and 364, in the 
wake of buntlines on the foreside, called buntline cloths, 
g ; across the foreside, called reef and belly-bands, a and 6 ; 
and in the case of topsails on the afterside, called the top- 
linings and mast-linings, e and /. Fore-and-aft sails are 
strengthened at the clews by pieces ; and jibs sometimes 
with a strain-band. There is also the foot-lining d, reef- 
tackle-pieces A, and clew-pieces i. 

The clews of courses and topsails are formed of iron. 
The cringles for earings, reef -tackles, bowlines, &c., are 
formed of bolt-rope strands, worked round the leech-rope, 
through eyelet-holes in the tabling. The rope should be 
new, and half-an-inch smaller than the rope of the sail. 

The reef -earing and reef-tackle cringles have galvanized 
thimbles. 

Topsails have two bowline-cringles and one bridle on 
each leech. Bowline-cringles have no thimbles. 

Plate 70, Fig. 363, represents a topsail bent to the iron 
jackstay of a topsail yard ; a' a" are the first and second 
reef -bands, fitted to reef with beckets and toggles on the 
yard : a a the third and fourth reef -bands with reef-points ; 
o by belly-bands— frequently there is but one; c c, leech 



136 SAILS. 

linings ; rf, r/, foot lining or band ; e, top lining; /, mast 
lining ; a, buntline cloths ; h, reef -tackle pieces or bands ; 
t ty head tabling and head holes through wnich the robands 
are passed ; all these, with the exception of the top, foot, 
and mast lining, are on the forward side of the sail. 

The Greai*. 1, the lift; 2, 3, reef -tackle: 4, head- 
earing ; 5, 6, 7, 8, the first, second, third and fourth, or 
close-reef cringle — the earing is spliced into the eyelet-hole 
below the cringle, seized to it and bent to the cringle above ; 
9, reef -tackle cringle ; 10, bowline cringles, bowfine bridle 
and toggle for bowline ; 11, iron clew or spectacle — to two 
of its eyes splice the leech and foot-rope, the eye and splice 
being leathered — to the third eye shackles the topsail sheet- 
block ; 12, 12, buntline toggles, between which the foot-rope 
is usually leathered ; 13, 14, 15, gluts, the upper two abaft 
the sail and the lower one forward of the sail as shown in 
the figure. 

Fig. 364 represents a course, also viewed from forward. 
The lettering and numbers of the details are the same as 
those for the topsail. 

The clew of the course (11), viewed from forward, is 
shown in an enlarged form, leathered on flap forward be- 
tween eyes of spectacle. 

Generally speaking, topsails have three gluts, two abaft 
and one forward of the sail ; the upper one is for the bunt- 
jigger to be used when furling sails. The second is for the 
same purpose when furling with a single reef, and the 
third, forward of the sail, is for a midship buntline^ used 
for hauling up the slack of the sail in taking in the close 
reef. 

Courses, Fig. 364, have two reef bands on the foreside, 
each being one-sixth the depth of the sail in the middle 
from the head ; with a belly-band half way between the 
lower reef and the foot. 

Topsails have three or four reef -bands, on the foreside, 
the lower of which is at half the depth of the sail, nearly ; 
the belly-band, also on the foreside, is halfway between tne 
lower reef and the foot. 

Top-gallant sails may have one reef -band, though not 

Eointed, as it is rarely ever used. A topmast studding-sail 
as one reef -band for setting with single reefed topsails. A 
lower studding-sail has a rolling-reef. None but the last 
are likely to be of much use. 

Spankers have generally two reef -bands, one band run- 
ning diagonally — termed a balance-reef. 

Frequently the term balance-reef is applied to the close- 
reef in fore and aft sails, particularly on board of " fore-and- 
afters." 

The jib has a reef -band, and on fore-and-aft coasters a 
bonnet which is attached to the foot of the sail by means 
of a lacing. The lug-foresail of a schooner has a bonnet 
also. 



Plate 71 



PLAN 



iri|t.365 





i'iC.30tJ 




Fia:.367 



C^SSSSSS^Ni;^ 





Fi«.368 




Fi«.369 



Fi«.370 




FiE^ri 




SAILS. 1:37 

The term lug-foresail is applied to that of the schooner, 
when the foresail hauls aft by a sheet, to distinguish it 
troia aboomrforesail where the toot is laced down to a boom. 

Hoping". The bolt-rone sewed on the hollow or 
straight leeches of square sails, is put on with suflBciency 
of slack canvas to admit of that stretch of rope which arises 
from the constant strain upon the margin of such sails ; 
and the necessary allowance for the stretch of the whole is 
made in the calculation of dimensions of such sails. But in 
the leeches of fore-and-aft-sails, as also in the round foot of 
spankers, jibs, &;c., &c., a suflBcient quantity of slack rope 
is introduced to keep the foot from curling up, to leave tne 
after-leech of these sails free, and also to compensate for the 
amount of stretch which those parts of the sails above- 
named are constantly liable to. 

Spankers are made with an allowance of stretch of 
3^ inches in each 3 feet of the foot, H in each 3 feet of the 
head, and 2^ in each 3 feet of the length of the leech. 

Sails are always bent to their yard or gaff with the 
roping next the spar, otherwise the stitches would be cut 
through by friction. 

In square sails the rope is always sewn on the af terside ; 
in fore-and-aft sails, generally on the port side. The roping 
of the foot is stoutest, tapering off to tne leech-rope. 

Courses are usually fitted with a double reef point 
forward of the sail, kept in place by a rope jackstay aoaf t, 
which is rove through the bights 01 the reef points, thrust 
through the eyelet-holes from forward aft. 

Topsails are pointed by reeving one long point 
through the eyelet-hole, and stitching it in so that two-tnirds 
will be abaft and one-third forward of the sail. 

Topmast SLTiA Lo^^^ei* Stxxclcling— ^ail'*' 
are reefed by passing temporary stops of spun-yarn through 
eyelet-holes. 

JKooTn-maiiisails and spanker are pointed by 
stitching the middle part of the points in holes ** stabbed" 
in the seams of the sails. As in reefing, there is only slack 
sail to be tied up, heavy pointing is unnecessary. 

Ffench JK.ee fs« The first and second reef bands 
of topsails in our service, and all reefs of square sails in the 
British and French navies, are now fitted with rope jack- 
stays instead of points, with reefing beckets, Fig. 367, se- 
cured on the yard. 

The jackstays on the sails are differently fitted. Our 
practice is to use two lines, weaving them in opposite 
directions right across, in and out of the holes in the sail, 
stitching or seizing the crossings together, Fig. 365. The 
ends of the lines go through the reef-cringle holes and 
around the leech-rope with an eye-splice. 

Sometimes the bights of the foremost line are shoved 
through the holes with a hard kink, the after line being 



138 SAILS. 

rove through tlie kink, Fig. IMU), Both plans are poor, and 
the same may be said of any arrangement involving an 
after jackstay for a topsail, as it is constantly liable to foul 
in hoisting. 

The French plan dispenses with the rope jackstay abaft 
the sail. The eyelet-holes are placed in pairs, each eyelet 
of a pair being about two inches from the edge of a seam. 
The reef -line is secured by splice to the leech of the sail, 
passes forward of the sail to the first hole, reeves through 
that hole from forward aft, out through the second hole 
from aft forward, then in and out again as before, the two 
turns of the line being seized together abaft the sail with 
a flat seizing. The line then passes twice through the next 
pair of eyelet-holes in the same way, Fig. 368. Another 
similar plan of fitting the reef -line, also French, is shown 
in Fig. 369. In this case the use of seizings is avoided, the 
bight of the reefing-line being shoved through the first hole, 
the end taken in the second hole through a kink in the 
bight and out again, and so on to the next pair of holes. 

I>oiil>le TopnailH. The lower one is bent to the 
lower topsail yard and its clews are hauled out by sheets 
rove in trie usual way. It has no reef band. 

The upper topsail is bent to the upper topsail yard, its 
clews being shackled to jackstays fitted on the lower topsail 
yard arms. This topsail has one or two reefs according to 
its size. It has buntlines but no clewlines. 

FITTING SAILS. 

Prior to bending, the sails should be carefully examined, 
in order to supply any omissions, such as* the points, 
bridles, thimbles, eyelets, and gluts. In addition to which, 
the fore and aft sails must be prepared with hanks, brail- 
blocks, lacings and lashings, and the square sails with 
earings and ** rope-bands," or robands. 

IXeacl-Eai'iiiqrs. Small manilla rope, one end 
spliced into the head-earing cringle, the other end whipped. 
It is cut long enough for two turns from the staple to the 
head-earing cringle, with end enough for several .turns 
through the backer. 

Il.eel-Eai*iiig-K. Similar to the above, but of 
heavier stuff ; one end spliced into the reef-cringle eyelet^ 
just below their respective thimbles ; the other end 
whipped. Length sufficient te haul out to and around 
the proper cleat on the yard, with end enough to expend 
around the yard and through the reef -cringle for three or 
more turns. 

Btxll-Eainng-K. The simplest and best are of well- 
worn manilla, with one end spliced into the standing part. 
Fig. 370, forming a bight long enough to hitch arouna the 




■ V 



SAILS. 131) 

yard outside the proper cleat, and reeve through the reef- 
cringle and back to the yard. 

Tnese are called hull-earing s, and remain on the yard 
instead of in their cringles, that for the first reef being rov^ 
through its cringle and brought back to the yard ready for 
use. 

BuU-earings have been made (of smaller stuff) to give 
more parts in the first turn by splicing on an additional 
length in the first bight, as in Fig. 371, but they twist up in 
wet weather, and are otherwise objectionable as compared 
to the simple form. 

It.ol>a.TiclK9 consisting of two-yarn foxes, are middled, 
and secured to the head rope, by thrusting one end through 
the bight, which is first passed through the eyelet from tne 
fore side of the sail, and hauled taut. 

Gra^Hkets. These are classed as bunt, yard-arm, and 
sea-gaskets ; the first two made of plaited yarns. Those 
for tne hunt consist of two single legs — one on each side of 
the slin^, varying from two to three inches in width, and 
fitted with a thimble in one end, by which it is secured to 
the hendina jack-stay with a permanent seizing — the other 
extremity having a laniard, which is hitched to the oppo- 
site quarter of the yard on top ; the gaskets crossing each 
other on the bunt when the sail is furled. The yard-arm 
gaskets are made of sennit also, and fitted with a thimble, 
or eye, in one end, and the other tapering, and secured at 
equal distances (generally about every third seam) along 
the yard, underneath the jack-stay, by a cross-seizing just 
below the thimble. The gasket lies under the head of the 
sail. When furling it is taken up forward and over, and 
the end rove through the thimble, the sail tossed well up 
and the end expended around its own part. 

In making harbor gaskets, the broad part should be long 
enough to take the saU in when furled with two reefs ; thev 
should be carefully blacked, and to avoid staining the sail, 
should be lined. 

The sea-gaskets, or more properly furling lines (of which 
there are two on each of the lower and topsail yardarms), 
may be either of sennit or small-sized rope, and of sufficient 
length to go around booms and all, when furling in heavy 
weather. These, however, are not necessarily permanent 
fixtures to the yard, although usually put round it at the 
outer and inner quarters with a running eye, and the sur- 
plus end bightea up with frapping turns, and thrown for- 
ward of the sail, at sea. They are removed in port. 

A description of bending sail will be found under the 
head of Port Drills. 

Fixi'ling" CoixrHes, The leeches are handed in 
along the yard, then the sail rolled up snug, with the ends 
of the points passed in towards the bunt, to give the sail a 
gradual increase in that direction. Pass the gaskets square, 



140 SAILS. 

lower the booms, and if required stop up the gear. The 
buntlines and leechlines are stopped to the slings close down, 
and hauled taut on deck. The bowline-bridles of all sails in 
furling are laid with the toggle towards the bunt, and bri- 
dles taut along the yard. 

When a sail is neatly furled, it appears neither above nor 
below the yard — earrings well slewed up — sail smooth under 
the gaskets, bunt square, and a tant skin. The heels of the 
booms should be square, and everything necessary com- 
pleted, previous to squaring the yards. 

f ixi'ling- Topf^ailH. When the sail is nearly 
rolled up, hook the ount- jigger, bouse it well up, lower 
away roundly the buntlines, and shove the sail well into the 
skin, taking pains to keep the bunt square ; pass and secure 
the gaskets, lower and square the studding-sail booms, 
clews singled and hauled well up, buntlines stopped down. 

HEAD SAILS. 

These sails require some fittings not strictly within the 
sailmaker's department, such as the bails for tack-lashings, 
the hanks, &c. 

lla^nkK are stout thimbles, of the shape shown in 
Figs. 361 and 362, which traverse up and down the stay. 
The common plan is to attach them to the luff by foxes of 
spun-yarn rove through the eyes of the hank and the eyelet 
on the sail. A neater plan is suggested by Fig. 302, where 
a toggle is strapped into one eye of the hank, with a double 
strap of 6-threaa stuff, and hooks into a single strap worked 
on the opposite eye, of 9-thread. 

Fore-and-aft sails running upon hemp stays are bent with 
manilla bridles, the bridles being toggled to the sails. 
Those running on iron stays are fitted with hanks. Figs. 376 
and 377. Bridles must be passed against the lay of the stay. 

To Htow n, I lend Hsiil. Haul it close down 
and pass the gaskets, have a clew-stop on the clew of the 
jib to hold the clew forward of the cap, and a similar one 
from the flying-jib clew to the wythe. The cover is then 
placed over and the stops tied. Jib-sheets stopped down 
and the sheets and halliards hauled taut. The fore-topmast 
stay -sail stows in a netting or canvas bottom made for the 
puroose and placed on the oowsprit between the stays. 

Furling lines or sea gaskets are used in stowing the jibs 
at sea ; for port there is fitted on the boom a centipede, a 
piece of sennit running the length of the boom, with short 
pieces of the same material running athwartship at certain 
intervals. The sail stows on the centipede, and the short 
ends are brought over and tied on top, as gaskets. Jibs 
carefully stowed in their own cloths may be made to look as 
neat as with a regular cover on, but require more care in 
stowing than any other fore-and-aft sail. 



SAILS. 141 

The flying- jib should be sent out for bending on the star- 
board side, on account of the boom being on that side of the 
bowsprit. 

Make up a head sail, for stowing away, on the after 
leech, doubling the tack and head clew in toward the sheet 
before commencing to roll up. 

R^oyals and Top-grallant SailH. They 
should be always bent on deck, on account of the diflSculty 
of hauling out bv hand ; the earings and rope-bands are 
passed like those for the courses and topsails ; tne buntlines, 
clewlines, and sheets, being bent after the yard is crossed. 
If, however, it should be necessary to bend the top-gallant 
sail aloft, it may be sent up by the royal yard-rope, and the 
head-cringles hauled out by means of the top-gallant stud- 
ding-sail halliards. 

Note. In furling either a royal or top-gallant sail, it 
should be rolled up with a long, taut hunt, and the clews 
** tucked in," to avoid tearing the sail in its upward or 
downward passage. 

Jb^u-i'linpr l^^or*e and Aft Sailw. They are 
furled best with a cover, but can be furled in the two after- 
cloths, though not usually looking so well. In furling with 
a cover, bran the sail close up and stop the cover around, 
commencing at the jaws and working down. 

STUDDING-SAILS. 

In bending these sails, place the roping of the sail on the 
after and under side of the yard, secured in such manner 
as to preclude the possibility of its ba^gin^ down. 

The outer earings, which are spliced into the cringles 
-with a short eye, are passed througn holes bored in the ex- 
tremities of the yard, from the after side — thence back 
through the cringle and over the yard, inside of the hole, 
until three or four turns are taken, when the end is hitched 
through the cringle and around the single part. The sail 
is then brought taut along the yard, the inner earing passed 
in the same manner, and the head-rope secured to tne yard 
by neat sennit stops, which are fixtures in the evelets. 
liastly, the sheets and down-haul are bent as described in 
HuNNiNG Rigging. 

To IVIaJie ixp Toi>nTaHt Stixddinor-Sail« 
virlien not Bent. Stretch the sail taut along, and 
overhaul the down-haul through the thimble and block, 
and bight it along the whole length of the leech. Then roll 
up toward the inner leech, lay the sheets along the whole 
length of the sail, roll up over all, and stop tha sail well up 
with rope-yarn. The earings are expended round the 
head of the sail. The topgallant studding-sail is made up in 
the same manner. 



142 SAILS. 






"W^hen Hent. In making up a topmast studdin 
sail, when bent, overhaul the down-haul the length of the hiff 
or outer leech ; then take the foot up to the yard, and place 
the tack-cringle out. Bight the down-haul along the yard, 
also the sheets ; roll the sail snugly up and^ stop it with 
sennit-tails. These are clove-hitched around the studding- 
sail-yard, and remain there. When the sail is being pre- 
pared for going aloft the sennit stops are cast adrift from 
around the sail, and the latter held together by a rope strap 
and toggle, as will be described hereafter under Making 
Sail. 

Lo^^ver Stnclcliiig-So^il^ 8,re bent and made up 
in the same manner as topmast studding-sails, with the 
sheet in. 

When readv for sea, topgallant studding-sails are kept 
in the tops witn covers on. 

The other studding sails are rolled up in their covers and 
stowed on the booms. 

It is the practice to keep, while at sea, the top- 
mast studding-sail up and down the fore rigging, the top- 
gallant studdmg^-sail in the topmast rigging, and the lower 
studding-sails triced up and down the tore-mast. This is a 
very good plan when circumstances render a frequent use 
of these sails liable. 

All spare sails should be tallied before being stowed in 
the sail-room, as it will prevent mistakes ; and if a sail is 
properly stowed, and the sail-maker takes a list when they 
are stowing, there can never be any difficulty in finding 
what may be wanted. 

Sail-Co vei*ss. for fore-and-aft sails, and for square- 
sails of steamers, very frequently have imitation gaskets, 
stitched or painted on the outside, which adds much to 
their appearance. 

In addition to the cover for the main-sail and main- 
topsail, steamers have a *' jacket" which laces around the 
main-mast toprotect it from the smoke of the funnel. 

liaclt-ClotliH. These are for stowing the bunt of 
the topsails in. They are made of stout canvas, roped 
arouno, and are attached to the after part of the yard close 
up to the topmast. When arranged for furling, one cor- 
ner is stopped out to the forwai'd swifter of the topmast 
rigging, to the topsail lift, or wlu^rever convenient. They 
add very much to the neat appearance of the sail when 
furled. 

They should be sent down when the sails are unbent. 

The general rule for making up sails for storing away is 
to make them up in the longest sid(\ 

All sails for the Navy are made of flax canvas; cotton 
canvas is used for the following purposes: 

No. 1 is principally for the construction of water-tanks 
for boats. 



SAILS. 143: 

No. 2 for mess-cloths. 

No. 3 for making taxpaulins and head-cloths. 

No. 4 for deck awnings, boom-covers, hammock-cloths, 
&c. 

Nos. 5 and 6 for wind-sails, sail-covers and boat-covers. 

Nos. 7 and 8 for boat awnings, awning curtains, wheel- 
covers, &c. 

Nos. 9 and 10 for binnacle-covers, side-screens, &c. 

Hammock stuff for making hammocks. 

Bag-stuff for clothes-bags, hatch-hoods, &c. 

Cot stuff for cots. 

Note. All fore and aft sails^ as well as courses, topsails 
and topgallant sails, are finished with iron clews. 



CHAPTER XI. 

PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 

In addition to the gear described in previous chapters 
for handling sails and spars, there are certain purchases 
specially rigged on ship-board, when required, to hoist 
weights in or out of the vessel, or to transport such weights 
from one part of the ship to another. 

The support for these purchases may be — 

First The lower yard alone, supported by its lift. 

Second. The lower yards, supported themselves by pur- 
chases from the mast-heads. 

Third, The mast alone, as in the case of mast-head 
pendant tackles. 

Fourth. The lower yard supported from the mast-head 
and by a derrick. 

Fifth. The derrick alone. 

Sixth. The sheers, already described under Masting. 

IIoiJstiiipT in Lig-lit .^Li-ticleK. To hoist in an 
object of no great weight, such as a barrel of flour, use two 
single whips, one from the yard-arm, the other from the 
collar of the lower stay. The ends of the whips secure to a 
strap around the barrel, and by walking away with the 
yard-whip, the barrel is raised from the lighter alongside 
above the level of the rail ; clap on to the stay whip, easing 
away the yard until the barrel is in line with the hatch, and 
strike it below by the stay -whip. 

For a heavier weight use, mstead of the single whips, 
the yard and stay water-tvhips, Fig. 267, Plate 38, described 
under Tackles. See that the lower lift is taut, and hook 
the upper block of the yard so as to plumb the lighter. 

It is desirable in port to keep the quarter-deck clear, 
therefore lead the yard-tackle forward on the same side as 
the weight is being raised, and the stay forward on the 
opposite side. 

When using the *'yard and stay," to provision or water 
ship, it will be found very advantageous to use a small 
single whip, or tricing-line, to light over the lower block of 
the tackle, to the great saving of paint work ; the coam- 
ings of hatches should be carefully protected from injury 
by mats or boards. 

In provisioning ship with the main **yard and stay' 
(water- whips) the fore-topmen break out, make up and stow 
the stay-tackle, and the main-topmen the yard tackle. 

144 



PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 145 

_ Ueav;^' AVeig-htsi. In hoisting a 
heavy object, with purchases from the yards, it is important 
that the lattor should be well secured, so that the yard may 
not be sprung or rigging endangered. 

To Sviipport the I^owei* ATards. Use in 
addition to the lift one or both top burtons, whose upper 
blocks are hooked into the top-pendants. It is the common 

Eractice to hook the burton of the side to the eyebolt in the 
urton strap on the yard, and the burton from the opposite 
side to a temporary strap around the yard. It would be 
safer when the weight is so great as to '•equire the use of 
both burtons to have temporary straps for each of them 
near the point from which the weight is suspended, unless 
the regular burton strap happens to be close to that point, 
in which case it is of course used. Our general rule should 
be in supporting a lower yard or derrick, to attach the sup- 
porting tackles and guys to the yard or spar at the point 
from which the weight is to hang. 

If both yards are to be used together, as in hoisting out 
boats, the main-yard will probably require bracing ttp, and 
the fore-yard bracing in. Any bracing required should be 
done first and then tne yard topped up on the side used, if 
necessary, slacking the opposite lift. 

After these preparations, haul taut the opposite lift first, 
then see that the weather lift and burtons hear an equal 
strain. 

When the yard has been left square, or been braced /or- 
ward, the burton from the opposite side is taken across for- 
ward of the mast. When a yard has been braced m, the 
supporting burton from the opposite side leads best abaft the 
topmast and between the topmast rigging and back-stays. 

H[oig;tiiig- in Spai^e Spai*js. Very heavy top- 
masts may require the use of both fore and main yard and 
stay tackles, but usually the main yard tackle alone will be 
sufficient. Fig. 377, Plate 73. 

Support the main yard by both top-burtons, get an 
equal strain on lifts and burtons. Send down a clew 
jigger hooked to the main lift, and sway up and hook the 
upper block of the yard tackle. This block has fitted to 
it a strap which is rove through the thimble of the block 
and stopped to the back of the hook as in Fig. 267. The 
strap goes around the yard, and the hook of the olock hooks 
into its bight. 

The lower block of the yard tackle is hooked to a lashing 
on the balancing point of the topmast, the lashing steadied 
by backlashings from head and neel of the topmast. Hook 
the fore top-burton to a strap around the head of the top- 
mast, and a spare burton from the main topmast head to a 
strap through the fid-hole, hoist the spar on board by the 
yard, ^ying it forward or aft by the top-burtons. 

Hoist in other heavy spars in the same way, hoisting in 



14G PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 

first such as are stowed underneath. See, when hooking 
on, that the spar has the same fore-and-aft direction as it is 
to take when stowed, for it would be difficult to slue it end 
for end when landed inboard. 

Hoisting' in And out Hoa.tH« One of the 
most frequent operations in hoisting heaver weights with the 
assistance of the lower yards, is getting in and out boom- 
boats with the yard-tackles, triatic-stay and stay-tackles. 
Fig. 379. 

The Tx*iatic-Hta;^ consists of three parts — two 
pendants, and span. The pendants have hooks in their 
upper ends, which hook to bolts in the lower caps (fore and 
main), or are secured around the mast-head. In the lower 
ends of these pendants are spliced thimbles, into which the 
stay-tackles hook. These pendants are spanned together 
by another rope, the ends oi which span are spliced around 
thimbles which traverse on the pendants. The length of 
the span will be the distance you wish to have your pen- 
dants apart, viz. , the length of the launch. 

On long vessels, where the boats stow abaft the smoke- 
stack, the forward stay goes to the fore-topmast head, and 
the span from the lower end of the stav to the main cap. 
The main-stay hangs, as before, from tne main cap. Fig. 
380. 

Hoifciting- in I3ooni-t>onts8. The order will be 
given : In Boats ! the crew prepare for their duties as fol- 
lows : 

In the launch — coxswain, assisted by some of the boat's 
crew to pass out oars and sails, hook purchases, &c. ; or, if 
a steam launch, to hook on the main-yard and stav to the 
boiler, which is often hoisted on board first and placed in 
the gangway, to be afterwards hoisted in the boat when in- 
board. 

On deck — fore and main-topmen clear away the booms 
for the reception of the boats. 

Aloft — Forecastle-men take out their clew- jigger on f ore- 
vard, are responsible for the fore-yard tackle, and hook the 
burton or burtons on the fore-yara. 

Fore-topmen overhaul down their burtons, sending the 
falls on deck ; send down fore-topsail clew-jigger for fore- 
triatic, and look out for fore-stay tackle. 

Gunner's-mates look out for main-yard tackle, getting 
main clew-jigger on main-lift. 

Main-topmen send down main-topsail clew-jigger for 
triatic-stay, overhaul down burton, and look out for main- 
stay tackle. 

Mast-men are responsible for leading-blocks. 

Note. A small strap is seized on each triatic-stay pen- 
dant well below the hook. Into this becket hook the clew- 
iigger, and have a single hauling-line from the top to the 
hook of the stay pendant. The clew-jigger takes the weight 



PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 14? 

of the triatic-stay and leaves enough slack to enable the 
pendant to be hooked readily. 

The men being reported up, the oflBcer of the deck gives 
the order, Lay aloft! when the men detailed will proceed 
to their stations. The men on the yard will receive the 
burtons* and clew-jiggers from the tops ; when ready, rive 
the order, Lay out! The yard-men will lay out together • 
secure the clew- jiggers to the lift above the burton-strap ; 
hook the burtons ; and be in readiness to secure the pur- 
chase, when swayed up to them. The men in the tops send 
the falls of the burtons down on deck; send down from ;he 
forward part of the main and after part of the fore-top, vhe 
topsail clew-jiggers for the triatic-stay pendants, which are 
bent on deck to their respective tackles and pendants ; and 
the double blocks of the stay-tackles hooked to the thimbles 
in the pendants and the hooks moused. The fore and main 
braces, and the clew- jiggers, being manned, give the order, 
THce up, brace in ! At which the main-yard is braced up, 
the fore-yard in, the purchases are whipped up to the yards, 
and the ends of the triatic pendants to tne tops. The yards 
are then secured,! and the purchases hooked and moused, 
as directed in the foregoing paragpraphs. While this is 
going on, the launch is hauled up alongside, oars, masts, 
thwarts, sails, &c., are passed out of her, and the booms 
prepared for her reception. The lower blocks of the yard 
ana stay-tackles are hooked to the rings in her stem and 
stem posts, and the hooks moused. 

Instead of trusting to stem and stern post rings, it is 
advisable to fit heavy ooats with two chain spans ; the after 
one hooked to an eye-bolt that is riveted through the keel 
nearly under the after thwart, and to the ring-bolt through 
the stern-post. The forward span hooks to an eye-bolt 
riveted through the keel forward, and to the ring-bolt 
through the stem. The purchases are hooked to liuKs in 
the bight of each span. (See Boats.) 

The falls of the purchases lead thus : That of the main- 
yard purchase, through a snatch-block hooked in an eye-bolt 
m the deck by the main-fiferail, and then aft. The fore 
leads through one hooked by the fore-fiferail, leading aft. 
The fore-stay through one hooked by the fore-fiferail, and 
the main through one by the main : both the latter on the 
opposite side of the deck, leading ait. 

Everything being in readiness, give the order, Man the 
yards /J At which tne men lay in from the yards to the top. 
The yard purchases are manned, with a sufficient number of 
men at the stay purchast*s, to take in ilie slack as the boat 

* Top-bartons are always kept hooked to their pendants, ready for use. 
f The men on the yards look out for and report when the lift and burton 
•re taut alike. 

t i. e., Man the faUs of the yardtaekles. 



148 PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 

is purchased; one man in the bows and another in the stern 
of the boat. Now give the order. Walk away tcith the 
yards! When the boat is sufficiently high, order, Turn 
with the yards! Man the stays! At this, a turn is taken, 
with the falls of the yard-tackles, two men remaining by 
each to ease away as the boat comes in, while the re- 
mainder of the men man the stay -tackles. Walk away ivith 
the stays! As the boat comes in, the yard -tackles are eased 
off, until she is over the boat-chocks; then. Well the stays! 
Lower away of all! Both the yard and stay -tackles are 
lowered, and she is landed on the chocks, the men in the 
boats overhauling the purchases; the carpenter and his 
mates being ready, as she is lowered, to place her properly. 

It may be necessary to use the ordinary main-stay tackle, 
or mast-nead pendant tackle, as a fore and aft purchase, to 
guy the boat clear of the fore-rigging and back-stays of a 
sailing vessel, or the smoke-stack of a steam frigate. 

Hoist in the smaller boats in the same manner, using the 
yard and stay-tackles. 

If the boats have any water in them, it is well, when a 
little way up, to '^ avast hoisting,'' and let it runout, or 
wash out any sand or dirt that may be in them, though a 
heavy boat should not remain long on the purchases. 

After the boats are in (or out) give the order. Lay out ! 
The men lay out on the lower yards, cast off the lizards, 
unhook the burtons, &c. ; the topmen cast off the end of 
the stay-pendant— hands being stationed by the whips and 
the braces manned ; give the cautionary order. Stand by to 
lower away together! then order. Haul taut, Square away! 
At this, the purchases are lowered on deck, the yards 
squared, the clew-jiggers taken off the lifts; the men on 
deck make up the purchases to be stowed away, and having 
given the topmen sufficient time to stow their gear, give the 
order, Lay down from aloft ! when all the men are to leave 
the tops. 

>Viiicliiio- PenclantK, Fie. 381, Plate 75. In lift- 
ing the heaviest boats the upper block of the yard tackle 
hooks into a winding pendant. This pendant is fitted wth a 
hook in the upper end which hooks to a bolt in the lower 
cap, or the pendant goes around the topmast above the cap 
and hooks into its own part. The other end of the pendant 
has a thimble for the hook of the upper yard tackle block. 
The bight of the pendant is haulea out to its place on the 
lower yard by a whip on the lower lift, and is secured to 
the yard bjr a stout lizard which traverses on the pendant. 
Be careful in taking the turns of the lizard around the yard 
and pendant to take them above the bull's-eye of the lizard, 
otherwise the strain is taken by the lizard and yard-arm 
instead of being transferred to the lower mast-heaa. 

To HoiHt in a Laixncli ^wlieri ixTid.ex*^wa>' 
ixndei* steam, oi* having' the "wind alV. 




B^g. liSS 




PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 141^ 

Should it become necessary to hoist in a launch when 
underway, when circunastances do not permit of heavine 
to or stopping the engines, secure the yards as usual, ana 
haul the launch up, say on the port side, get a stout hawser 
from the port quarter and secure it to the stem of the 
launch ; secure it also inboard. Get the purchases up, 
hook and mouse them, and proceed to hoist her in as before 
directed. The only difficulty is, that with headway on the 
vessel, the moment the boat is freed from the resistance 
she meets with in moving through the water, she will 
surjsre forward with a violence in proportion to the speed 
of the vessel, and endanger the yard and purchases. 
The hawser from the quarter to the stern of the boat pre- 
vents this, and renders the operation, as soon as the boat 
leaves the water, as simple as under ordinary circum- 
stances. 

This evolution was performed by the " Constitution " 
during the memorable and exciting chase, in which she 
escaped from the British squadron, in July, 1812. 

It is well when hoisting in a heavy weight to use a pre- 
venter fore-brace leading from the bowsprit end. 

On board modern ships the distance between the fore 
and main masts is so ^eat, that the fore-yard tackle acts 
very obliquelv. For this and other reasons, it would be a 
ffood plan to have derricks expressly fitted for getting the 
boom-boats in and out ; purchasing the sheet-anchors, guns 
and heavy weights generally, to the great saving of the 
yards. Tnese derricks may be rigged temporarily of spare 
spars, or fitted like the modern fish-boom for the express 
purpose. 

On board modem iron-clads a derrick, rigged similar to 
our fish-boom, is used exclusively in hoisting in and out 
torpedo boats and steam launches! 

jL^£iiinelieK eai*i*iecl on the U.£iil. Many of 
our modem vessels carry their launches on the rail, instead of 
stowing them amidships between the fore and main masts. 

To support these boats there are fitted two stout davits, 
usually or iron, together with iron cradles on which the 
bil^e of the boat rests. The cradles are supported under 
their centres by shores, on which the keel takes. The ends 
of the cradles are hinged, and can drop down clear when 
the boat is being hoisted or lowered. 

The davit heads are supported by chain guys, spans 
and topping-lifts. One end of the topping-lift is shackled 
to the aavit-head, and the other has a large ring to fit over the 
head of a curved iron stanchion or *• strong-back," stepped 
inboard abreast of the davit. The topping-lift has a second 
ring a few feet out from its inner end, which is passed 
over the head of the strong-back when the davit is rigged 
in for sea. Fig. 382, Plate 75. The topping-lifts are also 
provided with turn buckles, for use in setting up, Fi;^. ;382a. 



150 PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 



To UoiHt in tlie I^Aixneh. The davits are 
rigged out and the boat is hauled under them and hooked 
on. Walk away with the falls, and when these are nearly 
two blocks a hook in the breech of the upper block is hooked 
into a shackle on the lower block. Fig. :5S:5. A rope rove 
through a hole in the bulwarks around a snatch-cleat on the 
cradle shore, and clamped to the inner gunwale with one of 
the gripe clamps, is used forward and aft to prevent the boat 
from swinging too far inboard as the davits are rigged in. 
Usually a boat gripe at each end is used for this purpose. 
Fig. ;^S4, Plate 7/). 

When ready for rigging in, man the thwart-ship tackles 
and rig in, put the topping-up rings of the chain topjnng- 
lif ts over the heads of the strong-backs, raise and secure the 
outboard ends of the cradles. 

Now get a strain on the falls, which have been slacked 
off in rigging in, unhook each upper block from its low<.*r 
one. and place the launch in its craclle. Unreeve the easing- 
in lines, and use them (generally) as a part of the gripe 
fastenings. 

The object of hooking the upper and lower fall blocks 
together is to prevent the boat from easing down while rig- 
ging in the davits and fouling the cradle ; besides, leaving 
only the slack of the falls to be taken through after the boat 
is t()])T)(Hl up. 

To Floiwt ovxt the T^sLixnoIi. Having rigged 
the purchases, &c., as before, cast off the gripes, pull up on 
the falls, hook the blocks together, shift the topping-lifts, 
unclamp tlie cradles, ease away on the thwart-ship tackles 
and haul on the easing-in ropes. When rigged out, get a 
strain on the falls, disconnect upper and lower blocks, and 
lower away together on the falls. 

On board modern vessels of war, where large davits are 
not used, the heavy boats are hoisted in and out by means 
of cranes or booms. Where cranes, Plate 81, are used there 
is one on each side, they heel on one of the lower decks, are 
sufficiently strong to handle the heaviest boats, and are fitted 
with hoisting and turning engines of ample power. 

Vessels using booms have them goose-necked to the low- 
er-mast, and fitted with topping lifts and guys similar to the 
ordinary fish boom. Pliable wire rope is used for topping 
lifts and hoisting tackles. Regularly fitted boat slings and 
spans, into which the hoisting tackle hooks, are used. 

When hoisted in for sea the boatg are landed on cradles 
which travel in and out on skid ])eams. The smaller boats 
hoist in the ordinary manner to davits along the rail. 

Pui-cliasiiig" TV'^aitst -tVnelioi'K. Having se- 
cured the lower yards with the lifts and both burtons, the 
yards being topped up, if need be, on the side used, brace 
in the fore and fonrard the main-yard, and get an equal 
strain on the supi)orting tackles, Fig. 387, Plate 70. 





:^ 



w 



tt 



_J 



PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 151 

The purchases used are the yard-tackles with the winding 
pendants, the lizards of the latter re&^lated so that the pur- 
chase will take the anchor clear of the side, Fig. 387. 

The anchor being brought alongside in a lighter with the 
crown aft, pass a strap around tne shank just inside the 
ring ; the anchor being stocked, lash this strap to the stock. 
Hook the fore purchase into this strap, and hook the main 
purchase to another strap passed down over the shank and 
under the arms, the tackle hooking into the upper bights. 
The forward strap should be a long one, and lasned to the 
stock about one-third the distance up, to keep the stock 
perpendicular when the anchor is raised. Use fore-and-aft 
tacKles as necessary. 

Having swayed the anchor up. rouse it in with thwart- 
ship-jiggers, place the bills in snoes, or its arm upon the 
gunwcQe, place the shores and pass the lashings, unstocking 
the anchor. 

The anchor rests on two shores, which may be of wood 
resting in saucers and secured by laniards, or they are of 
iron, and work on hinges, Fig. 388. The shore supports the 
anchor, and also throws it clear of the ship's side when let ^o. 

To hold the anchor to the side, there are usually chain- 
lashings, the upper ends secured by seizings of ratline 
stuff ; two from eye-bolts in the side below the anchor acting 
as jumpers to keep the anchor down, two on the shank, and 
one on the inboard arm to retain the anchor at the side. 

In preparing to let go. the chain being bent and the 
anchor stocked (by raising the upper arm of the stock witli 
a top-burton ana lowering it into place for keying), cast off 
the jumpers and the lashing on the arm, and stand by to cut 
the seizings of the shank lashings. 

]\4iAfest>]iea.cl Pendant Tackles, Fig. 390. 
These are purchases, double or treble, the upper block lashed 
to a pendant from the topmast-head. A top pendant may 
be used to form the pendant, taking a turn with it around 
the topmast-head, securing the ends together, and lashing 
the upper block into the bight. 

A mast-head pendant tackle is guyed clear of the top by 
a guy from forward or aft, as the case may be, usually se- 
cured to the pendant just above the upper block. 

These purchases are very useful in hoisting heavy 
articles out of the fore or main hold, or in any case when 
the purchase is required immediately over the fore-and-aft 
line. They could be used in place of the stay-tackles in 
purchasing boats, should there be no triatic-stay. 

Trarispoi'ting- Spare .A^riclioi^is, Fig. 390, 
Plate 77. The anchor intended to be stowed in the fore 
hatch is hoisted on board, crown up and unstocked, by 
means of the fore-yard and mast-head pendant tackle, the 
latter being abaft the mast. Should the anchor stow in the 
main hatch and forwcird of the main-mast, use the main- 



152 PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 

yard and a mast-head pendant tackle at the main, and for- 
ward of the mast. Use, in addition to the purchases, fore- 
and-aft and thwartship) tackles as necessary, and a guy on 
the ring of the anchor in getting it into place. The anchor 
stows up and down, and on modern vessels usually on the 
forward side of the fore hatch. 

In transporting this anchor to the bows from the fore 
hatch, hook the mast-head pendant tackle to a stout strap 
around the crown, and a tackle leading aft on the lower decK 
is hooked to the shank of the anchor to guy it clear as it goes 
up. Cast oflf the lashings, sway up, and as the crown comes 
aoove the upper deck use the fore pendant tackle, hooked 
into a strap around the shank near the place for the stock, 
in getting the anchor forward of the mast. Having stocked 
it, transport it over the bows by means of the purchase on 
the fore-yard and fish, as in the case previously described 
of transporting anchors inboard. When high enough, and 
clear of the side, lower away to the water's edge, hook 
the cat to the ring, and rouse it up to the cat-head , send 
down the purchases and square the yard ; bend the cable, 
fish the anchor, and get it ready for letting go. 

Should the anchor stow in the main hatch, hoist it out 
with the pendant tackle from the main topmast-head, and 
transport it forward on mats on deck. 

Shoring- up a Lo^vrei* Y^arcl. Fig. 391, Plate 
78. To get in a verj heavy weight, lower the main-yard 
some distance below its slings, bousing it over athwartships 
so that the truss arms will be clear of the mast and on tne 
side nearest to the weight, which rigs the yard out further 
on that side. Top up tne yard on the side used and lash it 
to the mast, having nrst passed old canvas in wake of the 
lashings. Use rolling taclcles on the opposite yard-arm, and 
hook both top burtons in wake of the purchase on the upper 
yard-arm. Fig. 391. If the jeer-blocks are needed to form 
the purchase used, hang the yard by pendant tackles from 
the lower pendants. 

Get the spare main-topmast up and place its heel in a 
shoe in the water-way under the yard. Shore up the deck 
underneath and lash the head of the topmast with a cross- 
lashing to the after side of the yard. Use a spare gaflf at 
about naif the height of the topmast from the deck as a 
shore, the jaws lashed to the derrick and the peak to the 
mast. Reeve a topping-lift from where the topmast-head 
is lashed at the yard, to a block lashed above the lower 
cap. The topmast should be further supported by head 
guys forward and aft, which are omitted in the figfure. 

The upper block of the yard purchase is lashed to the 
lower yard and topmast with a long lashing. Both pur- 
chase blocks treble, or at least one of them fourfold, if such 
blocks are available. 

The stay purchase consists of a double pendant from the 



PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 153 

lower mast-head, supporting a treble purchase. With falls, 
&c., of the following dimensions, a vessel sparred as heavily 
as the Trenton could safely raise a 10-inch rifle gun : yard 
purchase, 8-inch falls ; stay purchases : two parts of pend- 
ant, 10-inch ; falls, 8-inch ; topping-lift, five parts of 6- 
inch. 

A hawser rove from forward through a top-block at the 
fore cap may be secured to the eye of the stay pendant so 
as to haul the stay purchase forward to plumb the hatch- 
way if the weight is to be struck below. If the weight is a 
fun to be placed on the gun-deck, sling it breech lieavy. 
ig. 391. 

The I^ennck. We have, so far. dealt chiefly with 
the lower yards in describing purchases, but the derrick 
possesses aa vantages which renaer it superior to a yard in 
some respects, for lifting heavy weights. The derrick 
transfers the weight to the deck, whicn can be well sup- 
ported by shores from below. It removes all anxiety for 
the safety of the yard and mast ; it can be placed Vertically 
or at an angle, supported either with or witnout the aid of a 
mast ; it is soon ringed, and as quickly dismantled. These 
features are suflBcient to recommend it. Moreover, it may 
happen in our modern ships that the vessel is fore-and-aft 
rigged, or so lightly sparred as to render her yards unfit to 
support heavy weights, or the yards themselves may be 
sprung, and unavailable for that reason. 

The following instance of the successful use of a derrick 
I is therefore given to show how derricks may be rigged and 

handled : 

In 1881 the U. S. S. New Hampshire was towed from Nor- 
folk to the Training Station, at Newport. R. I., to be fitted 
^P as a School Ship at that place. Slie had her topmasts 
Added, lower and topmast rigging set up. The other spars, 
t davits, &c., were on deck in an unfinished condition, all 

the iron-work for the yards, such as truss and sling bands, 
shoul(Jei. bands, and burton straps, being stowed below. 
^^ Vessel carried on her spar deck fourteen boats, two 
i^^g launches of the largest size, some stowed bottom up. 
Y^ Edition, there were two ten thousand pound anchors on 
aecfc, one in each gangway. It was required to hoist out 
' *^ ^>oats and to place the anchors on a li.ohtc^r for traiis- 
i><>rtation to the shore. 

7 .Tile boats were taken in hand first. The main-yard 
jOiix^ the largest spar available, was rigged as a derrick.^ 
ij. ^^s about 75 feet lon^, the size for a vessel of the Ports- 

JjMi class, the ship being much undersparred. 
^ ^He lower yard-arm was stepped in a shoe close to the 

^^-way, abreast of the main-mast. Fig. :jI)2, Plate 79. 

^ ^t the upper end, about the place for the burton strap, 

^*^ lashed the upper block of a treble purchase, 6-inch fail. 

♦^^ ^tie same point were hooked into suitable straps two 

**Pitig-lif ts, the upper one being the top burton of the side, 



154 PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 

the lower one a pendant tackle hooked into a strap around 
the lower mast, just above the trestle-trees — block under- 
neath the top. 

A burton from under the yard-arm, close to the purchase 
block, led outside to a toggle in a lower gun-deck port, act- 
ing as a jumper. An outrigger for this jumper would be 
needed in a vessel with less Beam. 

There were, in addition, forward and after guys from 
the fore and mizzen chains to the place for the upper pur- 
chase block. The deck was shorea up under the heel of the 
derrick. Neither belly guys nor fishes for the lower yard- 
arm were required, although their positions are indicated 
in the figure. The derrick, until rigged, lay across the rail, 
and was raised into position by means of the mast-head 

{)endant tackle ; topped up bv the topping-lifts when the 
ower yard-arm was clear of the rail, the heel carried into 
place by heel tackles. The derrick purchase took the place 
of a yardrtackle in hoisting out. For a stay -tackle there was 
fitted the mast-head pendant tackle, treble purchase, 6-inch 
fall, hung with a long lashing from the topmast-head. 

Each boat was brought into position under the purchases 
by rollers and fore-and-aft tackles. In the case of the 
launches stowed bottom up, they were lifted clear of the 
deck by the mast-head purchase and capsized with the 
assistance of the derrick purchase, hooked to the same 
slings, underneath. The slings passed for this purpose 
were simply turns of stout manilla, one sling being for- 
ward of the centre of the boat, another aft, and the two 
joined by spans above and below, both slings kept from 
drawing together by back lashings over the stem and stem. 
Fig. 393, Plate 79. 

The boat bein^ upright was slung with a span for hoist- 
ing out, as in Fig. 394, the span for the launches being 
four turns of 5-incn manilla, fitted so as to render and take 
an equal strain. Particular attention was given to the 
belly lashing passed around the middle of the boat, it being 
made to bear an equal strain with the span. Plank 
spreaders were placed inside the boat between the gun- 
wales in wake of the belly lashing. The span passed 
under the fore-foot and counter, with back lashings, as in 
the figure. 

In hoisting out, the mast-head and derrick purchases 
were lashed to the span, the boat lifted by the mast-head 
purchase and swayea out and lowered by the derrick pur- 
chase. 

In using the same tackles to get out the sheet anchors, 
both were lashed to the shank of the anchor at its balancing 
point, the lashing being steadied by stout back lashings 
irom the ring and crown. Fig. 395. 

The purchases described would have readily lifted 11- 
inch guns for a ship's battery, had it been required. 

An Uprig-lit I>ei*r*icl£. To land the above 



Plate 80 



Fig^94 





Fig.30a 




PURCHASING WEIGHTS. 



155 



mentioped anchors from the lij^hter, an upright derrick was 
rigged on shore. It consisted of a spar 20 feet long and 
about 8 inches in diameter. The heel rested on the ground, 
the head being supported by four guys placed as nearly as 
possible at equal angles, and some 50 feet from the heel of 
the spar. The spar was raised by jigfjers on two of these 
guys, the other two being anchored off m the water, to get 
them at the required angles. The derrick being upright 
with one (double) block of the purchase lashed to its head, 
the lighter was hauled in close to the shore and the lower 
block of the purchase lashed inside the balan.cing point of 
the first anchor, in order to drag rather than lift. The pur- 
chase fall led from the upper block through a leading blocK 
lashed to the heel of the derrick. The anchor was raised 
bv the purchase just clear of the lighter and was allowed to 
sude on skidjs to a point some 15 feet from the base of the 
derrick, and each anchor was landed in turn abreast of the 
derrick and some 15 feet distant from the heel. 

The purchase used was 4J-inch rope, guys 4i-inch. Fig. 
396, Plate 80. 




A. r^i-actical l\Ietliocl of ^wcer^tainincv 
the Sti-eHK on I>ein-icl«:K. In the figure, divide 
any part, a c, of the supporting line of the weight, W, 
mto a convenient scale representmg the weight suspended, 
(in this case 5 tons). 

From a draw a b parallel to the tie rod, and from c draw 
cb parallel to the jib, cutting a 6 at 6. The tension on the 
tie rod will be given bv a 6, referred to the scale a c, and 
the thrust on the jib will be represented by 6 c referred to 
the same scale. 

Scales for the measurement of strains on any derrick 
formed of spars on shipboard may be constructed as in the 
foregoing case. Attention must be given to the relative 
positions of the derrick and supports which may vary from 
the above. 



CHAPTER XI I. 

STOWAGE AND SOURCES OF SUPPLY 

THK HOLDS — lU'RKALS — NAVY YARDS. 

Before commencing the construction of a vessel of war 
of given tonnage, as appropriated for by Act of Congress, 
each bureau of the Navy Department estimates for the 
amount of space necessary to accommodate its own part of 
the vessel's outfit and the corresponding weights. Then, 
in making the final plans of the vessel the available space 
is allotted, having due regard to the proper distribution of 
weights, the protection of certain vital parts of the vessel, 
and the efficient working of the battery, machinery, and J 
the handling of the ammunition. 

At Navy Yards where vessels are Ix^ing built, fitted out i 
for first commission, or extensively repaired, the head of 
Department concerned is required to furnish a list of the 
actual finished weiglits of all articles behmgingto it. includ- 
ing machinery and appurtenances thereof, battery and am- 
munition, spare machinery, tools, outfits, stores, &c. , &c. 

Plate SI shows the internal arrangement and disposition 
of the store rooms, coal bunkers, chain lockers and water 
tanks of the U. S. S. Indiana, and will serve to give a very 
fair idea of how all modern war vessels are subdivided. 

While no fixed rules are laid down for stowage there are 
certain general principles that api)ly to all vessels, viz: 

(1) The weights of engines, boilers, tanks, ballast, etc., i 
which are permanent fixtures, must be so arranged that a * 
vessel can be easily kept in the best trim by the proper dis- ; 
tribution of the i)r()visions, coal and'other movable articles, j 
2) The proper stowage and security of all articles. 

[:i) Economy in space and a general regard to keeping 
near at hand such articles as may be required for immediate 

use. 

On account of the minute subdivision of the interior of 
war vessels the question of stowage is a comparatively sim- 
ple one. Each sc^parate (H)mpartment l)eing assigned to a- 
sj)ecial pm-pose. due regard is had to the proper distribution 
of weights, to accessibility and to protection. 

It will be observed that the coalbunkers are so arrangec 
that, while being conveniently placed with regard to the nr 
rooms, they, at the same time, offer a ct^rtain amount o 
protecticm to the boilers and machinery. Tlie number o 
openings in the protective deck is made as small as jiossible 



20' 



30- 



40' 



SO- 



TS' 




e 

m 

1 
t 




STOWACtE AND SOURCES OF SUPPLY. 157 

hence such articles as are stowed below it should be placed 
near one of these openings, or the articles should be of such 
character as to be easily handled and transported. In a 
properly designed war vessel no ballast should be neces- 
sary, but in case it is needed, pigs of iron, of square or 
rounded section, are used and are placed close down along 
the vertical keel. 

Fresh water is carried in tanks located on top of the pro- 
tective deck and built into the hull of the vessel. Small 
compartments are also sometimes used for this purpose. 
The tanks are well coated with the best cement, and well 
provided with all proper pipe connections to pumps etc., and 
each tank is fitted with a water-tight scuttle, or manhole, 
to give access for cleaning. 

A study of the profile inboard shows that all magazines 
and ammunition rooms are located below the protective 
deck. Turpentine, alcohol and other highly inflammable 
material are kept aft on the upper deck, whence they can 
t^asily be thrown overboard in case of fire. 

It will be observed that there is only one hold located 
well forward. It is divided into the upper and lower hold 
by the platform deck. In the lower hold, are stowed the 
wet provisicms, such as pork, beef, pickles, vinegar, and 
molasses. In the upper hold are stowed dry provisions, as 
flour, sugar, beans, coflfee, etc. If it becomes necessary to 
stow wet and dry provisions in the same hold, the wet pro- 
visions form the lower tiers, and the dry provisions the 
upper tiers. 

Iron hanging racks are usually fitted under the beams of 
the hold for the stowage of oars and lumber. 

The chain lockers contain the ship's chain cables. 

Hawsers and towlines are kept on reels on the gun or 
berth deck and under the topgallant forecastle in vessels 
that have them. Vessels with a superstructure deck and 
using wire hawsers have them wound on the drums of the 
reeling engines in the superstructure. 

Vessels using triatic stays, and yard and stay tackles 
usually stow them in the launches. 

The danger from fire through the ignition of fumes from 
volatile oils in closed places should be provided against in 
their stowage. Cotton fabrics, waste, oil skins, or anj' thing 
that tends to spontaneous combustion by oil soaking in it 
should not be stowed in any closed place. All lime sliouhi 
be slaked before being received on board. 

The Navigator's store-room contains the spare flags, bunt- 
ing, log and lead lines, boat binnacles, lamps, and lanterns, 
signal halliard stuff and other articles known as navigator's 
stores. 

The Medical store-room contains the medical stores not 
in actual use. Surgical instruments, and such medicines as 



158 STOWA(;i: and sources of supply. 

are ready for immediate use are kept in the dispensary and 
sick bay. 

In the Ordnance store-room are placed the spare articles 
of gun gear and the belongings of the battery not usually 
kept in the armory or ammunition rooms. 

The Sail-rooms contain the spare sails, hammocks, wind 
sails, cots, awnings, etc. In a ship having two sail-rooms 
one is usually reserved for a complete suit of topsails, courses 
and stormsails, ready to be passed up promptly. 

The Paymaster's store-rooms contain the dry provisions, 
clothing and small stores, and sometimes the more valuable 
wet provisions, such as canned meats, etc. 

Casks should be placed fore and aft, bung up, and dun- 
nage (small pieces of wood) used under the chimes to pre- 
vent shifting. The chimes of casks are the projections 
beyond the head. The bilge of a cask is its largest circum- 
ference. 

The General store-room, or as it is sometimes called, the 
Yeoman's store-room, is situated well forward. In it are 
kept all the spare cordage, hooks, blocks, thimbles, ship's 
stationery, spare canvas, spare brooms, squillgees, etc. In 
fact all small spare articles for the use of the boatswain, 
carpenter or sailmaker, are kept in this store-room. 

The bread rooms contain th(^ supply of ship's bread. 

NAVV DEPARTMENT. 

The business of the Navy Department is '* distributed, in 
such manner as the Secretary of the Navy shall judge to be 
expedient and proper,'' among the following bureaus: 

Tlie Rureaix of"if ax^clw sincl T><>eltH« The 

duties of this bureau comprise all that relates to construc- 
tion and maintenance of docks, slips, wharves, piers, and 
buildings of all kinds within the limits of Navy Yards and 
Stations, except at Newport and the Naval Academy. 

The maintenance of the Naval Home is also under this 
Bureau. 

It repairs and requires for furniture for buildings at 
Navy Yards. 

It provides oxen, horses and teams at Navy Yards. 

It has charge of all landings, derricks, shears, cranes, 
sewers, dredging, railway tracks, cars, wheels, trucks, grad- 
ing, paving, walks, shade trees, walls and fences, ditching, 
res(Tvoir8, cisterns, fire engines and apparatus, etc., etc. 

The 1 Jiiveaix of Eqviipmeiit, has to do with 
all that relates to the equipment of ships according to the 
allowance tables from time to time in force. 

It has under its control the Ilydrographic oflBce, collec- 
tion of foreign surveys ; publication and supply of charts, 
sailing directions, nautical works ; and the dissemination of 





■;-- 


CnrJa 





(■>al 






•tey D 
re,-' 



a3 



/!:' 



NA". 



l\ 



I 



STOWAGE AND SOURCES OP SUPPLY. 159 

nautical and hydrographic information, electrical apparatus, 
ships' libraries. Naval Observatory, Nautical Almanac, &c. 

It has charge of the manufacture of ropes, anchors, 
cables, rigging, sails, galleys, cooking utensils, and of the 
installation and repair of all electric appliances on ship- 
board. It defrays the expenses of pilotage of all ships m 
commission, etc., etc. 

The Bri.i*eaii. of iN'avig'atlon, is charged 
with the promulgation, recording and enforcement of the 
orders of tne Secretary to the fleet and to the officers of the 
Navy ; with all that relates to the education of oflScers and 
men, including the Naval Academy and technical schools for 
officers (except the war college and torpedo school), the ap- 
prentice establishment and schools for the technical educa- 
tion of enlisted men, the enlistment and discharge of all 
enlisted persons, and with the preparation of estimates for 
the pay of all oflBcers and enlisted men. 

This bureau has under its directions all rendezvous, re- 
ceiving ships, transportation for men. It establishes the 
complements of ships, it keeps the records of service of all 
squadrons, ships, officers and men, and the preparation, re- 
vision and enforcement of naval tactics, drill books, signal 
books, regulations regarding uniforms, etc., etc. 

!Oxix*ea.ii of Ordance^ duties consist of all that 
relates to the torpedo station, magazines on shore, manufac- 
ture of arms, ammunition, and war explosives (including tor- 
.pedoes). It requires for, or manufactures, all machinery, 
apparatus, equipment, material, and supplies necessary for 
use with the above. 

It recommends the armament to be carried by all armed 
vessels, the material, kind and quality of the armor, size 
and thickness of turrets. 

This bureau superintends the installation of the arma- 
ment and its accessories on board ship ai\d the methods of 
stowing and handling ammunition and torpedoes, including 
the construction of ammunition rooms, ammunition hoists 
and armories, etc., etc. 

13ix]:*e£ivi of CoiiHti*xxction and Ifcepair, 
takes cognizance of all that relates to designing, building, 
fitting and repairing the hulls of ships, turrets, spars, cap- 
stans, windlasses, steering gear and ventilating apparatus ; 
care and preservation of ships in reserve. This bureau also 
places and secures on board, the armor, armament and its 
accessories, in accordance with the requirements of the 
Bureau of Ordnance. It has charge of the operating and 
cleaning of dry docks, and the docking of all ships, etc., etc. 

The 13n.reaix of Steaiix Eixprii^eefingr-i 
concerns itself with all that relates to designing, building, 
fitting out, and repairing the steam machinery used for the 
propulsion of Government ships, the steam pumps, steam 



160 STOWA(iE AND SOl'KC'ES i)7 SUPPLY. 

heaters, distilling apparatus, all steam connection of ships,, 
and the steam mac^hinery necessary for actuating the ap- 
paratus by which the turrets are turned. 

<*<>ii.i:itH9 deals with whatever relates to requiring for, or 
]»7ej)aring, provisions, clothing, small stores, fresh water for 
drinking and cooking purposes, and contingent stores of the 
pay department; the purchase of all supplies for the naval 
establishment, except nu^dicines, surgical appliances and 
instruments, and supplies for the marine corps. It is, at 
shore stations within the United States, charged with the 
transfer of all stores and supplies, and their reception, care, 
custody and issue when authorized, etc., etc. 

The Hiiveii.li <>t" >I!eclieiiie »iicl Hixi*- 
fS^^*y9 has all that relates to laboratories, naval hospitals, 
and dispensaries; and all medical supplies, medicines and 
instruments used in the medical department of the Navy. 

The several bureaus retain the charge and custody 
of the books of records and accounts pertaining to their 
respective duti(»s ; and they estimate for, and defray 
from their own funds the amounts necessary to carry 
out their duties as above define<l. Each bureau has con- 
trol of the organization and mustia* of its own employes, 
etc., etc. 

The Navy Regulations define fully the relations of the 
bureaus to each other. 

Tlie T>iitiejs <>1" tlie •Fiiclgr^^ Advocate 
Cirefiei^al ol'tlie IXtiv^ tii'e, to prepare all the 
necessary papers for, revise and report upon, the proceed- 
ings of courts-martial, courts of inquiry, and boards for the 
examination of officers for retirement and promotion, in all 
cases where such courts or boards are convened by order of 
the Secretary of the Navy ; and to prepare general orders 
for the promulgation of the findings of the same; to ex- 
amine and report upon claims of every description filed in 
the Department; to conduct the departmental correspond- 
ence relating to all business connected with the increase of 
the Navy, such as bids, contracts, specifications, etc. ; to 
conduct all the legal business pertaining to the Navy De- 
l)artment, and all correspondence relating to same when 
any point is referred to the Attorney-General; and to an- 
swer all calls from the Department of Justice and Court of 
Claims for information and papers relating to cases con- 
nected with the Navy Department, etc., etc. 

'Kstyry "Vai*<l Oi*g*aiiizatiori. The Command- 
ing Officer is the senior line officer attached to the yard, and 
is known as the Commandant of the Yard. All communi- 
cations relating to work from the different bureaus go to 
him, and he is responsible for the execution of such orders. 
Ships in commission at a Navy Yard for any purpose are, 



STOWAGE AND SOURCES OF SUPPLY. 161 

from arrival until departure, under the command of the 
Commandant. 

The Captain of the Yard is the next line officer in rank. 
He is the executive officer of the station, and acts for the 
CommandaLnt in his absence. He has the general adminis- 
tration of the Yard, watchmen, police force, tugs, fire bri- 
gade, vessels in reserve, and the mooring and unmooring 
of vessels. He is the representative of the Bureau of Yards 
and Docks, the civil engineer attached to the yard being 
charged with the special duties of this bureau. 

There are also attached to a Yard, officers representing 
the other bureaus, who have charge of the stores and work 
in which the several bureaus are directly concerned. 

The custody, transfer, and issue of all supplies, and the 
record of all property and plants at Navy Yards and sta- 
tions come under the supervision of the Bureau of Sup- 
plies and Accounts ; the Paymaster representing this bureau 
is known as the General Storekeeper. In order to obtain 
any article a requisition is made on the General Store- 
keeper through the Commandant of the Yard and, if ap- 
proved by him, the General Storekeeper will be ordered to. 
furnish it. 

Medical outfits for ships in commission are furnished 
from the Naval Laboratory at New York. Reference to an 
allowance book will show under which bureau any article 
comes. 

The following partial lists give a general idea of the 
articles supplied under the separate bureaus : 

!Ejqn.ipme]nt* Ground tackle, cordage, sails, awn- 
ings, hammocks, and sailmaker*s stores; all mess outfits, 
such as table linen, crockery, plated ware, etc., galleys 
and cooking utensils ; coal and wood for steaming or cook- 
ing purposes. 

The electric plant and outfit is supplied by the Bureau of 
Elquipment; the Navigator, however, is in charge of the 
electric plant and outfit on board ship. All stores used by 
the Navigator, such as charts, chronometers, books, com- 
passes, etc. , come under the Equipment officer who transfers 
them to the Navigator. On board ship the boatswain, car- 
penter and sailmaker have special charge of the equipment 
stores in their own department, under the direction of the 
Executive Officer who is the Equipment Officer of the ship. 

C?oi:iHti*ii.etioi:i a^ncl H^epair* : Blocks, break- 
ers, boats, boat spars, balsas, casks, chests, capstans, dead- 
eyes, mastfishes, spare spars, lumber, caulking material, 
carpenter's tools, mattresses, pillows, fixed furniture in offi- 
cers' quarters, paint, oars, rowlocks, turpentine, varnish. 

On board ship the carpenter has general charge of the 
construction stores under the Executive Officer who makes 
out all requisitions for articles under Constructiou. 



162 STOWAGE AND SOURCES OF SUPPLY. 

Oi^clnance Stoi*e« s Guns, small arms, and ac- 
coutrements, all kinds of ammunition and means for hand- 
ling same; all tools, appliances, oils, etc., for the working 
of the ship's battery. 

All equipments for the magazines and atnmunition 
rooms ; spare parts and material for repairs to the arma- 
ment of the vessel; torpedoes and their appurtenances. 
The gunner is the warrant officer in immediate charge of 
the ordnance stores. The navigator is the ordnance officer 
of the ship and is responsible for all ordnance stores. 

Stestm E^iig'iiieer*i]iLg;' : Boilers, engines and all 
their appurtenances. All firing tools, implements and ap- 
pliances in fire and boiler-rooms, and about the engines. 
All material for the cleaning, repairing and running of all 
machinery. Stores in this department are furnished on 
requisitions made by the Chief Engineer, and are expended 
under his direction. 

I^a^^iiiaHtei-^H Storew s Include clothing and 
small stores; such as buttons, thread, needles, knives, 
scissors, tobacco, soap, etc., for the crew; provisions, wet 
and dry, and the tools, stationary, etc. , that are necessary 
for use in the Pay Department. 

The Paymaster is the purchasing officer of the ship, the 
stores purchased by him being invoiced to the head of the 
department under whom they come. Thus requisitions for 
water are made by the pay officer, and when received the 
water is invoiced to the equipment officer. 

IVIeclieal Storen s Include medicines, surgical in- 
struments, and other appliances for the use of the surgeon, 
as well as provisions for the sick and wounded. The 
medical outfit is in charge of the senior medical officer of 
the vessel. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

BOATS. 

There are three different methods of building boats, 
namely : — 

1st. The Oarvel-l:>vxilt5 which have fore-and-aft 
planks, the edges meeting but not overlapping. 

2d. The CJliiilier-l>xiilt, also fore-and-aft planks, 
with the edges overlapping each other, like shingling. 

3d. The Di£ig'oiia.l-l>v].ilt, having, as the name 
implies, their planking running diagonally, the inside 
planks running in a contrary direction to the outside ones, 
and their edges meeting. 

Bo£itH are single or double hanked, as they have one 
or two rowers to a thwart. 

The seats for the crew of a boat are called the thwarts ; 
the strips runnine fore-and-aft, on which the thwarts 
rest, the rising ; the space abaft the af terthwart, the stem- 
sheets, and forward of the foremost thwart, the fore-sheets ; 
the spaces in the wash-streaJk for the oars, the rowlocks. 

The frames, knees, hooks, stem and stem posts of boats 
are generally of oak, and the planking of cedar. 

Oaris are made of ash. The flat part of an oar which 
is dipped in the water is called the blade, and that which is 
inboard is termed the loom, the extremity of which, being 
small enough to be grasped by the hand, is called the 
handle. 

The oars are said to be double-banked when there are 
two men rowinc^ at each oar. 

Oars should be neatly marked by the carpenter, and the 
men not allowed to deface the looms. 

In the navy, boats are classed as follows : 

Steam launches and steam cutters, frequently built of 
iron or steel. 

Sailing launches, barges, cutters, whale-boats, gigs, and 
din gie s, built of wood. 

To Find tlie AVei^lit of lioatsis, multiply 
the square of the breadth by the length, and that product 
for a launch, by 2.5 ; first cutter, by 1.9 ; quarter boats, bv 
1,0^ second cutter, by 1.4 ; stem boat, by 1.0. Answer will 
be m pounds. 

16.3 



104 BOATS. 

Boat Itlciiiipmeiith«* Before entering upon the 
detail of a boat's outfit, the following articles may be men- 
tioned as indispensable at all times to every boat, viz. : 

1st. The plug. 

2d. A breaker of water, and breaker stand. 

3d. A rudder which cannot be lost if unshipped, without 
cutting the rope by which it is secured. 

4th. The boat-hooks and the oars, or the sails and spars 
or both. 

oth. A bailer. 

The plug should be secured to the keelson by a good 
laniard. The water breaker should have the bung fitted 
with a spigot, or faucet, and laniard and the bunghole with 
a leather lip. If a steering oar is used instead of a rudder, 
it should ship in a patent crutch, narrowing at the top, from 
which the oar cannot be disengag^ed without hauling it 
through, loom first, until the blade is even with the crutch 
opening. 

Rudders are usually supplied with the pjintles of equal 
length. It will save a great deal of trouble if a small piece 
of tne upper pintle is cut off. Otherwise, if there should be 
occasion to unship the rudder, it will be very difficult to 
ship it again in muddy water, or with any motion on the 
boat, since both pintles have to be pointed at once if of the 
same length. 

A good substitute for the old fashioned pintle is found in 
a metal rod of sufficient length secured to the stern of the 
boat. The gudgeons are slotted on one side in order to 
allow the rudder to slij) over and to slide up and down the 
rod. To ship the rudder put it hard over, ship the gudgeons 
over the rod, slide the rudder dow^n until in position, when 
a recess between the rod and the stern of the boat permits 
the gudgeons to turn freely around the rod, and at the same 
time prevents vertical motion of the rudder. 

In addition to the complete set of oars, there should be 
two spare oars, triced up under the thwarts. A painted can- 
vas sail cover is usually provided for the sails. 

Next to the above-mentioned articles may be enumerated 
the following as important in the ordinary outfit of a boat, 
namely : a full set of stretchers, a set of boat-hooks, a good 
arrangement for hoolriig on. set of fendvrs, awning stanch- 
ion-'>. tiller, yoke and lines. tari)auliiis, awnings with bag. 
boat cover with lashings, curtains for carrying arms, back- 
board, gratings, rowlocks, flag-staff. Life-boats, in addition, 
should be fitted with an approved detaching outfit, copper 
air tanks in each end, a steering swivel, and sea painters. 

Boom irons, windlass, windlass bars, well pipe or funnel, 
and rowlocks or thole-pins and grommets should be fitted 
to sailing launches. A short and a long (stout) painter for 
towing or mooring are also required. 



BOATS. 165 

If the lower blocks are to be close to the stem and stern 
of the boat, it is essential that the ring, shackle, ball-toggle 
or other arrangement used, shall permit the lower block to 
be above the gunwale of the boat and clear of it. This 
avoids fouling, which is always objectionable and may be 
dangerous. 

Additional when at sea : Gripes, Fig. 399, fitted with slip- 
hooks ; a boat-rope leading from the fore chains and secured 
to the boat's bows ; life-lines hanging from the boat-davit 
span, the supply-box provided for By tne Ordnance Manual, 
and, when hoisting in a sea-way, two small spars to act as 
skids in keeping the boat clear of the chains, &c. 

A boat binnacle is to be kept trimmed and at hand ready 
for any boat requiring it. 

At least one Doat in every ship should be a good surf or 
life-boat, and fitted for lowering and hoisting with extra- 
ordinary expedition. In this connection, it may be men- 
tioned that tne life-buoys should be of the most approved 
pattern, and that the contrivance for letting them go and 
firing them should be frequently examined and tested. 

Boats should have their own recall, and the comet, and 
general recall, painted on a piece of tin and tacked in some 
secure place, not the backboard. 

The minutiae of boat outfits for various kinds of service 
will be found in the Ordnance Manual. 

Lowering" a^ncl HoiHting- (underway or in 
tideways). For lowering, boats' falls snould be kept in 
separate racks, and always clear. A boat should not be 
lowered while the ship has stern wav ; on the contrary, it 
is better if the vessel oe going ahead. Should the boat get 
under the bows, there is danger in a sea-way of her being 
cut in two or stove by the dolphin-striker. 

In a quarter or stern-boat tne after-tackle should be un- 
hooked first, particularly when going ahead or in a tide- 
way, otherwise the boat may wind and be swamped. 

On lowering a stem-boat in a tide-way, the moment the 
keel touches the water the boat is swept astern, and the 
falls so tautened that they cannot be unhooked without 
much diflScultv. If when the boat is hoisted we hook a 
stout runner, fitted for the purpose, haul taut and belay it, 
and unhook the regular tackles; then when the boat is low- 
ered the runner can be allowed to unreeve instantaneously. 
and the boat is swept clear of the ship at once, or swings to 
her painter previously made fast. 

When about to lower a boat, see the line from forward 
made fast, put the plug in, ship the rudder (if not perma- 
nently shipped), let the men in the boat hold on to tne life- 
lines, and keep the steadying lines fast until the boat is in 
the water. 

For hoisting^ the boat should be hauled up, a careful 
hand steering, or dropped from the line forward and the 



166 BOATS. 

forward tackle hooked first. It is very important that theso 
tackles should have their lower blocks so made that they 
will not capsize. When the tackles are hooked the men 
should keep the blocks up so that they cannot unhook, by 
holding up the parts of the fall. Steadying lines should he 
used in a sea-waj;, leading in through the ports and well 
attended, with which to bind the boat, as she rises, against 
the skids ; the life-lines should be crossed and the boat-rope 
from forward tended. Send all but four hands out and 
hoist away. When the boat is up, pass the bight of the 
stopper through the slings — the short chain-spans which go 
from the ring-bolt in the stem and stern-post to keelson — or 
through the ring-bolts and over the davit-end twice, and 
hitch Def ore attempting to belay the fall. 

For hoisting quarter-boats in a sea-way, there is nothing 
like jack-stays irom the davits to set up to the bends at 
the water-line. A lizard is fitted to each, which travels up 
and down. With these, catch a turn around the thwarts, 
and the boat may be run up, clear of the side, without 
trouble. 

Pass the gripes round the boat clear of turns. Have 
squaring marks put on the falls, so that she may alwavs 
hang square from the davits, and in port, level with tne 
rail. It there be no scuttle which opens of itself, take the 
plug out the moment the boat leaves the water. Make fast 
the Doat-rope from forward to the bows of the boat, stop it 
up to the chains with a split yarn. See that the fenders are 
in, fill the water-breaker, and if the weather be hot, put the 
cover or awning on square and smooth during the day, 
taking it off at ni^ht. 

In a stern-boat in a tide-way, o: ship going ahead, do not 
attempt to haul across the sttrn, but hook both falls with 
the boat lying fore and aft, hoist on the forward fall until 
the boat is about two-thirds out of water, then round in 
steadily on the after fall and the boat will come up without 
difficulty. In this case one man can easily keep the boat 
off the rudder or the stern of the ship. 

Much trouble in rounding up or overhauling down boats' 
falls is avoided by hooking the lower blocks to eye-bolts in 
the ship's side near the heel of the davit or to small beckets 
worked around the davits. 

I-Ia.nd.lins' WoatK ixnclc^i* Oai*K, The follow- 
ing orders are used by officers or others in charge of boats. 
A cutter, for example, is supposed to be lying alongside, 
properly manned, and ready to shove off : 

Give the order: Up Oars! 

The crew, with the exception of the bowmen, seize their 

E roper oars, and, watching the stroke oarsman, raise them 
riskly to the vertical, simultaneously, holding them thus 
directly to their centre fronts, blades fore-and-aft, those on 
starboard side with right hand, those on port side with left 



BOATS. 167 

hand, down and grasping handles; the oars to be held by 
the hands alone, 7iot resting on the bottom of the boat; the 
men face square aft, and pay strict attention to the cox- 
swain. 

Bowmen stand up, facing forwards, and attend the 
painter or heaving-line, or handle boat-hooks, as case may 
require. (They snould not raise their oars until the order 
" Let fall has been executed.) 

In a sea-way, or strong tid.e-way, the after-oarsmen do 
not raise their oars at this command, but assist with boat- 
hooks in shoving off, and raise their oars together and 
before the order " Let fall." 

At command : 

Shove off! 

Bowmen cast off" painter or heaving line, handle boat- 
hooks, and shove the bow clear by a vigorous shove, the 
coxswain seeing that the ensign-staff and quarter go clear 
of gangwav. 

When tne boat is sufficiently clear of the ship or wharf, 
the order is given : 

Let fall ! 

The oars are to be eased doivn into the rowlocks simul- 
taneously, and leveled. The blades should not be allowed 
to splash in the water. The fenders are then taken in, and 
the starboard stroke-oarsman gives the stroke. As the 
style of the stroke depends upon the after-oarsmen, they 
should be the best men in the boat. 

In double-banked boats each man is responsible for the 
proper handling of his own fender. In single-banked boats 
1^0. 2 takes in and throws out the fender of No. 1, No. 3 
that of No. 2, &c. 

(The boat can now be pointed in the desired direction 
by directing the proper oars to be backed or given way 
upon. ) 

The bowmen, having shoved the boat clear, turn aft, 
take their seats, and lay in their boat-hooks together, and, 
having hauled in and coiled down the painter, if adrift, 
seize their oars, and, looking at each other, throw the 
blades over the bows, in line with the keel, simultaneously ; 
when the looms and handles are ^rasped, the oars are raised 
vertically together, and droppea simultaneously into the 
rowlocks. When the boat is properly pointed, the coxswain 
commands : 

Give way together ! 

The starboard after-oar gives the stroke, the others 
follow him. Each oar should be lifted as high as the 
^nwale, and feathered by dropping the wrist until the 
blade is flat. When the blade is thrown forward as far as 
the rowlock will admit, it is then dropped into the water, 
easily and without splashing. (Rowing hand over hand, or 
from the shoulder alone, should never be permitted.) 



108 BOATS. 

()n approaching the desired place of landing, the boat 
being properly pointed, at the mom(*nt the oars are leaving 
the water the coxswain commands : 

In hows! 

The bowmen, closely regarding each other's motions, 
take one stroke, and tossing their oars simultaneously, raise 
them vertically, lightly touching the blades together, letting 
them fall into the boat together, in line with the keel, with- 
out unnecessarj noise, and pass the handles underneath 
the oars still m motion, taking care that their oars are 
**boated." They then seize their boat-hooks, face forward, 
and, standing up, hold their boat-hooks vertically. 

When witn sufficient headway to reach the desired place 
of landing, the command is given : 

Way enough ! 

As before, the command is given while the oars are in 
the water. . The crew, regarding the motions of the stroke- 
oarsman, finish the uncompleted stroke, give one full stroict^ 
additional, and toss their oars simultaneously, raise them to 
a vertical position^ and lay them easily and without noise 
into the boat, in line with the keel. The oars to be so placed 
in the boat that they can be readily resumed by the crev^\ 
the stroke oars to be placed nearest the gunwale, and tli 
others in succession. 

The oars bein^ boated, the stroke oarsmen handle their 
boat-hooks, keeping their seats, and assist the bowmen in 
bringing the boat to the landing. 

After boating the oars, the fenders are thrown out. 

In saluting passing boats, or in stopping to hail, or to 
check headway, it may become necessary to lay on the 
oars ; to do this, conmnand — 

Stand by to lay on your oars ! 

At this the men pay strict attention for the command — 

Oars ! 
which is given while the oars are in the water, the stroke is 
finished and the blades of the oars are feathered and raised 
simultaneously as high as the gunwale, where they are 
firmly held in lines parallel to each other— on no account 
fire the oars to be permitted to touch the water or to be 
thrown out of line. 

At the order — 

Give Way! 
the pulling is resumed, each man regarding the stroke-oars, 
and taking the stroke from them. 

To toss oars, the command is given — 

Stand by to Toss ! 

At the conmiand — 

Toss ! 
which is given while the oars are in the water, the stroke is 
completed, and the oars then thrown up to a vertical nosi- 
tion simultaneously, blades fore and aft, each oar is neld 



BOATS. 1 69 

square to the front of the man holding it — on line with the 
centre of the body. 

In going alongside of a strange or foreign vessel to de- 
liver a message or order, requiring but a few moments to 
give or execute, and particularly when it is desired to keep 
the crew at their thwarts, it is recommended to give the 
order Toss^ rather than Way enough I The crew to keep 
their oars up while the duty is performed by the midshipman 
in charge. The bowmen being the only men in this case, 
who ** boat their oars." 

To trail, give the command — 

Stand by to Trail! 

Trail ! 

At the second order the oar is to be thrown out of the 
rowlock, and allowed to trail alongside, either by the trail 
line or by holding it by the handle. 

To stop the boat's headway, order : 

Oars ! 

Followed by — 

Hold Water! 

And if necessary — 

Stem all ! 

At the first order, lay on the oars as directed ; at the 
second, drop the blades in the water to check the headway ; 
and at the third, pull backward, keeping stroke with the 
after-oars. The oars should not be dropped into the water 
too suddenly, lest they get broken. 

To turn a boat suddenly, order, Oive way starboard (or 
port), ftocfc port (or starboard), Oars! Both backing and 
pulhn^ oars should always keep stroke with the stroke oar 
of their own side, all oars taking and leaving the water 
together. 

The following are given as the indications of a good 
stroke : 

1. Taking the whole reach forward and falling back 
gradually a little past the perpendicular, preserving the 
shoulders throughout square, and the chest developed to 
the end. 

2. Catching the water with the lower edge of the blade 
inclined forward, and beginning the stroke with a full 
tension on the arms at the instant of contact. 

3. A horizontal and dashing pull through the water as 
soon as the blade is covered, without ever dipping more 
than the blade. 

4. Quick recovery after feathering, the arms oemg 
thrown forward perfectly straight at the same time as the 
body, the forward motion of arms and body ceasing together. 

5. Equability in all the motions. 
SculUng with a single oar should be taught. 
^Boat-idg-m, Plate 84. Men-of-war boats are usually 

rigged as follows : Launches are sloop-rigged, with a jib and 



1 70 BOATS. 

mainsail. Cutters and Whale-boats are rigged either with 
two sliding gunter-sails or two lu<5-sails; the former boats 
have a jib m addition. 

A sliding ^nter-mast, Fig. 401a, consists of two sections, 
nearly equal m length, called the lowermast and topmast ; 
the latter slides upon the former, and is held in position by 
means of two metal rings secured to the topmast near its 
lower end. The topmast is on the after siae of the lower 
mast. The sail is bent to the topmast aila to metal hoops on 
the lower mast. Make sail by noisting the topmast, which 
carries the head of the sail with it, hauling aft the sheet. 
The mainsail has a boom. 

The rig is objected to for large boats, on account of the 
diflSculty of handling and stowing the spar and sail, which 
are made up together. 

Lug-sails are either standiiuj lugs, three-quarter lugs or 
dipping lugs. 

The halliards of a standing lug, Fig. 402, are bent to the 
vard a little inside of the forward end ; the tack hooks, or is 
lashed, abaft the mast. 

The halliards of a three-quarter lug, Fig. 403, are bent 
to the yard at one-fourth of its length from the forward end, 
the tack hooks a short distance forward of the mast to an 
eye in the fore-and-aft batten. 

In a boat having two such lug-sails, it is customary to 
hoist the yards on opposite sides of their respective masts, 
and not to dip them, ^ut if it is desired to dip, the sail is 
lowered a short distance, tack unhooked, taken round the 
mast and hooked again, while the fortvard end of the yard 
is dipped around by hauling down upon the luflf of the sail. 
The halliards lead forward. 

A regular dipping lug, Fig. 404, has the halliards bent at 
a point two-fifths of the length of the yard from its forward 
end, the tack hooks well forward of the mast, there being 
an eye-bolt for the fore tact on either bow. 

In tacking or wearing with this rig, the after yard arm 
must be dipped around the mast from aft forward. This is 
done in tacking, as follows : the wind being on the (former) 
lee bow, one hand lowers the halliards iust enough to let the 
after yardarm go round the mast. This ensures plenty of 
back sail forward where needed, and as little slacK sail as 
possible on top of the men. One hand forward bears the 
fore part of the sail out, the next two gather the clew of the 
sail forward and pass it around the mast, one hand aft un- 
hooks the sheet as soon as the sail lifts, and rehooks when 
the clew is passed aft again. Balance of crew hand along 
the foot of the sail and assist in rehoisting. Shift fore tact 
to the weather bow. 

In wearing, dip just before the wind is aft, rehoist when 
wind is on tne otner quarter. Do not allow the sails to 
gybe, and keep the halliards to windward. 



BOATS. 17t 

In this connection may be mentioned the split lug. Fig. 
405, generally used in British galleys (gigs), which have but 
one mast. The yard is slung at two-fifths its length from 
the forward end, as in case of tlie dipping lu^, the sail is 
split in the wake of the mast, and furnished with a lacing, 
also with a second tack-lashing, or hook, for the after portion 
of the sail. Fitted in this manner, when the lacing is passed 
the sail is simply w dipping lug. With the lacing unrove 
and the after tacK secured, the after part of the sau is used 
as a standing lug, the forward part (fitted with a temporary 
sheet) acts as a ]ib. The latter form of the rig is convenient 
in beating ; the use of a jib-stay is avoided. 

Dingies and gigs are usually supplied with sprit-sails — the 
latter boats may also have a jib. The upper end of a sprit is 
placed in a grommet at the peak of a sail, while the lower 
end ships in another grommet on the mast. 

>raHtN should step in boxes and clamp to the thwart ; 
clamp to be abaft the foremast and forward of the main- 
mast. The awkward and dangerous practice of stepping 
masts through a hole in the fore-and-aft batten, usually 
the flimsiest piece of material in the boat, cannot be too 
strongly condemned. 

The British service rig includes an ingenious device 
(De Horsey's) for stepping the foremast. A stout fore-and- 
aft piece is ntted forward, with a slit through its centre 
equal in length to the distance from the heel of the mast to 
the partners, and in width somewhat greater than the 
diameter of the mast. The mast is fitted with trunnions, 
one on each side, resting on the after part of the fore-and- 
aft piece. In stepping, the mast pivots fore and aft on 
these trunnions. As the head goes forward and up, the heel 
sinks into its step, where it is confined by a pawl^ which is 
fitted with a safety key that locks it after the heel is in 
place. Fig. 397, Plate 83. 

With this rig the mast is stepped or unstepped in a mo- 
ment. To take the mast out of the boat, unkey the cap 
squares of the trunnions. 

The mainmast in this case is fitted in the usual way 
-with a box and clamp, the fore being given the easier rig on 
account of its situation, which renders it more difficult to 
handle. 

Before stepping see that the halliards are rov(» and that 
nothing will be required aloft. Never send a incin aloft on 
the masts if halliards unreeve. Unstep the mast and rectify 

matters in that way. , ^ xi. 

H^igglng. The masts being stepped, set up the 
shrouds equaUy and for a full due. Do not tamper with 
lee shrouds when sailing, to "set them up." If they are 
hove taut in a stiflE breeze, the next tack will probably result 
in your wrenching the head of the mast oflE. 

JtlAlliards stnd Dovrn-liaixln. The yard of a 



172 BOATS. 

lug-sail hooks to an iron traveler on the mast; the hauling 
end of the halliards shouhi have an eve in its end, to be 
placed over the hook of the traveler before hoisting, and 
used as a down-haul. 

Set a jib before setting the foresail. The jib being the 
fore-stay, if the foresail is set first the mast-head is dragged 
aft and the after leach will be slack. If obliged to set the 
foresail first, ease the fore-sheet while hoisting the jib, and 
let the head of the foremast go to its place. See the jib 
tack well out to the bowsprit end before noisting. 

i^£iilN. Do not stretch the head of boat sails in bend- 
ing them, unless they are bent when wet. Bring them to 
the yards and galffs barely hand taut, to allow for shrinkage 
when damp, or the fit or the sail will be spoiled. See the 
yards slung so that the sails will set smoothly. 

Hoat Sa^ilingr* Make all the men who are not 
shoving: the boat off sit down. ''Shove ojf," " in fenders.'' 
In shoving off when the ship is not head to wind, pull clear 
of her before making sail. If the ship is broaoside to a 
steady breeze you may make sail from the lee gangway, 
but look out for flaws. 

Ship being head to wind, ^ive the order, ''Stand by to 
make sail r See halliards manned, lee sheets aft, brails 
tended : then •" Shore offr •' Hoist the jib:' then the foresail. 
If intending to sail on the wind, "hoist the ma i nsai l'- ai< 
soon as the boat is clear. If bound to leeward, let the boat 
pay off first to her course, then ** hoist the maiusailS' ** ease 
off fore and jib sheets,^' anil proceed. 

if you want a pull on the halliards, slack the sheet : if 
the fore, check the main sheet at the same time. 

Have the halliards coiled clear for running ; do not 
allow the crew to stand on the thwarts or move about in 
the boat, nor the coxswain to let go the helm, as is some- 
times done to get a pull of the main sheet, &c. Bv this 
thoughtless practice a boat may be taken aback and cap- 
sized. See tnat the weights are kept amidships and that 
all sheets are tended, not belayed. 

If running and about to round to, remember that you 
cannot carry all the sail on a wind that you can before it, 
and reduce m consequence beforehand. 

Running dead to leeward in a single-masted boat (gig) 
is dangerous. It is preferable to carry the wind a little on 
one quarter for half the distance, then haul aft the sheet, 
lower, shift the sail around, and head for your destination 
with the wind on the other quarter. Never go wing and 
wing if ther(^ is any sea on, or if the wind is unsteady iii 
direction. 

If your men are all sitting to windward in a breeze, make 
them take their proper places befcu'e passing to leeward of 
a vessel. 



BOATS. 173 

Steerifigr and TTi'lmtniiig- Itoa.tN'. The 

"rule of the road" and the remarks about handling ship 
apply equally to a boat. See Chapter XIX. 

Putting tne rudder right across the stem deadens the 
way : 42** is considered the extreme of efficiency. 

When there is no way on, or when the boat is tied by 
the stem — as in towing, when the tow-line is fast to the 
wrong place, the stem ring-bolt — the rudder has no effect 
whatever. 

Always endeavor, either by trimming sails or disposition 
oi weights, to reduce the boat to a " small helm," for when 
tlie rudder is dragged much across the stern the way is 
retarded. Weather helm will be induced by allowing the 
boat to be pressed by the head, and this may be caused by 
the bowmen sitting forward, or by press of sail, or both. 
If the bows are clear, a pull on the jib sheet miqht relieve 
the helm, but not as a matter of course ; for if the lib was 
already flat, it might be the cause of depression, and a few 
inches checked would perhaps answer the purpose. Then 
the main sheet might be the cause, and an inch of that 
sheet might be the remedy. But it will be of no* use to 
attempt trimming until the sails are taut up and well set ; 
and then the officer in command can make his alteration of 
trim, until the boat may be so nicely balanced that, by 
sending the bowmen forward and letting go the tiller, she 
will go about of herself. 

If the bow is deep and the stem light of draught, the 
former is not so easily blown from the wind as the latter. 
If, on the contrary, the stem be deeo, and the bow light, 
the bow is readily thrown to leeward by the conjoint action 
of wind and sea. In the first of these cases — supposing the 
sail to be well balanced — ^the boat would carry weather 
helm ; in the last, lee helm ; but in either, her way would 
be more or less diminished. The drag of cross hehn mieht 
be decreased by reducing sail at one of the extremities, but 
at the expense of speed ; whereas, by trimming weights, all 
sail might be carried, and speed increased. 

Use water in breakers for ballast. 

Taclcing-. Having previously described the method 
of dii>ping lugs, let us assume the boat to be a cutter fitted 
with jib and sliding gunters. Keep a good full for stays, 
then ^^ Ready about,, the helm is easea down, then ^^ease 
off the jib sheet I" if the boat is a slow worker and does not 
come to readily, otherwise the jib sheet may be kept fast. 
Haul the main-boom handsomely amidships. When head 
to wind shift over the fore sheet, be careful not to make a 
back sail of the foresail. Bear the jib out to windward to 
assist in paying the boat's head around. When the jib has 
paid the head off sufficiently to fill the foresail, " draiv jib,'' 
nauling aft the jib and fore sheet, right the helm, haul aft 
the mam sheet. 



'174 BOATS. 

If the boat gathers stern-board shift the helm; get out 
^an oar on the lee bow to bring her head around, or let all 
the crew that are in the after part of the boat place them- 
selves on the (old) weather quarter, the boat will then pay 
oflf the right way, owing to the pressure of the water bemg 
more on tne immersed quarter tnan the other. 

Thus, if the boat is head to wind and her bow ought to 

Eay oflf to starboard, send the men who are aft to the star- 
oard quarter, their weight depressing that quarter, the bow 
will pay oflf as desired. 

Men-of-war boats fitted with but one sail (unless a split 
lug) should not attempt to beat to windward. 

In working to windward among shipping, or in a harbor, 
if there is any doubt of your weathering a particular object, 
it is always safest to tack. In luflSng up for a '* half board '* 
a boat quickly loses her way and becomes for the time being 
unmanageable. This would probably result in your fouling 
the danger you have tried to avoid. 

A^'^eai'ingr. Put the helm up, **ease off the main 
sheet ^^ ! or, in a fresh breeze, ^^ brail up the main-saiV^ ! 
Slack oflf the fore and jib sheets as she goes oflf ; when the 
wind is well on the quarter, ''shift over the fore sheet ^^ ; 
with the wind on the new weather quarter set the main- 
sail, or, ''haul aft the main sheet,*' then the fore; when 
nearly by the wmd, haul aft the jib sheet and right the 
helm. 

Instead of lowering the main-sail altogether, it is suflS- 
cient to ** brail up,^^ hauling aft the sheet again as soon as 
the sail will take on the new tack. 

XJnclei* Sail slticL Oai*K, When the wind fails, 
get out oars and keep the boat under oars and sail as long as 
the latter are of any assistance. If the breeze freshens 
again, lay in at least the lee oars to avoid catching crabs and 
splitting the gunwale. When the weather oars barely 
strike the water, in consequence of the boat's inclination, it 
is time to lay them in also. Ship rowlock shutters, if used. 

lleiiv^ifio-to. Put the helm down, haul the main- 
boom well over amidships, the jib-sheet to windward, brail 
up the fore-sail. 

Xl/eeliiig-, Before reefing, tell oflf the men for the 
diflferent duties ; if using lug sails, two men forward haul 
down on the luflf of the sail and shift the tack, one hand by 
the halliards, one at the downhaul, one to tend the sheet, 
the rest tie the points and shift the sheet-block at the clew. 
Do not luflf, check the sheets, lower enough to tie the points, 
hauling in the fore-sheet so that the men can get at the foot 
of the sail without peaching over the lee gunwale ; shift the 
tack and sheets and tie the points ; slack the sheet, hoist 
and haul aft. 

Hoist the foresail first, or if the mainsail be first hoisted, 
check its sheet till the boat has headway, or she will get in 



BOATS. 175 

the wind and lose time. Reef a sliding gunter in the same 
way, except that there is no need of a downhaul, nor of 
hauling down upon the luflf of the sail. 

In reefing, do not roll up the foot of the sail snugly ; it 
holds more water than when the sail is loosely tiea up by 
the points. 

Always be&dn to reef when the boat commences to bury 
her lee gunwale or shows signs of being crank. 

In reefing, or performing any of the evolutions described, 
nobody needs to stand up. Good boatmen never jump 
about on the thwarts, or show more than their heads above 
the gunwale. 

i5$Qii.£ills. Sailing on a wind, in moderate squalls, 
ease tne sheets enough to relieve the boat, keep enough 
steerage-way to bring her promptly into the wind if the 
squall increases. 

When caught in a hard and sudden squall, put the helm 
down at once, let fly the fore-sheet : and as such squalls fre- 
quently veer more or less, lower the sail ; for if it catches 
aback there would be difficulty in getting it down, danger 
and sternway from keeping it hoisted. 

Sailing with the wind abeam, if a squall comes up. 
receive it with the sheets flowing and halliards clear for 
nmning. 

The squall increasing in violence, brail up the mainsail, 
up helm, and if need be, lower and reef the foresail. 

If obliged to run before a very fresh breeze, use a reefed 
foresail, but in any case carry enough sail to keep ahead of 
the sea. 

An empty breaker, or spar towed astern, will much 
diminish the danger of being pooped. 

CsLXJLglkt in SL Gra.le« If blown out to sea, or 
otherwise unable to reach the ship in a gale of wind, lash 

Jour spars, sails, and all but half a dozen oars, together, 
lake a span of the heaviest rope available. Bend the spaii 
to the opposite ends of the largest spar, bend the end of 
your painter to the span and launch the spars overboard : 
the longer the scope the easier the boat will ride, to the 
breakwater thus formed. The sails should be loosed on at- 
taching their yards to the spars, they will thus contribute 
greatly to breaking the sea. If weights be fastened to the 
clews the boat's drift will be much retarded. 

Oa.pHizing'. As a rule, remain bv the boat — she will 
assist those that cannot swim to keep afloat, and those who 
can swim may, with the aid of the boat, render valuable 

oc fit fl^ An {* ^ 

rraking- in Sail. To take in the jib, foresail bein^ 
set, slack the tack and gather in the sail on the foot, lower 
the halliards. If the foresail is not set, lower the halliards 
first, gather in on the after leech and foot ; when down, let 
go the tack. 



170 BOATS. 

To take in a lug-sail, check the sheet, haul down on the 
(lownhaul and luff of the sail at the same time ; do not haul 
on the after leech, as it causes the fore-part of the sail to 
fill and the traveler to bind against the mast. 

With sliding gunter sails, Idwer the halliards, then brail up. 
Caroing" a.long'Hicle. If under oars, a fresh breeze 
blowing, pull, as a rule, for the lee gangway. Boat the 
oars instead of tossing them, whether going or coming, 
whenever there is any considerable motion, as they are apt 
to take under chains, ports or other projections from ships 
or wharves. 

If under sail in a fresh breeze, always get down the 
masts before coming alongside. Round to ahead, down 
masts, out oars, and drop down ; or shoot up under the stern, 
and down masts before getting under the quarter boats. 

Ship head to wind, no tide, get the main -yard end on, 
keep the boat away a little to allow for rounding to, *'down 
jib,'' and rig in the bowsprit in good season ; when with way 
enough. *' brail up the foresail," put the helm down, haul 
flat aft the main sheet, brail up tne mainsail as soon as it 
ceases to draw, out fenders. 

If there is any current, make allowance for it by heading 
for a point further forward or aft, as the case may be. 

Riding to a windward tide, if approaching from abaft 
the beam, the foresail may be taken in and mast unstepped, 
using the mainsail only to bring her alongside. Approach- 
ing tne ship from forward of tne beam, unstep masts and 
out oars. 

Whenever there is the slightest doubt of your ability to 
fetch the gangway under sail, brail up, unstep the masts 
and pull alongside. 

Alwavs unstep the masts in approaching a vessel under 
way, and do not board, or shove off from, a vessel which 
has stemway on. 

If unable to fetch the ship in a strong tideway or fresh 
breeze, keep as much as possible in her wake. The ship 
will veer astern a buoy, or small boat, bearing a line by 
means of which the boat can be warped up alongside. 

Under similar circumstances the gangway being un- 
shipped (River Plate, Canton River, &c.), a small hawser 
may be carried around the ship outside all, the bight made 
fast to the bowsprit cap. the ends reaching the water astern 
and the hawser suspended on both sides from each lower 
yard-arm by whips with bowline knots. 

The hawser is triced up clear when not in use. and dropped 
in good season as a boat rope for approaching boats. 

In going alongside a ship riding to her anchor, or under- 
way, round to so that bow of the boat will be in the same 
direction as the ship's head. 

But if a vessel is moored head and stern, approach her 
by rounding to head to the current 



BOATS. 1 77 



THE DISPOSITION AND USES OF MEN-OF-WAR BOATS. 

A battleship of the Massachusett's class, carries thirteen 
boats. When at sea they are stowed in cradles on skid 
beams on the bridge deck. Some of the smaller boats are 
carried in the larger ones. Two whale boats are carried at 
davits and are used for life-boats. A sufficient numbei- of 
port davits are' fitted to accommodate the boats when the 
vessel is at anchor. The boats are as follows: 

One 36-foot steam cutter. 

One 33-foot steam cutter. 

Two 33-foot sailing launches. 

Three 28-foot cutters. 

One 24-foot cutter. 

Two 2()-foot dinghies. 

One 30-foot whale boat gig. 

Two 29-foot whale boats. 

A smaller vessel carries a less number. Flagships carry 
a barge. 

The steam launch is used in towing, transporting stores 
and for passengers. 

The sailing launch and the larger cutters are employed 
in all heavy work, carrying out anchors, watering and pro- 
visioning snip. 

Barges are for the use of flag officers, and are supplied 
only to flag-ships. 

Gigs are for the use of commanding oflScers. 

Wnaleboats are used as life-boats or for answering 
signals. &c. 

Dinghies are used in conveying stewards and servants, 
• T for other light work. 

The cutters not reserved as working boats are the " run- 
ning boats" of the ship for transporting passengers and 
other general duties. 

In Port, nothing sooner indicates the order and 
discipline of a man-of-war than the clean state and effi- 
cient condition of her boats. The coxswains of the regu- 
lar running boats for the day should clean and have them 
ready for lowering at the proper time, usually at morning 
colors. 

When boats are lowered, they are hauled out and secured 
to pendants at the lower booms, fenders out; gigs and 
dingies are secured to the stem pendants. 

Every boat when down should contain a boat-keeper — 
the duty being taken by the members of the boat's crew in 
turn. Usually in a cutter, the men who occupy the same 
thwart are detailed for one day, the next thwart taking the 
duty on the following day. 

A boat-keeper is to keep his boat clear of others, to haul 



178 BOATS. 

M up to the boom for manning, and to haul forward clear 
of the gangway when other boats come alongside or shove 
off. 

Boat-keepers rise and salute all commissioned officers 
passing, leaving, or going on board the ship. 

To Keep a boat clear of a ship when nding astern, let 
her tow the boat-bucket. 

In blowy weather heavy boats are moored at the boom 
with a hawser led through a block on the boom to another 
on the bowsprit, thence inboard. This relieves the spar of 
much strain. 

A launch may be hoisted out of water overnight or to 
scrub her bottom, bv using the cat and a stout purchase to 
the bowsprit. If hoisted for scrubbing, send the hands 
under her in the catamaran. 

The crews of running boats should wear their neckhand- 
kerchiefs, shoes and cap-ribbons, and be mustered for in- 
spection every morning oy the officer of the deck. 

Boats should be manned from the booms or stem pend- 
ants if moored there. Three minutes is a fair allowance 
of time for manning a boat and bringing her to the gang- 
way. 

JDnties of a. Boat OlHcer. When ordered 
to take charge of a boat, report promptly to the officer of 
the deck, dressed in the uniform of the day, and with side 
arms. If there is no midshipman of the quarter-deck, see 
the boat lowered and mannea, or manned and dropped to 
the gangway from the boom. See the crew in uniform, 
coxswain in, oars up, blades fore-and-aft. 

Receive your orders, and be sure that you understand 
them perfectly before leaving the ship, and also assure 
yourself that all necessary articles are in the boat. 

Having received your orders get in the boat, shove off 
and let fsill. 

If going to another man-of-war use the port side, except 
when there are commissioned officers in the boat, or when 
the starboard ladder only is shipped. Salute the quarter- 
deck on stepping over the gangway, and report to the 
officer of the aeck. When ready to leave the snip, request 
the officer of the deck to have your boat at the gangway, 
instead of giving orders yourself. When your boat is ready, 
report your departure. 

If in a tideway, and likely to be detained on board for 
some time, request permission for your boat to hang on at 
the boom ; do not allow your men to come on board without 
permission from the officer of the deck. 

If advisable, for any reason, order the coxswain as you 
leave the boat to shove off and lie off the ship. 

Preserve silence and order at all times in your boat, see 
that the men pull properly, or, if sailing, that the sails ard 
handled in accordance with the foregoing instructions. 



BOATS. 179 

When a boat officer must be absent from his boat, he 
should leave his coxswain in charge, with positive orders 
concerning his duty. 

f Pulling in for a landing among a crowd of boats, lay on 
your oars at a reasonable distance from the wharf, instead 
of boating your oars at the last moment. This leaves you 
control of the boat, and you can back or give way as may 
be needed to avoid collision, instead of dashing in, break- 
ing oars and boat-hooks, and may be staving your own 
boat. Boat the oars when no longer needed. 

Make due allowance for the rate at which the tide is 
going past a ship, or the rate at which she mav be moving, 
when making for her. A current frequently sets close 
.along the shore in the opposite direction to the one that 
is going bv the ship ; and, therefore, a little judgment 
may save a long pull. An inquiring boat officer will learn 
more of the local tides and currentsl)y a chat with a water- 
man than can be found in books ; and by observing the 
manoeuvres of native boatmen much labor and risk may be 
avoided. 

When practicable alwavs keep out of the strength of a 
Contrary tide. * 

Avail yourself of every opportunity for steering by a 
range, as there are many coxswains who cannot steer a 
straight course athwart a strong tide. 

If conveying on shore a person entitled to a salute, work 
up ahead of the ship if practicable, lay on your oars, flow your 
sheets, or stop the engine (as the case may be) at the first 
gun, and proceed after the last gun is fired. 

A boat officer has charge of the boat, but when carrying 
commissioned officers the senior line offlicer has authority to 
interfere, and if need be to take command. 

Never attempt to cut across the bows of a boat contain- 
ing commissioned officers. Be on the alert to give the 
proper salutes to all officers in passing boats of whatever 
nationality, and be particular that the coxswain salutes all 
officers, and rises to salute the commissioned officers. 

At night, in thick weather, or when far from land, do 
not leave the ship without a compass ; and get the bearing 
of the place to which you are bound before starting. Takt' 
a bearing of your own ship also before losing sight of her. 
It has been found very convenient to keep a supply box 
always in each boat, containing a pistol, flash-pan, powder, 
caps, a rocket and blue light, hatcnet and a few nails. &c. 
(See Ordnance Manual. ) 

A boat officer is always supposed to have his watch and 
boarding book at hand. 

When ordered on boat duty, it is well to remember 
your men's meal hours, either taking the provisions in the 
boat, or warning the master-at-arms that the crew will be 
absent. 



1 80 BOATS. 

m 

Acquire the habit of sitting down in a boat, and tieVer 
stand up to perform any work which may be done sit- 
ting. 

Always step at once into the 'midships of a boat in 
getting into one^ and never on the gunwale. 

The boat should be baled out. slings hooked, and other- 
wise prepared for hoisting, before reaching the ship, if 
intenaing to hook on. 

In boarding a merchant vessel fill out the columns of 
your boarding Dook. If sent on board a man-of-war to offer 
services, &c., keep any information acquired for insertion 
in your book after leaving the vessel. 

Finally, bear in mind at all times the following points : 

Keep a boat bows on to a heavy sea. 

Never jamb a helm down too suddenly or too far. 

Keep your weights amidships. 

Never belaythe sheets. 

Beingf To^wed toy a Vessel. If alongside, 
have the tow-rope from as far forward as possible, never 
make it fast, but toggle it with a stretcher to the forward 
thwart, steadying it over the stem with the bight of your 
painter, or pass it through the foremost rowlock on the side 
nearest the ship. Fig. 407. 

When towing astern, the closer the better. In casting 
off, if there are other boats towing astern, either be dropped 
clear of them all, with your tow-line, before letting go, Or 
be handy with your oars to avoid getting ath wart-hawse of 
some of them. 

Do not permit other boats to hold on to a vessel by your 
boat. Get more of your own tow-line, steady it over the 
stem and stern with slip lines, and pass the end into the 
next boat astern. Fig. 406. 

n?o wing** In taking another boat in tow, pass clear 
of her oars ; place yourself right ahead, exactly in line, 
and give way the instant that you have hold of her painter. 
Do not give another boat your painter until she is in line 
ahead of your boat. Toggle the tow-line between the two 
after thwarts with a stretcher. Toggle your own painter 
to the forward thwart before giving it to a boat aiiead. 
This saves the stem and stern-post. If you wish to turn 
your boat's head, bear the tow-line over the quarter on that 
side to which you desire to turn, for the helm will be of 
little or no use. 

In towing short round, do not attempt to turn before your 
leaders are around. 

The heaviest boats should always be nearest the tow. 

Boats will tow with increased effect if weighted with 
shot. A few lengths of stream chain is the quickest weig^ht 
that can be passed in and out, besides being less damagmg 
to the boat. Men in the stf^rn sheets will answer the same 
])nri)()S(\ 



BOATS. ISl 

Taking another boat in tow without delaying the duty 
by fouling her oars, or the boat itself, is a very neat 
performance, and when well done, betokens judgment and 
iikill. 

Tow spars by their smaller ends. 

A steam-launch being frequently used in towing may be 
fitted with a span of wire rope, the ends being secured to 
either quarter and with a gooa-sized thimble in the bight tu 
receive the tow-line. The steering is rendered much easier 
by the use of this span. Never allow a boat with men in it 
to be towed without some means of steering it. 

Towingr I^ii*e Sliipn* oi- VeKj^elK on 
I^ii'e. When boats are sent on this service, provide them 
with a few lengths of small chain, to make fast to the burn- 
ing vessel ; grapnels would do well to throw on board, and 
then make fast the tow-rope to the chain of the grapnel, for 
the boats to tow from. There are many instances of tow- 
ropes and hawsers being burnt when employed on this ser- 
vice, and other vessels much endangered from want of this 
precaution. If hawsers are sent to oe made fast to a burn- 
mg vessel, with the intention of wari)ing her clear of other 
vessels, using a length of stream-chain cable for the bend* 
ing end will be found much safer than trusting to rope 
alone. 

Bo£ii*diiig;' a "W^recls or* "Vewsel in a 
Heavy Sea. Whenever practicable, a vessel, whether 
stranded or afloat, should be boarded to leeward, as the 
principal danger to be guarded against must be the collision 
of the Doat against the vessel, or her swamping by the re- 
bound of the sea, and the greater violence of the sea on 
the windward side is much more likely to cause such acci- 
dents. 

In boarding a stranded vessel on the lee side, if broadside 
to the sea, the chief danger to apprehend is the falling of 
the masts or the destruction of the boat amongst the wreck- 
age alongside. Under such circumstances it may be neces- 
sary to take a wrecked crew into a life-boat from the bow or 
stem. 

Large life-boats used on flat shores or shoals, usually 
anchor to windward in boarding a wreck, and veer down 
from a safe distance until near enough to throw a line on 
board. 

In every case of boarding a wreck or a vessel at sea, it 
is important that the lines by which a boat is made fast to 
the vessel should be of sufficient length to allow of her 
rising and falling freely with the sea, and everjr rope should 
be kept in hand ready to cut or slip in a moment, if necessary. 
On wrecked persons or other passengers being taken into a 
boat in a sea-way, they should be placed on tne thwarts in 
equal numbers on either side, and be made to sit down^ all 
crowding and rushing headlong into the boat being pre- 



182 BOATS. 

vented as far as possible ; and the captain of the sh>p, if a 
wreck, should be called on to remain on board her to pre- 
serve order until every other person shall have left the snip. 

An exception to the usual rule of boarding to leeward 
occurs in the case of a vessel of very low free board, such 
as small schooners, &c. Board such craft on the weather 
quarter to avoid being stove by the vessel's main-boom, 
or chains, &c. 

AVai*piiigr» A warp is a rope or a hawser employed 
occasionally to remove a snip from one place to another in 
a port or river. 

To warp a vessel is to change her situation by pulling 
her from one part of a harbor to another, by means of 
warps which are taken to other ships, buoys, or certain 
stations on shore. The ship is then drawn forward to 
those fixed points, either by pulling on the warp by hand, 
or by application of some purchase, as a tackle, or cap- 
stan. 

Wet warps require careful seizing. Make four parts of 
a spun-yam seizmg, take a round turn with the bight of 
this round the standing part of the warps, then pass the 
seiziAg (figure of eight fashion) round the hitcnes and 
standing part, then cross opposite ways with two parts 
each way, reeve the ends through the bights and drag all 
the turns taut. 

The quick way to run a short warp out, is for one boat to 
run away with the end, and the others to pull in fore-and- 
aft under the bights, as they are payed out at equal dis- 
tances, according to the length of the warp and number of 
boats, giving way the moment they have got hold. 

In all cases when you take in the end of a warp, coil 
enough of it forward so as to be able to make a bend the 
instant your boat reaches the place where you wish to 
make fast. 

It is hardly possible to lay a heavy warp out without 
floating its bight. If there is a chance of its being suddenly 
tautened, hang it outside the boat instead of laying it fore 
and aft amidships. 

A. GriaeHw AVai*x>. To lay out a warp to wind- 
wardy or against a tide, coil the whole warp in the boat, 
pull to the place assigned, make fast and drop down to the 
ship. 

To lay out a warp to leeward, or with the tide. Take 
most of the warp in tne boat, let the ship pay out more after 
the boat has shoved off, until what is in the boat is suffi- 
cient, then pay out from the boat to the make-fast. Which- 
ever way it be, there is great judgment required in reserv- 
ing a sufficiency of hawser in the boat to insure that she 
will reach her destination, only paying out when certain of 
doing so. It is from this necei^sity for judging the distance, 
by the eye that we have the term "guess warp." 



BOATS. 183 

When you are given the end of a hawser to run out 
which is not becketed, put a hitch on it and stop the end 
down at once. 

Kled.glnLg'. When the operation of warping is per- 
formed by the ship's kedges, these, together with their 
warps, are carried out in the boats alternately, towards the 
place where the ship is endeavoring to arrive, so that when 
she is drawn up close to one, another is carried out to a 
sufficient distance ahead, and being sunk, serves to fix the 
other warp, by which she may be further advanced ; the first 
kedge is then weighed, sent ahead, and the operation re- 
peated. This is conmionly called kedaing. 

When great expedition is required, the boats should be 
equally divided into two parties, the light boats towing the 
larger containing the keage and hawsers. As soon as the 
first kedge is let go and the ship started ahead, the other set 
may "pay and go," so that when the first is at a ** short 
stay," the second may be let go, and the ship thus kept 
going^ continuously. 

The evolution of kedgin^ was practised on board the 
Constitution, during the exciting chase in which she escaped 
from the British squadron, under Sir Philip Broke. 

There are many cases when kedging might be necessary 
to modem vessels if disabled or not under steam. 

Cairying- Stores. When provisioning ship, be 
careful with the oars, as the blades are easily ruined bv 
throwing them on stones orty treading on them : keep all 
casks *' Dung up," and leave space under the aiterthwart 
for baling the boat out. Have tarpaulins for covering 
bread or anything that will be injured by salt water. Sling 
the midship casks as they are stowed. While loading, make 
large allowance for the roughness of water you may have 
to encounter. 

Do not overload a boat, particularly with men or sand ; 
the former mav be attended with loss of life ; in the latter 
case, it must be remembered that sand is much lighter 
when dry than wet. Be prepared to buoy treasure if 
carried. 

A laden boat carries her way longer than a light one, 
therefore shorten sail or " way enough" in good time. 

JBoa,tH ta.king' in water in l:>ixllc. The 
launch, or largest boat you intend for the purpose of water- 
ing, must be cleared of all her gear of every description ; 
then tow or pull her to the watering place, wnere she must 
be well washed out with water several times, until perfectly 
clean ; when done, put the hose into the boat, and merely 
leave a couple of hands to attend it until the boat is full ; 
then, by a signal from the shore, or otherwise, send a boat to 
tow her off to the ship ; pump the water out of the boat into 
your tanks, and so on until you complete your water. If in 
a river, pull the plug out and let her fill. 



184 BOATS. 

In watering from a spring, keep the end of the suction 
hose in a tub, or have a rag around the strainer to keep out 
gravel or sand. 

Ha^iilin^ ixp l>oatH on wlioi'e. Before leav- 
ing the ship, see the boat's anchor and a good luff tackle in 
the boat. If it is a heavv boat, say a launch, take a couple 
of stout towlines or small hawsers as well, with additional 
tackles. 

Run the boat's bow on to the beach, and let a few hands 
on each quarter keep her in that position, by setting their 
oars against the ground ; next, sweep her with a hawser, 
and g^y it up at the stern to a proper height by several 
turns of the painter ; to this hawser hook on the double 
block of the tackle, the other end, or single block, being 
overhauled to a proper lengthy and hooked to the boat's 
anchor buried in the ground, with one hand on it to prevent 
rising. Fig. 408. 

Pass the bight of another hawser round the stem post, 
and having guyed it up on each side to the gunwale, nook 
on, on eacn side, a quarter tackle also, overhauled to a 
proper length, and hooked at the other end where conve- 
nient ; man these with the remaining hands ; then, having 
placed rollers in succession to take the boat's forefoot and 
keel, proceed to haul away. When up, the loose thwarts set 
against the ground and wash-streak will keep her upright. 

The loose thwarts should also be placed for the rollers to 
roll on if the ground is soft. 

Smaller boats do not require quarter tackles, and may be 
hauled up by their crews if provided with rollers and tackle, 
as descrioeci. 

Boats that are being frequently hauled up and launched 
should have a hole in the forefoot, through which a strap 
for the tackle could reeve. When the tacKle is secured to 
the boat at the top of her stem, it buries her gripe in the 
mud. 

To transport on land a moderate-sized boat, turn her bot- 
tom up and shoulder her by the gunwales. A heavy boat 
should not at any time be turned bottom up, on account of 
the strain. 

Having hauled up boats or small vessels on temporary 
ways for repairing, remember that sea- weed is as good as 
soap on the ways, m launching. 

Jilml>£ii-lci]:ig' HGSL\ry A.i'ticlew. In the en- 
tire absence of usual resources, great weights, such as a 
gun for instance, may be got into a boat where there is 
great rise and fall by filling the boat at low water with dun- 
nage or sand, banking up an inclined plane with shingle, 
rolling the gun into tne boat, clearing out the sand and. 
waiting for the tide to float her off. 

Get a boat under a low bridge, or under a weight that 
cannot be raised high enough to clear the gunwale, by 



BOATS. 185 

taking the plug out ; then replacing it and pumping out the 
water. 

When weighing anything heavy over the stern of tho 
launch, bear the rope amidships and ship the awning stan- 
chion over it, the latter being fitted witn two legs, one on 
either side of the stern roller. This will keep the rope from 
flying over to the quarter and capsizing the boat. 

Liiie-l>oatH« In men-of-war, aooat on each quarter 
is desi^ated as a '* life-boat." These boats are fitted with a 
detaching apparatus of some one of the pjattems described 
below, and are otherwise prepared for immediate use at 
sea, the other boats being topped up and more permanently 
secured. 

There is a life-boat's crew in each watch, composed of 
the best seamen in it, and with plenty of supernumeraries 
to supply the places of men aloft, at the wheel, or sick, 
The coxswain of the life-boat's crew of the watch inspects 
both life-boats at sundown, sees the plugs in, towline from 
forward secured in place and clear, falls clear for running, 

fripes ready for slipping, oars in place, steering-oar pointed 
ut clear of the aiter block, bag of bread, breaker of water 
and bucket (or bailer) in the boat, and a lighted boat com- 
pass at hand abaft the wheel, in charge of cabin orderly, or 
m some place well known to both crews.* He should report 
to the omcer of the deck, ' ^ Life-boats clear and ready for 
lowering."' 

Being in charge of the life-boat when called away, see 

Slug in and conipass in the boat, all the gear readv as above 
escribed ; sena out all supernumeraries, slip the gripes, 
stand by lever of detaching apparatus yourself, if worked in 
the after part of the boat, otnerwise go to the steering-oar. 
Caution the bowman, who may be looking out for the tow- 
line, to keep clear of the forward block till detached. 

Detach the boat in ^ood season; some forms of apparatus 
will slip one fall at a time if the boat becomes partly water- 
borne owing to delay at the lever. 

The boat being unhooked, the boat-rope should have 
drift enough to let you shoot out well clear of the side while 
being towed. Take advantage of this to have every oar 
rigged out and manned before letting go. 

If the boat is sluggish in getting clear, shove her stern 
out and cast oflE the towline ; the ship moving on, leaves you 
head to sea ; out oars as speedily as possible. 

If after a man overboard, let a cool hand watch the ship 
for signals and steer accordingly. On reaching the man, if 
he has the buoy and is not exhausted, round to head to 
wind before picking him up. In any case, on approach- 
ing him, trail as many oars as possible, and be careful how 
the remaining ones are handled ; get the man aboard 
forward if possible, then out oars, pull ahead, and take in 
the buoy over the quarter. 



1 86 BOATS. 

Your vessel having run to leeward to pick you up. it will 
be advisable in a heavv sea to tow the ouov on vour wav 
back with a good scope, letting it act as a drag. 

Pull up under the lee of the ship ; get your towline firsts 
as previously described under "Hoisting." Bend your 
line from the buoy to another line passed from aft, and let 
the buoy be roused up to its proper place. 

In hoisting let the men put their weights on the life-lines. 
When hooked on, the boat is run up smartly and without 
stopping, as the vessel rolls toward it. 

when boats are suddenly lowered, in an emergency, it is 
very often of the highest importance that they should be 
provided with means of night-signalling, sounding, or 
effecting temporary repairs. The boat boxes containinfi^ 
the necessary articles are now usually kept in the hold. 
It would be better if essential articles were kept in a 
small locker built in to the boat, as is the case in other 
navies. 

In referring to the above-mentioned boats as "life- 
boats," the word is not to be understood in its literal 
sense, as regular life-boats are not supplied to vessels of 
the navy. 

Small empty casks or breakers, tightlv bunged and 
lashed beneath thd thwarts, would partially convert any 
boat into a life-boat, by making it impossible for her to 
founder. 

Balsas, or life-rafts, are supplied to vessels of war — ^being 
of different sizes and material, but similar in design. They 
consist of two cylindrical-shaped air-chambers, pointed at 
both ends, and supporting a platform, or raft. The air 
cylinders are either of wood, or made of rubber covered 
with canvas ; in smaller forms the air-chambers are some- 
times of rubber, not covered. When the air-chambers are 
of rubber the larger balsas are usually kept empty imtil 
wanted, when the air-chambers are inflated by means of 
a sort of bellows and tube. 

A small form of wooden balsa is used throughout the 
service as a catamaran, or boat for the side cleaners. 
The small rubber balsas are excellent substitutes for life- 
buoys, and in many ships are slung at the quarters for 
that purpose. They can be used to carry lines astern or 
ashore, in the case of a wreck. 

HINTS FOR BOAT OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF STEAM 

LAUNCHES. 

The following Instructions for Working the Engines 
of Steam Launches are introduced here, as the boat offi- 
cer is not unfrequently thrown entirely on his own re- 
sources. * 

• From the " Sailors' Pocket Book," ' • '^aptain P. G. D. Bedford, R. N. 



BOATS. 187 

The engine should not be removed from the boat oftenep 
than can be helped. The boiler of steam launches should 
be lifted, examined at the bottom, and painted every 
month. 

See that the tanks, fitted for the purpose, are properly- 
supplied with coal and fresh water. 

The connection with propellers and water-tight joints 
must be made good before leaving the ship. 

Water is run into the boiler throurfi a nose by removing 
one of the safety-valves. When the water is showing 
from one-half to three-fourths up the gauge-glass, remove 
the hose and replace the safety-valve. Great care must be 
taken to see the valve and its seating perfectly clean before 
the valve is replaced. 

To ^Gtt up Steam. Put a surface of coal over 
the fire-bars, shut the ash-pit door, and light up with wood 
and coal at the front until a sufficient body of fire is 
obtained to ignite the coal on the bars, when the fire may 
be pushed back, and the ash-pit door opened. 

When steam begins to show by the gauge, try the safety- 
valves, and use the blast (if the steam be required in great 
haste), until sufficient pressure be obtained. 

The Boiler will require the most careful and con- 
stant attention while steaming. When attainable, fresh 
water should always be used. 

From 40 to 50 lbs. of steam pressure is quite sufficient for 
all ordinary service. Leaks about tubes and tube-plates are 
most frequently caused by forced steaming. 

The water snould never be allowed to go below the mark 
of low level. 

At high speed it is liable to show higher in the gauge- 
glass than it really is. 

The gauge-glass and gauge-cocks must be frequently 
tried, the one being a check on the other. 

The water moving in the glass with the movements of 
the boat is a proof of the glass-gauge being correct. 

Qare should be taken to prevent spray from striking the 
gaut^e-glass, as it is very liable to break it. 

Maintain a sufficient quantity of water in the boiler 
and keep the feed-water supply as nearly constant as 
possible. In the event of the water getting low the fire 
must be checked as quickly as possible ; to effect this, 
open the front connection door, shut the ash-pit door, 
and throw on wet ashes. In an extreme case, draw the 
fire. 

^-tctirting the lEii^iie. Have every fractional 
part of the engines carefully oiled, especially cylinders, 
slide-valves, eccentrics, cranks, and thrust ; open the small 
drain-cocks in connection with the cylinders and slide- 
valves, to get rid of condensed water, and let them remain 
open for a lew turns of the engines. The steam-valve may 



188 BOATS. 

be left a little open while steam is getting up, to warm the 
engine. 

Starting ahead or astern is effected by link-motion, and 
requires no consideration after observing the movement of 
the handle connected with the link. 

Great care should be taken to admit the steam to the 
engines gently at first, and get them up to their full speed 
gradually. 

S/uniiiii^* Attention to the engines is required in 
preventing over-heating of working parts. 

Any unusual noise must be quickly attended to, and 
cause ascertained. 

Sea- Water*. If obliged to use sea-water for the 
feed, let the process of blowing-off be as constant and con- 
tinuous as possible. 

l^^ii^ing-. The firing must be careful, and frequent, 
in just sufficient quantity to keep the fire-bars properly 
covered ; attention to this will go far to prevent prim- 
ing. 

Keep the steam at a regular pressure, and the fire- 
bars free from clinkers by hooking them out as soon as 
formed. 

The tubes, fire-box, smoke-box, and the space at the 
back of the fire-bridge should be kept free and clean ; this 
must be done as opportunity offers. 

If the screw of a steam-launch is taken off for the pur- 
pose of her being used as a sailing-boat, the brass busnes, 
usually providea for the purpose, should be put on the end 
of the shaft (first coating them with white lead and tallow), 
in order to prevent them from the rapid galvanic action 
which takes place by their close proximity to the copper 
sheathing on the boat's bottom. If no Dushes are pro- 
vided, the end of the shaft should be lapped round with 
spun-yarn well saturated with stiff white lead and tal- 
low. 

A steam-launch should not be driven at high speed in a 
seaway, and her outfit should always include a few oars and 
thole-pins, for use in case of accident to the machinery, 
also life preservers ; especially in iron launches. 

Jumpinof l^ooms. Steam-launches are cobci- 
monly fitted with apparatus for spar-torpedoes, supplied 
and described by the Ordnance Bureau. To enable such 
torpedo boats to clear obstructions in the form of booms, 
the fittinss shown in Fi^. 398, Plate 82," have been success- 
full} usea, the object being to give the bows of the boats an 
upward slant on striking the boom, which enables them to 
jump it. The engine should be stopped on striking the 
boom, and until it is cleared. 

The form of the skeleton frame fitted forward is, of 
course subject to variation, depending on the shape of the 
stem. 

15 



Plate 86 




JH6.410 





Fig.'lll 




I 



B 



T 







JErig.4.1S 




Tnig.413 



BOATS. ISi) 



WOOD'S BOAT DETACHING APPARATUS. (Pi^tb 86.) 

This device consists of two slotted, hinged links, A A, 
whose pivoting ends are secured in or near the stem and 
stem of the boat. The movable ends of these links are 
held in a fixed position, when necessary, by lengths of 
small chain, which are joined by a slip hook d. A tripping 
link, E, holds the slip-hook closed. By pulling upon the 
Laniard, L, the slip-hook may be released, the hinged links, 
A, A, turn upward, and the falls, F F, are detached. Figs. 
410 and 411. 

The lower blocks of the falls are fitted with ball toggles, 
adjusted to enter the slots in the links A A. When a fall is 
hooked on, the tumbler, X, under the hinge, A, closes the 
slot and prevents accidental unhooking, whether in the case 
of one end of the boat being lifted by a sea in lowering, or 
before the falls have been set taut in hoisting. 

The tumbler, X, is free to turn back to aflow the toggle, 
F, to pass into place in hooking on, but it is then brought 
back inunediately into place by the counter-balance on its 
lower end. 

The ball* toggles, F, may be either moused on old style of 
hooks, or the hooks may be removed and the toggles fitted 
to their places on the block-straps. 

The rollers, B B, are made smaller than shown in the 
plate, which represents the apparatus fitted with fiexible 
wire pendants, for which smaU chain is now substituted. 

The enlarged figures, 412 and 413, show how the appara- 
tus is now fitted in boats hung by the extremities, or from 
points nearer the centre of the boat. 

In Fig. 412, y is an eyebolt for the boat's painter. 

In Fig. 413 it is desirable, when possible, that the head 
of the stanchion, S, should be steadied against a thwart in 
the bow or stem sheets. 

After the apparatus is fitted in the boat, the chain is 
taken up to the proper length and cut at Z, and the long 
link welded in permanently. 

It should be remembered that the chain must always be 
set taut, and only then is the boat ready for hooking on. 
Either fall can be hooked independently. 

The laniard used for tripping the slip-hook should also 
be used as a preventer when the boat is hoisted, by hitching 
it forward around the chain, or thwart, or other convenient 
place. 

To Hio^wer And Detach ^^^lien tlie 
HocLt is reported, ready. When the crew, cox- 
swain and officer are in the boat, and after one of the stroke 
oarsmen has cast loose the laniard, and handed it to the 
officer in charge, the officer of the deck gives the order to 
"lower away. As soon as the boat is near enough the 



190 BOATS. 

water, say about two feet, the person holding the end of the 
laniard gives a quick jerk, and thus freeing the ends of the 
chain, they slack and allow the links to rise and the toggles 
to escape simultaneously. 

In case the ship is rolling heavily very little lowering 
will be necessary, as the boat can be detached as she rolls 
toward the water, and will be clear of the ship before the 
return roll. 

To Hook on the Boat* As soon as the boat is 
clear of the ship one of the stroke oarsmen brings the ends 
of the chain together, ref astens the sliphook and hitches the 
laniard forward as a securing. 

The boat is then ready for hooking on when she returns 
to the ship, after having completed her trip. 

When she comes alongside, the man in the bow gets the 
forward fall and sticks the toggle into the large part of the 
link and pushes it up beyond the tumbler. The man in the 
stern does the same, and as the falls are set taut on deck, 
they slue the turns out of the falls, the toggles acting as 
swivels. Figs. 400 and 4()0 a, Plate 85, represents Brown's 
detaching apparatus. 

ON THE MANAGEMENT OF OPEN ROWING-BOATS 

IN A SURF.* 



!• R/Ovi^irigr to S€*a.^vai*cl« As a general rule, 
speed must be given to a boat rowing against a heavy surf. 
Indeed, under some circumstances, her safety will depend 
on the utmost possible speed being attained on meeting a 
sea. For if the sea be really heavy, and the wind blowing 
a hard, on-shore gale, an approaching heavy sea may carry 
the boat away on its front, and turn it broadside on, or up- 
end it. A boat's only chance in such a case, is to obtain 
such way as shall enable her to pass, end on, through the 
crest of the sea, and leave it as soon as possible behind her. 
If there be a rather heavy surf, but no wind, or the wind off 
shore and opposed to the surf, as is often the case, a boat 
might be propelled so rapidly through it that her bow would 
fall more suddenly and heavily after topping the sea than 
if her way had been checked. 

It may also happen that, by careful management, a boat 
may be made to avoid the sea, so that each wave may break 
ahead of her, which may be the only chance of safety in a 
small boat ; but if the shore be flat, and the broken water 
extend to a great distance from it. this wi?l often be impos- 
sible. 

The following general rules for rowing to seaward may 
therefore be relied on : 

* From a pamphlet of the National Life-boat Institution. 



BOATS. 191 

I. If sufficient command can be kept over a boat by the 
skill of those on board her, avoid the sea if possible, so as 
not to meet it at the moment of its breaking or curling over. 

II. Against a head gale and heavy surf, get all possible 
speed on a boat on the approach of every sea which cannot 
be avoided. 

III. If more speed can be given to a boat than is suffici- 
ent to prevent her being carried back by a surf, her way may 
be checked on its approach, which will give her an easier 
passage over it. 

II. H.xi.miiiig' l>efV>re a. Brolcen Sea.9 oi* 
Surf, to tlie Shore (Flat Ueach). The one 
great danger, when running before a broken sea, is that of 
broach ing-to. To that peculiar effect of the sea, so fre- 
quently destructive of numan life, the utmost attention 
must be directed. 

The cause of a boat's broaching-to when running before 
a broken sea or surf is, that her own motion, being in the 
same direction as that of the sea, she opposes no resistance 
to it, but is carried before it. Thus, if a boat be running 
bow on to the shore, and her stern to the sea, the first effect of 
a surf or roller, on its overtaking her, is to throw up the stern, 
and, as a consequence, to depress the bow ; if she then have 
sufficient inertia (which will be proportional to weight) to 
allow the sea to pass her, she will in succession pass through 
the descending, the horizontal, and the ascending positions, 
as the crest of the wave passes successively her stern, her 
midships, and her bow, in the reverse order in which the 
same positions occur to a boat propelled to seaward against 
a surf. This may be defined as the safe mode of running 
before a broken sea. 

But if a boat, on being overtaken by a heavy surf, has 
not sufficient inertia to allow it to pass her, the first of the 
three positions alone occurs — her stern is raised high in the 
air. and the wave carries the boat before it, on its front or 
unsafe side, the bow deeply immersed in the hollow of the 
sea, where the water, being stationary, or ccmiparatively so, 
offers a resistance, while the crest of the sea, having the 
actual motion which causes it to break, forces onward the 
rear end of the boat. A boat will, in this position, sometimes, 
aided by careful oar-steerage, run a considerable distance 
until the wave has broken and expended itself. But it will 
often happen that, if the bow be low, it will be driven under 
water, when, the buoyancy being lost forward, while the sea 
presses on the stern, the boat will be thrown end over end. 
Or if the bow be high, or protected by a bow air-chamber, so 
that it does not become submerged, the resistance forwanl 
acting on one bow will slightly turn the boat's head, and the 
force of the surf being transferred to the opposite quarter, 



11>2 BOATS. 

she will in a moment be turned broadside to the sea, and be 
thrown by it on her beam ends, or altogether capsized. It 
is in this manner that most boats are upset in a surf, espe- 
cially on flat coasts. 

Hence it follows that the management of a boat when 
landing through a heavy surf, must stop her progress shore- 
ward at the moment of her being overtaken by a heavy sea, 
and enable it to pass her. There are different ways of effect- 
ing this object: — 

Ist. By turning a boat's head to the sea before entering 
the broken water, and then backing in stern foremost, pull- 
ing a few strokes ahead to meet each heavy sea, and then 
again backing astern. If a sea be really heavy and a boat 
small, this i)lan will be generally the safest. 

2d. If rowing to shore with the stern to seaward, by 
backing all the oars on the approach of a heavy sea, and 
rowing ahead again as soon as it has passed to the bow of 
the boat, thus rowing in on the back of the wave; or, as is 
practised in some life-boats, placing the after-oarsmen, with 
their faces forward, and making them row back at each sea 
on its approach. 

• '^d. If rowed in bow foremost, by towing astern a pig of 
ballast or large stone, or a large basket, or a canvas bag 
termed a ''drogue" or drag, made for the purpose, the ob- 
ject of each being to hold the boat's stern back and prevent 
her being turned broadside to the sea or broaching-to. 

A boat's sail bent to a yard, loosed and towed astern, the 
yard being attached to a line capable of being veered, hauled, 
or let go, will act in some measure as a drag, and will tend 
much to break the force of the sea immediately astern of the 
boat. 

Heavy weights should be kept out of the extreme ends of 
a boat; but when rowing before a heavy sea, the best trim 
is deepest by tlie stern, which prevents the stern being rea<l- 
ilv beaten off bv the sea. 

A boat should be steered bv an oar over the stern or on 
one quarter when running ]>efore a sea. 

The following general rules may, therefore, be depended 
on when running before, or attempting to land, through a 
lieavy surf or broken water : — 

I. As far as possible avoid each sea by placing the boat 
where the sea will break ahead of her. 

II. If the sea be very heavy, or if the boat be small, and 
especially if she have a square stern, bring her bow round 
to seaward and back her in, rowing ahead against each 
heavy surf, sufficiently to allow it to pass the boat. 

III. If it be considered safe to proceed to the shore bow 
foremost, back the oars against each sea on its approach, so 
as to stop the boat's way through the water as far as possi- 
ble, and if there is a drag, or any other appliance in the boat 



BOATS. 193 

which may be used as one, tow it astern to aid in keepinji^ 
the boat stern on to the sea, which is the chief object in view. 

rV. Bring the principal weights in the boat towards the 
end that is to seaward ; but not to the extreme end. 

V. If a boat worked by both sails and oars be running 
under sail for the land through a heavy sea, her crew should, 
unless the beach be quite steep, take down her masts antl 
sails before entering the broken water, and take her to land 
under oars alone, as above described. If she have sails only, 
her sails should be much reduced, a half -lowered fore-sail 
or other small head-sail being sufficient. 

III. !Bea,e]i.iiig'9 oi* T^anclin^ tlii-oiig-li ai. 
Hiirf. The running before a surf or broken sea, and tht» 
bt»Jiching, or landing of a boat, are two distinct operations; 
the management of boats, as above recommended, has ex- 
clusive reference to running before a surf where the shore 
is so flat that the broken water extends to some distance 
from' the beach. On a very steep bea(^h, the first heavy fall 
•)f broken water will be on the beach itself, while on some 
very flat shores, there will be broken water extending four 
€)r five miles from the land. The outermost line of broken 
water, on a fiat shore, where the waves break in three or 
four fathoms of water, is the heaviest, and tlierefore the* 
most dangerous; and when it has been passed tlirough in 
safety, the danger lessens as the water shoals, until, on 
nearing the land, its force is spent and its powt r i.; hai miess. 
As the character of the sea is quite different on steej) and 
flat shores, so is the customary management of boats, on 
landing, different in the two situations. 

On the flat shore, whether a boat be run or backed in. she 
is k »pt straight before, or end on to the sc»a until she is fairly 
aground, when each surf takes her further in as it overtakes 
lier, aided by the crew, who will then generally jump out to 
lighten her, and drag her in by the sides. As above stated, 
sail will, in this case, have been previously taken in, if set, 
and the boat will have b(»en rowed or backed in by the oars 
alone. 

0\\ the other hand, on the steep be^tch it is the general 
]>ractice, in a boat of any size, to sail right on to the beach, 
and in the act of landing, whether under oars or sail, to turn 
the boat's bow half round, toward the direction in which the 
surf is running, so that she maybe thrown on her broadside 
up the beach, where abundance of help is usually at hand 
to haul her as quickly as possible out of the reach of trhe sea. 
In such situations, we believe it is nowhere the practice to 
back a boat in stern foremost under oars, but to row in un- 
der full speed, as above described. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Q ROUND-TACKLE. 

ANCHORS, CHAINS, KTT. 

The methods of handling anchors and chains, herein 
described, are common to sailing vessels fitted with hand 
capstans. Vessels of war of recent construction, are fitted 
with steam capstans and windlasses : but as the same gen- 
eral practice obtains in all, a description of each is deemed 
unnecessary. 

A^nchors. Although the general form of the anchor 
has undergone but slight modification since the earliest 
ages, yet there are. even at this late day, as many opinions 
as authorities in regard to the best proportions and best 
shape of the various parts. 

Anchors are made of wrought iron and cast steel. Great 
care is exercised in the quality of the steel used, and the 
casting is very carefully annealed to give it the proper uni- 
formity and toughness. Both kinds for the navy are made 
at the Navy Yard, Boston, Mass. 

Anchors are of two kinds — Solid, or ordinary, and Port- 
able. 

The Solid or ordinary anchors are those which have the 
shank and arms wrought into one body, or mass, at the 
crown of the anchor, Fig. 414, Plate 87. 

The Portable anchors are those which admit of being 
separated, and taken to pieces. Of this kind there are 
many varieties. 

Figs. 414 and 415 show the wooden-stocked and iron- 
stocked anchor as commonly supplied to the service, the 
former being at present reserved for permanent moorings, 
iron-stocked ancliors being furnished exclusively on board 
ship. 

In Fig. 414 : 

The shank is all that part extending in a straight line 
from a to 6. 

The square is that part of the shank which extends from 
c to d, to which the siock is attached. 

The arm is the part which extends from the throat (or 
crutch) to the extreme end, from e to /, including the palm, 
the point and the blade, 

»04 



Plate 87 







SHg.^1^ 










QROUND-TACKLK. 195 

The palm or Auke is the part of the axm, of a shield-like 
form, from g to n, and constitutes the holding surface of the 
anchor. 

The point {pee or bill) is the part of the arm included 
between the termination of the palm and the extreme end^ 
f rom / to h. 

The blade is the part of the arm at the back of the palm 
from i to k. 

The crown is the external arch upon which the anchor 
falls when let go in a vertical position, and may be said to 
extend from k to A;'. 

The ring (or jews-harp), o, is the appendage by which 
the cable is attached to the anchor, by means of a shackle 
on the end of the cable, caUed the anchor-shackle. The 
last link of the chain, which is secured into this shackle by 
a pin. is of peculiar form, and is called the club-link. 

The stocky p, is the transverse beam which cants the 
anchor when the arms fall in a horizontal instead of a ver- 
tical position. 

The throat of the arms is the curved part at c, where 
the arms are joined to the shank. 

All anchors and chains used in the navy are made at the 
foundry in the navy-yard at Boston. 

Iron Stoels:^. An iron stock is generally a round 
bar of iron with a collar near the centre. It is put through 
a hole in the square of the shank, the collar resting against 
one side, and being kept there bv a forelock which passes 
through the stock on the other side of the square. There is 
a wasner between the f oreloc'k and the square. 
• A. "Wooden Stoclc has generally a square sec- 
tion tapering both ways towards the centre ; it is encircled 
with iron hoops, and a square hole is cut in the centre to fit 
it on the s<}uare of the shank. An improved plan is to make 
it of two pieces, by cutting it lengthwise, and to forge pro- 
jections from the square to be enclosed between the two 
Earts of the stock and furnish large bearings ; the two 
alves after being put on are hooped together. 

Wooden stocks are made of oak, in two pieces left suffi- 
ciently apart in the middle to give greater binding power to 
the hoops, and to admit of their being driven up when the 
wood shrinks, a precaution which should be adopted after 
long exposure to a hot sun. 

The following is taken from the Book of Allowances of 
1881: 

1. All anchors and kedges are to have iron stocks. The 
weight of an iron stock is, as nearly as possible, one-fourth 
of the anchor to which it belongs. 

2. Bower and sheet anchors are to be alike in weight. 
The weight of an anchor or kedge, as marked on it, being 
inclusive of the bending-shackle and stock. 



1 '^^ GROUXD-TACKLE. 

3. Stream-anchors, in all cases, when allowed, are to be 
about one-fourth the weight of the bower. 

4. Kedges, when four are allowed; are to be, respectively, 
about one-seventh, one-eighth, one-tenth, and one-four- 
teenth the weight of the bower ; when three are allowed, 
one-sixth, one-eighth, and one-tenth ; when two are allowed, 
one- sixth and one-tenth ; and when one is allowed, one- 
eighth. 

5. Each boat of every vessel is allowed one anchor ; the 
weight in pounds to be obtained by multiplying the square 
of the extreme breadth by 1.2. 

Froof of'^A^noliOfM. E^ch forging or casting 
is slung in chains and raised to a height of 15 feet from the 
ground to the lowest part of the forging as it hangs in the 
slings. It is then dropped on ground of the hardness of a 
good macadamized road. It is then lifted from the ground, 
and hanging in the slings is well hammered over its parts 
with a sledge hammer, weighing not less than seven pounds, 
and it must give under this treatment such a clear ring in 
all its parts as shall satisfy the inspectpor that the forging 
is sound and without flaws existing either originally or de- 
veloped as the result of these tests. 

Many anchors are now fitted with a balancing band 
around the shank at the centre of gravity of the entire 
mass. A heavy link or shackle is secured to this band and 
by hooking the cat block, or pendant*, into it the anchor is 
lifted to the bill board, or the frame on which it is carritvl, 
without using the fish. 

I*<>i'tal>le A.iiclioi"H, The two arms of a portable 
anchor, called flukes, are in most of them attached to the 
shank by means of a pin through the centre of the flukes, 
and through iaws forged on the end of the shank. The 
flukes may eitner be kept firm by forging lugs on them to 
embrace a shoulder on the shanl£, or thev may move around 
the pin. In this case the extent of the motion may be 
limited by a second pin through the shoulder, playing in a 
long hole in the flukes, or simply by the bills coming in 
contact with the shank. When the flukes are movable 
they have to be so shaped that when the upper arm is 
drawn as near the shanK as possible, the Qther fulflls the 
proper conditions for holding. To force the arms to assume 
this position, it is necessary to provide each of them with a 
horn projecting outward just a Dove the palm. This forms 
a secondary bill, which holds quick, and brings the arm in 
a position to hold also. The two arms may be forged sepa- 
rately, with a tenon at the end of each, by means of which 
they are fastened to the shank, on which mortises are cut 
to receive the tenons. Porter's anchor, as improved by 
Trotman, and known now by the latter name, is of this 
description ; see Fig. 416. 



GROUND-TACKLE. 1 97 

3i;artiii'.s ^neliors. Fig. 417. A form of patent 
anchor supplied to some of the monitors, and specially 
adapted for vessels which require a clear deck forward for 
right ahead fire. Stock and nukes are in the same horizon- 
tal plane when the anchor is laid flat, both flukes taking 
the ground when the anchor is let go. 

A later patent of this anchor is now extensively used. 
The head has been enlarged, and so made that it acts as a 
lever to the flukes and forces them to bite the ground. 

Tlie iV£ixshLi*oom Anchor, is made without a 
stock, by substituting for the arm a cap. or reversed cup, 
called parachute, making the anchor represent a mush- 
room. Fig. 420, Plate 89. 

One great advantage possessed by this anchor is, that it 
does not foul the chain, and for this reason it is used almost 
exclusively for our light-ships. 

A MUSHROOM consists of a heavy iron cup (the mush- 
room anchor without the shank), having on its convex 
surface a shackle. These are used for the anchoring of 
buoys. 

The principal qualities desirable in anchors are : strengtli 
and holding properties. They should be so made as to biti* 
quickly, cant easily, and of convenient form for stowing. 

Anchors are brought oflf to the ship in lighters. Having 
them under the bows, overhaul down the cat and fish, hook 
on. cat and fish the anchor, passing the ring-stopper and 
shank-painter^ and bend the buoy-rope if used. It is recom- 
mendea to bend a stout hawser to the ring of the anchor, 
in case of accident. It is also reconrmienaed to hook and 

I mil up on the cat and fish together, for fear of injury to the 
ighter. 

The method of getting the waist anchor into its berth has 
been given. 

•JvLi^y A.iielioi"K. Having lost the heavy anchors, 
a stream or kedge anchor and a gun may be combined, the 
one giving weight and the other holding power, so as to 
answer very well for a temporary anchor ; a spare anchor- 
stock, fish, or any suitable spar being lashed across to serv^ 
as a stock, Fig. 418, Plate 89, At the trunnions would be 
the best place for securing the stock, but it has been placed 
clear, in the figure, to snow the manner of securing the 
kedge and strap to which the chain shackles. A heavy 
ancnor with a broken shank may be treated in the same 
way.* This plan was suggested by Admiral Porter. 

Quns are a resource, when without anchors. Haul a cable 
from the hawse-hole along the side, by a warp from aft, 
keeping it up with slip-ropes from the ports, and lash it to a 
certain numoer of guns round their chase ; pass the end of 
the breechings round the cable, and secure tnem on the top 
of the gun ; heave all overboard together. In weighing 
them, hoist them with the cat, as they reach the hawse- 



108 GROUND-TACKLE. 

hole, and take them in through the bow-port. Jury anchors 
should be lowered to the bottom by slip-ropes, 

IMitchelPs Scre^vir A-nclior, Fig. 419. These 
are very powerful screws made use of for mooring purposes, 
which, having a broad flange nearly four feet in diameter, 
present a resistance, when entered into the ground, equal 
to that of ten square feet. This is not only much greater 
than that of an anchor, but is less liable to be fouled by 
other ground tackle. 

The chain is connected with a revolving collar. The 
screwing down is effected by a key, which is placed piece 
by piece as the screw is lowered ; the collar admitting of 
the turning, without fouling the cable. When the screw 
has been sunk to the desired depth, the key is removed. 

The foundation for the lighthouse on Mapling Sands was 
formed on pilings shod with these screws. 

A. Sea .A^nclioi*. This anchor may frequentlv be 
of the greatest possible use, and may be made in tie follow- 
ing manner : Take three spare spars (topgallant studding- 
sail booms will be suflSciently large), with these form a 
triangle ; cut these spars to the required length, after cross- 
lashing them well at each angle ; then make fast your 
spans, one to each angle, so that they will bear an equal 
strain when in the water ; but should your spars be weak, 
jrou should always increase the number of spans accord- 
ingly ; fill up the centre of the triangle with strong canvas, 
having eyelet-holes round its sides, about three inches 
apart, through which eyelet-holes attach the canvas securely 
to the spars ; at the back of the canvas pass many turns of 
inch or inch and a half rope, net fashion. A net would be 
preferable to rope so expended. To the base of the triangle 
attach a weight, or small anchor, supported in the centre of 
the base by a span running from each of the lower angles. 
To the first-mentioned span make fast the stream cable. 
When everything is quite ready, hoist or put it overboard 
from the place you think it will answer best. There is 
every reason to believe that with this anchor under the 
trough of the sea, and seventy or eighty fathoms of stream 
cable out, a ship's drift would not be very great. 

If a ship should approach the shore with this sea 
anchor down, it would enable her to bring to with her 
proper anchors much easier than if the sea anchor had 
not been down. She might let go her proper anchor and 
veer from the sea anchor, until she had sufficient cable 
out, which would give her a much better chance of hold- 
ing. 

Another plan is to have two flat bars of iron, each in 
length half the breadth of the vessel's midship beam, 
riveted together in the middle by an iron saucer-headed 
bolt, clinched at its point, that they may be swung parallel 
to each other, for easy stowage. At each end of the bars 



GROUND-TACKLE. 



199 



is a hole for a rope or swifter to pass through, which must 
be hove tight to extend the bars at right angles. To this 
swifter is marled a double or fourfold No. 1 canvas cloth, of 
the same shape, and put on the side of the frame nearest 
the ship when used. At equal distances in the bars are 
holes to which is attached the bridle or crow's-foot for 
bending the cable or hawser. Also have a ring at one of 
the angles for a buoy-rope, which should be from ten to 
twelve fathoms long. The buoy prevents the anchor from 
sinking to the bottom, and facilitates getting it on board 
again. 

Another sea anchor is that suggested by Captain P. 
Thompson, Examiner in Navigation for the Board of Trade, 
England. 

The cargo derrick of a merchant ship (or any suitable 
spar of a vessel of war) and chain, together with the storm 
stay-sail, ofifer the ready materials for constructing a sea 
anchor in a steamer, as is shown in Fig. D. 

D, the cargo derrick ; S, the sail bent to it : B, the bridle ; 
and C, the cleat to keep that .end of the bridle touching it 
in its place. The other end is kept fixed by the iron band on 
that end of the spar. 

Through the shackle of a large kedge-anchor the bight 
of the derrick chain is hitched, and the two ends taken up 
alongside of the after-leech and foot-rope and seized to them 
at intervals of two feet, the ends of the chain are then 
secured to the opposite ends of the spar. 




On the other side the drag is snaked from chain to chain 
with two-inch rope. 

A chain is passed from the anchor stock to that part of 
the bridle where the tow-rope is secured, the whole tning is 
then complete. 

Blockading vessels on an open and exposed coast have 
used sea anchors with great advantage during bad weather. 



200 GROUND-TACKLK. 

Sea J^Lnelioi^feS, in the form of a cone, as now made 
for vessels of the United States Navy : In the larger sizes, the 
anchor is made of two thicknesses of No. 1 flax canvas with 
3^^ inch tabling at base, roped with 2^ inch bolt rope, eyelets 
worked every six inches to secure bolt rope to base roping or 
bale which is of 3 J inch galvanized wire rope made in eight 
sections. The ends of the eight sections of bale rope are 
spliced around wire rope thimbles which are connected 
with galvanized iron links, 8 inches long, thus making the 
ring continuous, and allowing of easy folding for stowage. 
The cone is roped, lengthwise, with :Ji inch bolt rope, the 
eight parts forming an eye at the apex, while the other ends 
having been securely hitched around the bale rope are 
brought together around a large galvanized iron thimble at 
Hi feet from the base of the cone into which the riding haw- 
ser is bent. This is called the bridle. See Fig. 425, Plate 90. 

The following sizes are fitted as above in eight sections 
with diameters of bases 1(1, 15, and U feet, and heights of 
cones respectively 10, 17J, and 10 feet. 

The following sizes are fitted the same except that the 
number of sections is six, bases 12, 11, 10, li, and 8 feet, 
height of cone 14, 13, 12, 10, and feet, bolt rope 3^ inch 
and wire rope bale 3^ inch. The links and thimbles are 
smaller. 

The three smallest sizes are in four sections, canvas. 
No. 2 flax, bolt rope 2 J inch, wire rope 22 inch and smaller 
links and thimbles. These sizes are base, 7, 0, and 5 feet ; 
cone, 8. 7, and (J feet. 

The tripping line by means of which the anchor is hauled 
on board is made fast to the eye at tlu* apex of the cone. 

CABLES. 

Cables for the navy are made at the Boston Navy-Yard. 
An iron or steel rod of the requisite length and diameter is 
shaped into a link and a stud put in, another piece of iron 
of the same dimensions is put through the link just formed, 
and shaped as before ; thus fifteen fathoms are made, when 
a shackle is formed for connecting it to a second length, 
and so on for one hundred and twenty fathoms, or the re- 
quired length, when we have the anc^hor-shackle and club- 
link. 

The end links have no studs, in order to facilitate the 
operation of shackling, but the wire of these links is made 
the same diameter as the cable next in size. 

It is customary now to connect the cable with the shackh^ 
and club link by means of an ordinary shackle and one 
triplet * of chain. Fig. 438, Plate 1)5. This is done to avoid 

* A Triplet. Usually, three links cut from a chain, for testing. 



GROUND-TACKLK 2(>1 

handling the heavier shackle at the anchor, leaving the 
latter attached in bending and unbending. 

When a length of chain is finished it is put into a 
hydraulic testing machine and proved. 

Swivels, ]M!£ii*k:s, &.c» All chain cables are 
made with swivels at 7i, 37|, 82^, and 127^ fathoms, with 
shackles at every 15 fathoms from the anchor. Were it 
not for the swivels and studs the chain would get full of 
kinks. 

Shackles are put on so that the rounded part will be for- 
ward. 

The swivels, it has been found, injure the modern cap- 
stans in passing around them, hence in many ships they are 
placed in the first and last lengths only. Chain cables 
should be marked as follows: at fifteen fathoms one turn 
of wire around the stud of the first link forward and abaft 
the first shackle, two turns of wire around the stud of the 
second link forward and abaft the second shackle and so on. 

Shackle I^olts are oblong in section and pass 
through similarly shaped holes in the ends of the shackle. 
They are kept from dropping out by a wooden pin that 
passes through holes in the end of the shackle and. bolt. To 
unshackle, strike the end of the bolt opposite the head a 
sharp blow with a hammer, this breaks tne wooden pin and 
the bolt comes out. 

On account of the great strain tending to open the 
shackle as it passes around the smaller barrel of the steam 
windlass steel pins have been substituted in many cases for 
the wooden ones. 

In overhauling the chain cables, which should be fre- 
quently and carefully done, the pins must be carefully ex- 
amined and new ones put in where necessary. The turns 
of wire marking the number of the sha(;kle should also be 
examined, and renewed if required. 

Gretting- Chains on lloai'cl. When lying 
in the stream the chains are brought off in scows or 
lighters, where they are ranged regularly in alternate 
layers fore-and-aft and athwartships, and the bitter end be- 
ing passed through one of the vacant hawse-holes they are 
got on board and into the lockers by means of deck-tackles 
and chain-hooks. When working "with the crew, men are 
stationed to stow the chains ana are called tierers. The 
cable is paid down a few links at a time, while the tierers 
with cham-hooks and a hook-rope rove through a tail-block 
at some convenient place above them, in the after part of 
the locker, range the chain in regular fieets, using the hook- 
rope to form the after bights. 

Prior to the stowage of the chains, however, it becomes 
necessary to secure the end below, as a preventive from 
loss, in the event of being unable to check its outward 



WZ GROUND-TACKLE. 

passage in veering ; and perhaps the best method for 
accomplishing this object is the following : Through a ring- 
bolt in the keelson, Fig. 421, Plate 89, the end of the chain 
is rove up to an iron roller, attached to a beam of the lower 
deck, immediately above — ^the last link of the chain being 
curved, in order to fit over a short perpendicular ann on 
the surface of the roller, which is kept from turning by a 
check-lever, c, having a small tackle attached, d the 
event, then, of having to slip, it only becomes necessarv to 
haul on the jigger, which permits a revolution of the roUer, 
and disengages the link from the arm. 

Or the bitter end may secure to a bolt overhead, as in 
Fig. 422. 

Another very good plan is to have the end secured with 
a slip-stopper, Fig. 428 7>, Plate 91, the tongue of which may- 
be lashea ao wn. But however the end may be secured, it 
should not be at the bottom of the locker, but out clear where 
it can be got at when required. This will enable a second 
cable to be shackled to tne bitter end of the riding cable 
without rousing the entire length out of the locker. 

Should the ship be alongside the wharf, chain-shutes, 
leading from the wharf through a port abreast the chain 
pipes are used. The shute is a strongly -made wooden 
trough, sufficiently wide and long for the purpose. 

To Bend «. Oower- Cal>le. Keeve a ring- 
rope through a sheave iu the cat-head, through the hawse- 
hole, and bend it to the chain with a rolling-hitch a short 
distance from the end, to which it must be stopped. Rouse 
the chain out (using the fore-bowline as a hawse-rope if 
convenient), and up to the cat-head, where the armorer 
shackles it where it belongs. If the cat-head is far from 
the bows, a slip-rope will be required to hang the cable 
half-way. 

To Bend a Slieet-Cable, Fig. 423, Plate 89, 
the anchor being stowed in the waist. Stock the anchor 
and lash a snatch-block to the upper arm. Reeve off a ring- 
rope through the snatch block, taking one end in through 
the sheet hawse-hole, and bend it to the chain, leaving end 
enough for shackling. 

Place two water-whips on the fore-yard, on the same side 
as the chain. After the chain is roused out a certain dis- 
tance by the ring-rope, clap one whip on the chain, and 
when the first whip tends about up and down, clap on the 
second whip. If necessary, fieet the first whip forward 
again on the chain as more is paid out. The two whips 
support the chain while it is being hauled aft. 

Slip-ropes having been previously pointed over the side, 
their outboard ends are picked up and passed inboard after 
the chain has been shackled, to light up the chain fair for 
seizing to the side-bolts. If the slip ropes are passed for a full 



GROUND-TACKLE. 203 

due before the chain has been roused aft and relied upon to 
sustain the chain, they will make the work much heavier, 

When the chain is shackled, clap on a back tackle, in 
wake of the back-lashing bolt, which is a short distance be- 
low the ring of the anchor and in line with the side-bolts, 
though heavier. Rouse the bight into place, pass the back- 
lashine * and tauten the chain along tne side by clapping 
on a deck-tackle inboard. Pass the seizings to the side- 
bolts, lighting up the chain with the slip-ropes, then un- 
reeve the slip-ropes, unhook the yard-whips and finally the 
back-tackle. When the sheet anchors are carried just abaft 
the bowers, as on board ships of recent build, the chains 
are bent in the same manner as the bower chains. 

The sheet-chain should always be bent after the second 
bower has been let go, if not previously done. Having bent 
it and secured it to the side, as described, it is not unusual 
to stopper it inboard, unshackle, leaving the end forward, 
and paying the balance of the chain below into the locker, 
until required. 

The length of chain left bent to the anchor is called a 
ganger. 

A. Grang-ei* is any comparatively short length of 
chain, such as the one above d!escribed, or the length of 
cat-chain used in catting the anchors of ram-bowed vessels, 
as mentioned further on. 

To I3itt a Ohctin Cable, Fig. 424, Plate 90. 
Immediately over the bitt-head is placed an eye-bolt, to 
which is hooked a single block, having a hook-rope rove 
through it. Sufficient slack chain having being roused up, 
hook on to a bight and pull it up abaft and over the bitt- 
head ; form a cuckold's neck in it, so that the part leading 
from aft shall rest on top of the cavil and outside the bitt- 
head, the running part being inside and leading down 
under the cavil ana so forward : shove the bight thus 
formed over the bitt-head, slack down the hook rope and 
it will fall in its place. Now rouse the chain taut along 
the deck and pay tne slack down into the locker. 

To "Weatlier-liitt a Cal3le is to take an 
additional turn with it around the cavil or bitt-head. 

To Unbitt, as when getting under-way, screw 
down the "Mix" stopper, or put on any adequate stopper 
forward of the bitts, take off the deck-stoppers, bend on a 
hook-rope, rouse up enough slack from aft, and unbitt. 

To XS.ang'e a CJliaiix Cable, Fig. 424. Bend 
on a hook-rope or a chain whip, according to the size of the 
chain, rouse up the requisite quantity, and range by placing 
it in parallel lines called fleets, fore and aft the deck be- 
tween the bitts and the chain pipes, observing to let the 

* In prepariDj^ to let go a waist anchor do not forget to cut the back-Ushing. 
Also called an ewow lashing. 



204 GROUND-TACKLE. 

part leading from the bitts, the running part, be outside of 
all, that from the chain pipe being inside; for were it re- 
versed, the chain running out would find the last fleet 
forming a curve from the bitts, out towards the ship's side, 
and in again to the chain pipes, and as the strain came on 
it, it would sweep with immense force amidships, injuring 
anything that might be in its way, at any rate giving a 
violent surge. 

Chains are rarely ranged, at present, for anv consider- 
able length. If too much chain is ranged it is litely to pay 
down over, and foul, the anchor. 

When the anchor is let go suddenly, while headway 
is still on, to avoid danger, for example, or when anchor- 
ing in a strong tide, or fresh breeze, the chain will soon 
acquire very great velocity, and if permitted to run too 
much at a time it will be found almost impossible to 
check ; therefore but few fathoms should be veered at a 
time, checking it with the compressor before getting too 
much headway. 

STOPPERS. 

13eclc Stoppei-H, Fig. 427, Plate 91 were formerly 
made of plain-laid rope, one fathom in length, when fitted, 
and in size one-half that of the cable on which they were 
applied. In one end is spliced a hook and thimble, or 
thimble alone, which is hooked or shackled to the stopper 
ring-bolts in the deck; in the. other end is formed a stopper 
knot, with a laniard one-third the size of the stopper, at- 
tached with a running eye around the stopper close to the 
knot. The laniard is passed from inboard outboard, the 
stopper lying inboard of the chain, working aft from the 
knot, leaving a fathom of the end to worm forward on the 
cable ; the end is then secured by passing the tails around 
the links. 

Deck stoppers are sometimes fitted of chain, with a 
devil's claw, large enough to receive one of the links of the 
cable, over which it is placed, and retained by a small iron 
pin, running through both parts of the claw. In the other 
extremity a slip-hook and ring are attached, by which it is 
secured to the stopper-bolts of the deck. Fig. 428. The 
length is about four feet and a half, and the size depends 
upon the class of vessel for which it is required. 

For wire-rope deck stopper see Fig. 50, Plate 15. The 
laniard is passed in the same way. Wire-rope deck stoppers 
are the only kind supplied at present. 

H/ingr Stopper's are very useful and neat. The 
bights are passed over the cable abaft the ring-bolt, both 
ends are rove through the ring, and dogged around the 
cable forward of the bolts; the ends may be tapered, coach- 



GROUND-TACKLE. 205 

whipped, and laid up in a square sennit. Fig. 429, Plate 91, 
shows a ring-stopper of plain-laid rope. 

The ring-stopper above described for securing cables 
must not be confounded with the rin^-stopper used to 
secure the ring of the anchor at the cathead. 

Bitt Stoi>pei-. Fitted similar to the ring stopper, 
ends coach- whipped, &c.,the bight going over the bitt in- 
stead of through a ring-bolt in the deck. 

Check Stoppers are small strands of old rope 
which secure -the cable to the ring-bolts in the deck, and, 
parting as the strain comes on tnem, check the cable in 
running out. 

The Slip-Stopper, Fig. 42K (a and 6), Plate 91. 
This is fitted with a crane-hook and shackle, and is found 
very convenient when working cables, as in clearing hawse, 
surging, &c. 

]\i;ix'>^ Stopper consists of an iron casting like a 
hawse-pipe, set in a strong oak frame-work on the after- 
part of the manger. A thick and strong slab of iron, 
scored out on the under part to -admit a vertical link of the 
chain, moves up and down in a groove, in the after-part of 
the frame- work, by means of a screw placed vertically over 
it. This stopper is exceedingly convenient, but the ship is 
never allowea to ride by it. The controller replaces it in 
modem ships. 

ITig-litiiigr Stoppers. Though not belonging to 
this portion of the work, we may mention here Jightiuf/- 
stoppers. These are kept at hand, ready for use at any 
time, particularly when going into action. They consist of 
a pair of dead-eyes or buirs-eyes, rope-strapped, with tails, 
and a laniard rove. Fig. 431, Plate 93. 

Each end of the laniard is fitted with a bight, so that a 
jigger may be hooked into either end, the other end becom- 
ing a standing part. 

Stoppers with which to hold on, while hauling taut 
a brace, sheet, or other rope, are fitted with a hook and 
thimble at one end, or they are otherwise secured to eve, or 
ring bolts near the rope for which they are required. In 
using them a half -hitch is formed around the rope, which 
after the rope is hauled taut through it, is jambea, and the 
tail wormed along in the lay of the rope ; this will hold it 
while being belayed. Fig. 74, Plate 10. 

Iron Compile SHors are used generally under the 
chain pipes. They check the chain with certainty, and are 
easy to handle. 

iron compressors are of various kinds. The oldest and 
best-known pattern is that of the curved iron arm, one end 
of which works on*a pivot-bolt, so as to permit the curve to 
sweep the lower orince of the chain-pipe. The other ex- 
tremity has an eye formed in it, to which is hooked a small 
tackle. When veering, if the order is given to haul to the 



5J06 GROUND-TACKLE. 

compressor, the tackle is hauled upon by the men stationed 
there, and the chain is compressed by the iron arm against 
the side of the chain-pipe. 

Plate 92, Fig. 430, shows the elevation of the compressor, 
in which 

a is the chain-pipe. 

6, chock let down through the deck (c) to the beams d d. 

g, bent lever pivoting on bolt /, which, bv the use of 
a tackle, is made to nip the chain against tne pipe and 
beam. The cable has been found to force down the com- 
pressor and the bolt (/), which has caused the introduction 
of the strap (e). 

m, cartings let down between the beams to form a bed 
for the iron pipe (a). 

The plan represents (Fig. 430 6), the underside of the 
deck and beams ; fc, head of bolt (/ of elevation), on which 
the compressor revolves. 

A, a fan or balancing arm worked in the compressor to 
assist the strap (e) in keeping the compressor in place. 

i, an iron plate on the under side of the beam to form a 
hard surface for the fan to work upon. 

A. Coiiti^oUer (Fi^. 441) is a cast-iron block having 
a swallow in its upper side in the shape of a link of the chain 
cable. Controllers are bolted to the deck, forward of the 
bitts, and also in large ships forward of the chain locker 
pipe. The cable, while Ivmg in the controller, tends of 
itself, to drop into the hollow slot, and while there is held 
by one of its links, which lies flat in the hollow, but at the 
bottom of the hollow is a jog or short lever arm, which can 
be raised by a longer lever, and so lift the cable out of the 
slot when it runs out, imtil the lever is let go and the jog 
dropped. 

To g"^^ tlie A.iicliors olFthe 1>o>vh« Bend 
the chains first, hook the stock-tackle to a strap around the 
upper arm of the stock and to a bolt on the opposite side of 
the forecastle, and haul it taut. 

Hook the bill-tackle to a strap around the inner arm of 
the anchor and to a bolt across the deck, setting it taut 
also. 

The stock and bill-tackles are stout luffs. 

Single the shank painter, and secure it at the mark 
where it is to be when the anchor is ready for letting go. 
Come up the shank, stock, and ring lashings, or ring rope, 
pry the anchor off the bill-board with the anchor bar, easing 
away the stock and bill-tackles as necessary. 

Tiie ring-stopper, which holds the ring of the anchor to 
the cathead, is not touched. 

A fore-and-aft tackle on the pee of the anchor keeps it 
from scending forward while getting it off the bows. 

To let g-o an A^nchoi*. The anchor being off the 
bows, with chain bitted (bitt pin in) and clear for running, 



GROUND-TACKLE. 207 

is held in place by the ring stopper and shank painter. Vig. 
436, Plate 94. 

The former, which is of chain, passes through the ring 
of the anchor, and the last link is placed over a hinged 
tumbler on the cathead, maintained in an upright position 
by means of a hook-lever extending across tne cathead, a, 
llg. 436. The shank painter secures in a similar manner 
at the bill port. To each of these a trigger may be attached, 
as in Fig. 432, Plate 03, fitted with a small bar leading to 
the arms of a swivel, worked by a lever shipped in the 
mortice c. Hauling on the lever disengages both stoppers 
at the same instant. Or the levers holding the hinged 
tumblers, a. Fig. 436, are knocked out of position by men 
stationed for the purpose, at the order, ^'Let go the star- 
board {OT port) anchor I" 

In either case remove first the safety-pin, b, Fiff. 436. 

The order for letting go is always preceded by the 
caution, ^^ stand clear of the starboard (or port) chain r^ and 
sometimes by the order to " stream the buoy ! " 

See hands stationed at the compressor, which is hove 
back. 

Before letting go anchors, it is frequently necessary to 
run in the guns directly underneath them on the gun 
deck. 

To "bi'ing- a eliSLiii to tlie Capstan. Bouse 
up enough slack from the locker to unbitt, having the chain 
well secured forward of the bitts. 

When unbitted, haul the bight of the chain around the 
rollers placed so as to give the chain a fair lead from the 
hawse pipe to the capstan ; thence about half way around 
the same in the score of the ribs, or wildcat, and back 
around similar rollers to the chain pipe. With the steam 
windlass, the chain is always brought to. Try the engines 
to see if in working-order. The chain can be held by lock- 
ing the wildcat and applying the brake. 

To heave up an A^nchor. The capstan being- 
rigged, capstan bars shipped and swiftered in, tne cable is 
stoppered before all, then unbitted and ''broitght to'' the 
capstan. 

Man the bars! Heave taut/ Take off the stoppers and 
Heave around ! As the cable comes above the water, if 
muddy, it is cleaned with a hose led from the head pump. 
Sand the deck if necessary, in case the chain is very 
muddy, to prevent the men from slipping. 

By the capstan are stationed the gunner's gang, with 
chain hooks, to light the slack chain around the rollers and 
toward the chain pipe ; some hands are also provided with 
pinch bars to knock the links out from the ribs or wildcat 
of the capstan if they jam, as is sometimes the case. 



*^08 GROrXD-TACKLK. 

The cable as it comes in is paid below, or ranged readv 
for running. 

When a vessel has two anchors down, in heaving in on 
one cable, it becomes necessary to ** veer to" on the other. 
To do this, if the veering cable is the weather one and in a 
stiff breeze, veer around the bitts, takinc^ off the forward 
stoppers and slacking the laniards of tne after ones, or 
taking off all stoppers and tending the controller and com- 
pressors. 

But if the veering cable be the lee one, it may be pre- 
viously unbitted, ana veered from the locker. 

When all the slack cable is hove in and the chain leads 
right up and down from the hawse-hole to the anchor, the 
officer of the forecastle reports, Up and down, sir I When 
not quite up and down, if circumstances seem to require it, 
he may report, Short stay, sir! 

A cable is said to tend in a certain direction : thus the 
cable *Hends broad off the starboard bow ;" and when this 
occurs so as to make a short nip of the chain, and cause a 
heavy heave, it should be reported, as a change of the 
wheel, or in the disposition of the sail, or a turn back with 
the engine (as when on a windward tide the ship has over- 
run her cham), may bring it to tend right ahead and ease 
the strain on the capstan. 

When the anchor is clear of the ground, report Anchxyr' 
is aweigh ! and when the stock is visible, Anchor in sight! 
Clear {or foul) anchor ! 

And when it is up high enough for catting — The anchor 
is up, sir ! Or direct the boatswain to pipe, Belay ! The 
order from the quarter-deck will then be. Hook the cat! 
Fig. 437, Plate 05. 

The cat having been previously overhauled down, the 
block is hooked to the ring of the anchor by a hand on the 
stock aided by the cat-back. When hooked, set well taut 
on the cat-fall, and caution them on the gun-deck to be 
ready for surging the chain ; then report. All hooked with 
the cat ! As soon as this is made known, the order is given, 
Haul taut ! Walk away with the cat ! The chain is 
surged* and the anchor walked up to the cat-head; at the 
proper time the boatswain pipes belay, when the order is 
given to Hook the fish! As soon as the cat is up the ring- 
stopper is passed. When the fish is reported. Haul taut! 
Walk away with the fish I and when the fish is belayed, 
pass the shank painter. 

SiTi'gring' tlie Chain. When, as very frequently 
occurs on heaving in, the chain comes in muddy, it must be 
ranged on deck instead of paying it below in the lockers; 
thus fifteen, twenty, or more fathoms of chain may accumu- 

* The proper order is: ''Surge the chain!" It is a common mistake to give 
the order: " Veer the chaiji!'' which is quite another thing. 



Plate 93 




Fi%.434- 



GROUND-TACKLE. 209 

late on the deck. Now when the order is given to surge, 
the controller is hove up and the anchor swings to the cat. 
Should the cat-fall part at this time, or other similar accident 
happen, the anchor would go down, carrying with it the en- 
tire range of chain; and if on board a steamer she may, by 
that time, be going ahead under a full head of steam. There- 
fore, in place of relying entirely on any form of controller, 
clap a stopper on the chain, allowing a fathom or so of 
slack for cattinj^. For this purpose an iron nipper securing 
the cable to a rin^-bolt, or a slip-stopper, is very convenient. 
This precaution insures you against accident, and very 
little practice serves to enable one to stopper at the proper 
link to give slack chain enough to allow the anchor to go to 
the cat-nead. 

Cat-F^alls. Begin with the standing part and reeve 
the end down through the forward sheave oi the cat-head, 
through the forward sheave of the cat-block, placed so that 
the bill of the hook will point inboard, and so continue till 
rove full, when timber-hitch the end around the cat-head. 
In lar^e ships it is found convenient to place the block in 
the bndle-port for reeving the fall, after which round it up 
and trice back the hook, if not wanted immediately. 

Cat-BaeltH are temporary, and for the purpose of 
facilitating the hooking of the cat. A small rope is rove 
through a block tailed on to one of the fore-tack bumpkin 
stays, or an eye-bolt conveniently placed over the bows, and 
bent to a small eye-bolt or span on the forward cheek of the 
cat-block, the fall leading inboard. Another one may be 
bent to the back of the hook. With the assistance of these, 
the cat is hooked. 

A. Fisli-Bacls: is for the same purpose, and is bent 
to an eye on the back of the hook. 

A^nclior Ti-ip-liooli. Fig. 429& represents a sec- 
tion of the trip-hook m use on board the Fish Commission 
steamer Albatross, and is essentially the same as that gen- 
erally used in the merchant marine. A, represents a link 
whicn is made fast to the middle of the shank of the anchor, 
the weight of which acts in the direction of the arrow. 
From the figure, it will be seen that the weight presses the 
hook, B, against the cam, C, which, in turn, is held in place 
by the lever, D, the lever resting against the bolt, E. 

The arrangement is attached to the lower block of the 
anchor tackle by the pin, F, which allows it to swing 
freely. 

The tripping-line, G, is made fast on the forecastle, with 
sufficient slack to allow the anchor to be lowered to the 
desired i)oint for letting go. 

To detach the anchor, slack away the tackle until the 
tripping-line, Q, acts on the lever, D, releasing the hook, B, 
and link, A. 

The same style of trip-hook is also used in the place of 



210 GROUND-TACKLE. 

the cat-hook, where an anchor is catted and fished in the 
ordinary way, so that the anchor may be let go from the 
cat without waiting to pass the ring-stopper. 

Fish I>avit. The present plan in the navy is to 
have a boom which attaches to the forward part of the 
foremast by a goose-neck. The boom is rigged as in Fig. 
435, Plate 94. 

A is the topping-lift, hooked to a band around the lower 
mast, near the futxock-band. 

B, the fish tackle. 

C C, rays. 

See also Fig. 437, Plate 95. 

The hauling part of the fish-fall may either lead through 
a sheave in the Doom, or a block on the boom, thence to a 
block hooked to the mast-band, and on deck. 

By this purchase (the fish) the flukes of the anchor are 
raised until up to the bill-board, when the shank-painter is 
passed. This is made of chain ; when passed, the chain 
encloses the shank ; the end, rove through a ring in the side 
or waterways, is belayed to an iron cleat at the side. The 
shank-painter being secured, the purchase is unrigged, the 
fish-davit taken inboard, and the anchor now hangs by the 
ring-stopper and shank-painter, and is ready for letting 
go. 

If the shank-painter is eased oflf so that the anchor hangs 
by the ring-stopper, it is then said to be cock-billed. 

Iron fish-davits similar in form to boat-davits, and 
stepped near the bill-board, have taken the place of the 
wooden fish-boom. A similarly rigged boom, however, is 
now fitted on all vessels not having yards. 

Cattiiiof and Fisliing" a Sheet ^^nchor- 
Stowed t^oi'^vai'd. Modern vessels have frequently 
tw^o cat-heads, one abaft the other on each bow, the after 
one for the sheet anchor. In catting the sheet, hook the 
forward cat; surge, heave the stock clear of the water, 
and hook on the after cat. If the fish-davit is not a mov- 
able one, the fishing will have to be done with a tackle 
from the fore-yard. 

Chatting- ^^nehoi-ss; on I Joai*d ^i*iiioi»e<l 
A"es!Kels. In ships built with rani-bows it is difficult to 
heave the anchor up high enough to hoox the cat. That 
difficulty is met by the use of a cut and ground chain, of 
which the following is a description: 

A length of small chain is shackled to the ring or bal- 
ancing-band of the anchor and stopped along the first 
length of the cable; this is called the (jvonnd chain. A 
corresponding chain reeves through a block at the cat-head, 
styled the cat chain. Before weighing, the lower end of 
the cat chain is taken through the hawse-pipe, and when 
the end of the ground chain is hove in, the cat and ground 
chains are connected, the cat purc^hase (which hooks into 



,S—. S^^- 




(lookinq down) 



GROUND-TACKLE. 211 

the upper end of the cat chain) is manned and hauled taut ; 
the bight of the small chain being eased out of the hawse- 
pipe, ** Walk away with the cat I'' 

British turret ships are supplied with Martin's anchors, 
which lie flat on the deck wnen stowed, stock and flukes 
being then in the same horizontal plane. 

To afford a right ahead, flre from the turret and avoid 
unnecessary anchor gear, these anchors have at their 
balancing point on the shank a shackle to which the ground 
chain is attached. 

A single iron davit with the cat chain rove and con- 
nected (when the anchor is hove up) to the ground chain 
places trie anchor horizontally in its position on the bow. 

The davit works on a hinge at its case, and stows flat on 
deck, a temporary derrick being rigged forward of the 
foremast to raise tne davit when required. 

To Secure a Bovver tox* Sea. Having 
passed the ring-stopper and shank-painter, proceed to ring 
up the anchor by swinging the flsh-boom to plumb the cat- 
head, hooking the 'fish between the stock and ring and 
pulling up on the flsh tackle. Take through the slack of 
the ring-stopper, which is rove through a ring like the shank- 
painter, ana secure it around its cleat for a full due. Hook 
the stock and bill tackles as in getting the anchor off the 
bow, haul on the stock tackle to bring the lower end of the 
stock clear of the side ; then go to the bill-tackle and rouse 
the anchor up on the bill-board, and so to each tackle 
altematelv till the stock is up and down and the inner arm 
lying on the bill-board, when the slack of the shank-painter 
is taken through and the lashings passed. It is better to haul 
alternately on the stock and bill tackles as described, as 
this prevents the palm of the anchor coming in with a 
surge, which would occur if the stock were hove up and 
down at the flrst pull. 

Should there be no fish-boom to ring up the anchor, reeve 
a stout rope {not the cat-fall) through the sheaves of the 
cat-head and the ring of the anchor, secure one end to the 
cat-head, and clap a tackle on the other end. 

If a lonff passage is contemplated, the chain is unbent 
and stowea below when the ship is off soundings, and the 
hawse-bucklers are closed and secured. Besides the ring- 
stopper, a good lashing is passed through the ring and over 
the cat-head, also one around the stock and through a ring 
in the side. 

Foul A.ncli.oi'. The question of clearing a foul 
anchor is one which requires good judgment, and one in 
which the circumstances may vary greatly. As good a 
general rule as any is to hook the cat (if necessarv with a 
strap) to whichever end of the anchor is first signted. It 
will often happen that there is but one foul turn of the 
chain, under tne stock. In that case, if the cat is hooked in 



•^12 GROUND-TACKLE. 

the ring, with a turn taken in the opposite direction to that 
of the chain around the stock, the strain on the cat after 
surging will throw the chain clear. 

If the anchor comes up ivith the cable foul of the stocky 
and ring uppermost, and in such a manner that it cannot be 
cleared as above stated, then cat as usual; in surging the 
chain leave plenty of slack chain outside for working. Now 
clear the chain with slue-ropes on the anchor stock and slip- 
ropes on the chain. It may be necessary to unshackle in 
clearing ; if so, hang the cable before unshackling, clear 
the turns and shackle again. 

If the cat cannot be hooked in the rinr/, then hook it to a 
stout strap around the shank, just under the stock, cat and 
proceed as before, passing the ring-stopper. 

Anchor comes up crown first : Cat tne crown by hooking 
the cat to a strap around the crown, and pass the ring- 
stopper over the crown, unhooking the cat. Now clear, if 
necessary by uiishackling the chain, having plenty of slip- 
ropes to take its weight. Hook the cat in the ring"^ and the 
fisn in the arm, take the strain on the cat, ease away the 
ring-stopper, and haul away on cat and fish. 

It might be advisable, with the anchor coming up crown 
first, to hook the fish first to a strap on the crown,- nauling 
on it till the ring could be reached to hook the cat, then 
easing (and unhooking) the fish, catting the anchor, clear- 
ing the turns and fi'^hing it. The whole depends upon the 
circumstances, as above stated ; and the latter operation in 
particular, presupposes that there is not too much drift to 
the fish, and that the fish gear is reliable, it being smaller 
than the cat. * 

For anchor work, "clear hawse breeches "are made of 
painted canvas, wooden soled at the feet, and slung with 
spans long enough to clear the man's head. 

Marking the cable so as to know exactly how much 
to surge lor catting saves noise and delay, but greater 
allowance must be made when *'foul anchor** is re- 
ported. 

liuo^'s and Bixoy-Hopes. Buoys attached 
by their buoy-ropes to the crown, point out at all times the 
situation of the anchor. The can buov is in the form of a 
cone, it floats base uppermost, and the rope is attached 
to the apex. The nun buoy is largest at the centre, 
tapering at the ends. The latter is in general use. Fig. 
434, Plate 93. 

The size of buoy-ropes is one-third of the cable. The 
length varies, for it is shortened or lengthened according 
to the depth of the water in which you will drop the 
anchor. 

It is bent to the crown of the anchor, by taking a half- 
hitch around one arm, and putting the running eye in its 
end over the other arm ; or a clove-hitch is formed over the 



GROUND-TACKLK. 21 3 

crown, and the end stopped along the shank, or to its own 
part. Or, 

Attach a large thimble to the crown of the anchor^ by a 
stout strap of the size of the buoy-rope (one-third the 
cable). Through this thimble is rove the buoy-rope, both 
parts leading up to the buoy. The advantage of this is, 
that the buoy-rope may be smaller, and when necessary, a 
stout rope of the required size, may be, by it. rove through 
this thimble in the crown of the anchor, tnereby afford- 
ing a greater purchase than that of a single rope^ for 
weifijiing. 

The only objection to this plan is, that the two parts of 
the small buoy-rope will become hawser-laid, and will not 
uhreeve. But this may be, in a great measure, remedied 
by having one part plain-laid ana the other back-handed 
rope. 

Sometimes a buoy will not watch, from its having filled 
with water^ or from the buoy-rope bein^ too short, particu- 
larly in a tide-way. By this is meant, that it does not float 
on the surface of the water. In the former case it will be 
necessary to bleed it, that is, to let the water out. In the 
latter, to lengthen the buoy-rope. 

Buoys are generally kept, one in each of the fore 
channels for common use. Spare ones are kept in the 
hold. 

It was a very Rood rule, that an ^anchor should never be 
let go without a buoy attached. But since the screw pro- 
peller has been introduced, they have been less used, 
throu(|[h fear of fouling the screw, though the end of a 
chain is always buoyed m slipping. 

To Picls Tip IMooring-s from which the vessel 
has previously slipped. Stand in and reduce sail to top- 
sails, or slow down if under steam, lower a boat, coil away 
a hawser in her and let her pick up the buoy-rojje of the 
chain, attaching the hawser to it. Tack off snore if neces- 
sary till the boat has picked up the buoy, then stand in and 
round to, to windward of the buoy, signal the boat to pull 
alongside. Take the hawser-end in through the hawse- 
pipe, and run it in. As the chain comes in, make sure of 
enough to allow for bitting, clap on stoppers forward of the 
bitts ; bitt, and stopper abaft ; then shackle as soon as pos- 
sible. 

To ]M[a.ke Fast to a ]Mooi'iii«: Bixo^. 
In some harbors moorings are planted for vessels to ride by, 
•in order that they may occupy in swinging as little space 
as possible. 

On approaching the buoy, a boat may be sent out with 
the hawser to make fast and return, or she may leave the 
ship with the end of the hawser, just after clewing up. 
Warp the ship up by the hawser to the buoy, unshackle the 
bower-chain from its anchor and shackle to the buoy, veer 



5il4 GROUND-TACKX.E. 

a few fathoms and put a bull rope on the buoy from the end 
of the bowsprit to keep it clear of the stem. 

The boat which carries the warp should contain a maul, 
mooring-shackle, spare earing, ana a tail-block. The earing 
is used to secure the shackle to ^uard against losing it over- 
board while shackling. The tail-block, secured to the ring 
of the buoy, is for a hauling line to get the chain in position 
for shackling. 

When picking up moorings, have an anchor ready for 
letting go, in case of accident. 

I^^-ing* at Wiiio[-l^ A^nclior^ to Veer 
Cal:>le9 Blo^wing- Hard. Veer away, by short 
drifts at a time, through the compressors and laniards of 
the deck-stoppers. If it is blowing a gale, with a heavy 
sea, it would be necessary to veer with a deck-tackle. A 
ghip in this case, would double bitt before veering, if re- 
quired, and send down her spars, and let go other anchors 
as necessary. 

^Wliv v^e Veer Cable in Heavy 
^Weatner. It is a prevalent but fallacious notion, 
that^ even when used in deep water and with a severe 
strain, the curvature or deflection of chain is considerable, 
and that near the anchor it rests upon the ^ound undis- 
turbed by either the pitching motion of the ship, or the ten- 
sion which she causes. At a testing strain of six hundred 
and thirty pounds per eighth-inch of circumference, the 
utmost deflection was found to be only ten feet upon a 
length of one hundred fathoms, in ten fathoms water, with 
the hawse-hole a fathom above the surface ; the diameter 
of the chain being one and one-half inches, and the strain 
forty and one-half tons. 

In a common gale, which would produce this strain, not 
one link of the one hundred fathoms of chain will quietly 
rest upon the ground ; on the contrary, it will be found by 
the experiments on a depth of ten fathoms, that 127.98 
fathoms of chain are required to form a semi-catenary* 
when suspended in air, and 137.03 fathoms when in water. 
If the strain be less, the curvature will be greater, and no 
danger need be apprehended ; but in a severe gale, the 
force of which may be supposed equal to, or nearly equal 
to, a breaking strain, a long scope is the only way to pre- 
vent a fatal result ; and any man in charge of a ship at 
anchor, with the necessary quantity of chain cable on 
board, and space astern to allow him to make use of it, but 
who neglects to do so, must be considered the author of his 
own misfortune, whether it amount to the loss of his 
anchor or the loss of his ship. 

To Increase tlie Value of a Liong- 

* A catenary is the curve fonned by a flexible chain of unlfonn density and 
thickness when allowed to bang freely between two points. 



GROUND-TACKLE. 215 

Scope. To increase the deflection of the cable and bring 
the strain on the anchor, more in a horizontal direction, a 
heavy kedja^e may be shackled or lashed to the bight of the 
riding cable just before veering for bad weather. This is 
similar to ^^ backing" an anchor. 

ILietting- Gro A-dditional .A.iichoi*s. In 
preparing to ride out a gale at anchor, if the holding- 
ground is even moderately good, a ship will hold on longer 
and certainljr ride easier with all her chain on two anchors, 
than by letting go all four anchors with comparatively 
short scopes. Circumstances may compel a ship to depend 
for safety upon the number of anchors down, as in the case 
of a crowded harbor with insuflScient room to veer ^ but 
with more than two anchors down, unless systematically 
laid out in fine weather, there is little probability of the 
strain being equally divided. Vessels anchored in this way 
have snapped their cables onejafter another from the effect 
of the sudden jerks upon a short scope such as a hundred 
fathoms would be in a gale of great severity. 

Having plenty of room astern, and with four cables 
each 120 fathoms long, veer to 60 fathoms on the anchor 
down, say the starboard bower, let go the port bower. 
Lengthen each bower chain by the sheet chain on its side, 
and veer two cables on the starboard and one and a half on 
the port bower. There remains on board one-half the port 
sheet-cable available for adding 30 fathoms to each anchor 
down. 

To use three anchors, the distribution of chain would 
be : starboard bower (the anchor down), with 90 fathoms of 
starboard sheet, the port bower lengthened by the remain- 
ing 30 fathoms of tne starboard sheet chain, and a whole 
cable on the port sheet. Having veered to CO fathoms on 
the starboard bower let go the port bower, veer 30 fathoms, 
and let eo the port sheet. Veering to the full scope, the 
starboard bower would have one and three-quarter cables, 

?ort bower, one and a quarter, and port sheet, one cable, 
'he arrangement assumes, 1st, that a scope of less than 
100 fathoms is of comparatively little value: 2d, that 60 
fathoms would probably be veered in any case oef ore letting 
go a second anchor ; 3d, that the anchors should have as 
nearly equal a scope as the second condition admits. 

For a modern steamer with well-proportioned ground- 
tackle, good holding ground and plenty of room astern, the 
plan of using two anchors with tlie longest possible scope 
IS considered the best. 

Ua^ekin^ an Anchor. When the holding ground 
is bad an anchor may be "backed" bv another. 

In backing an anchor during a gale after it is down, the 
backing hawser or chain is taten round the riding cable 
and secured loosely in order that it may slide down and 
along it when the backing anchor is let go. A large shackle 



*^iO GROUND-TACKLE. 

might be used for this purpose on the riding cable, and the 
backing chain shackled to it. 

To Back an .^nehoi* i^rhen P*repai*liigr 
for €L Girale. Heave in or veer away on the anchor 
down, say starboard bower, till you bring the fourth shackle 
some few fathoms abaft the bitts ; stopper, unshackle, and 
unbitt ; pass the end out and shackle it to the ring of the 
port bower, which has been eased down to the hawse-hole ; 
off stopper, and ride by port bower cable, with its anchor at 
the bows until the gale comes on, and then veer it down to 
the ground. Should the ^ale pass off, you can hai\g the 
starboard bower cable outside by the clear-hawse pendant, 
and replace both in their original position. 

If on veering, to sixty fathoms on the port bower, you 
found the gale still increasing, shackle the remaining surty 
fathoms of the starboard bower to it ; let go starboara sheet 
anchor, and veer away on both. Finally, if compelled by 
the violence of the storm to make the utmost of your re- 
sources, divide the remaining sheet chain between the port 
bower and starboard sheet. There will then be sixty 
fathoms between the starboard bower and the backing 
anchor ; two hundred and forty fathoms on the port bower, 
and one hundred and eighty on the starboard sheet. 

Anchors have been oacKed by vessels on a lee shore, 
with some of the guns. 

Steaming' up to A^yioIioith. When riding out 
a gale at anchor, steamers relieve their ground-tackle by 
turning the eng^es. • But care must be taken not to over- 
run the cables, as in that case, when the ship goes astern to 
a fresh squall, the violent strain on the chains would prob- 
ably part them or start the anchors. 

Wnen a ship has let go two or more anchors, in a gale, 
she should weigh her anchors as soon as the gale moderates ; 
much trouble will be saved bv it. 

A. Collier'M Fm'cliaNe. In heavy heaving, a 
strap may be put on the cable at the water's edge, hook the 
cat in it and assist in that manner. This is Known as a 
collier's purchase. The fish may be clapped on to the cat- 
fall and taken to the capstan. 

To ^.ssist in Ilea v.v Heaving-* Put a large 
block on the cable, near the hawse-hole, reeve a hawser 
through it, belav one end to the mainmast or bitts, and 
clap a deck-tackle on the other end ; or take it to the after- 
capstan. 

Some vessels (brigs and small sloops) use the deck-tackle 
entirely in weighing their anchors. 

In using a deck-tackle, particularly in a large ship, much 
time is saved by having a whip from forward to assist in 
overhauling it. 

To ^^nchoi* toy the Stem. This may be 
necessary for a steamer in a narrow harbor, where the 



GROUND-TACKLE. 217 

vessel is too long to turn, or in a stream where there is no 
room ior swinging to the tide. The British at the battle of 
the Nile anchored in this way to avoid raking broadsides in 
rounding to; the French also anchored by the stem at 
Sebastopol. 

As snips are not always provided with appliances for 
anchoring in this way, it would be well to use the stream 
anchor and chain, or a hawser, in performing the evolution, 
if it will stand the strain exi)ected. 

Get up the stream-chain, rouse it out through the after- 
port, haul it forward outside of all till abreast of the hatch 
where the anchor is stowed, then hoist out the anchor, 
shackle the chain, and let go with a strap and squilgee, or 
ease the anchor down to the bottom with the bight of a 
hawser. 

Or, transport the stream-anchor to the cat-head or 
stem, as may be most convenient, shackle the chain there 
and let go. 

To use a heavier anchor, rouse up the sheet-chain from 
below, pass it through the after-port, naul the end forward 
by a ring-rope to the sheet-anchor and shackle. Bange the 
intendea scope of chain on deck. In the absence oi after- 
bitts, ring-bolts, &c., have plenty of stoppers and lashings 
passed; a stout hawser from the forward bitts, with a 
couple of turns taken round the mainmast, will relieve the 
compressor of some of the strain when the end of the scope 
is reached ; the cable itself might be taken around the 
mizzen-mast. Stop the engine, or clew up and furl in good 
time, and check the cable as much as possible in running 
out. 

In all cases of anchoring by the stern, or with springs 
from aft, use slip-ropes to avoid injury to the rudder 
or screw. 

To Anchor with. a. Spring-. Rouse up the 
stream-chain (or a hawser), haul it aft, as in anchoring by 
the stem, and thence through the after-port forward, secure 
the spring to the bower. Keeping the bower-chain bent ; 
then let go the bower. Now, by setting taut the stream- 
chain and veering on the cable, the ship's broadside is 
sprung around, chips may be sprung broadside to the 
wind, in warm climates, for the purpose of better ventila- 
tion ; or in engagements at ancnor, to bring the guns to 
bear on various points. 

Using a spring from the bower anchor or cable, for the 
purpose of getting a ship's broadside to bear steadily on any 
object, can never be equal to the steadiness acquired by 
using a second anchor, with a stream-cable or hawser. A 
spring is at all times little to be relied on, compared with a 
stem anchor, and after it becomes dark, a spring will much 
decrease the certainty of gun practice. If a ship has a 
good scope of cable with one anchor ahead and tne other 



^18 GROUND-TACKLE. 

astern, rather tautly moored, and her broadside bearing 
well on the object, there will be little fear of her sheering 
about much. But should it be requisite to fire at night by 
previous bearings, then, to make the practice more certain, 
it would be well to have two kedges, with two good, strong 
hawsers laid out on the off side, one on the bow and the 
other on the quarter ; the hawser from aft being attached 
to the anchor on the bow, and the one from forward to the 
anchor on the quarter ; these two hawsers crossing each 
other at a good angle, with as much scope as possible, well 
bowsed taut, will insure the direction oi^the guns. 

THE ''SARATOGA" AT THE BATTLE ON LAKE 

CHAMPLAIN. 

As the success of the " Saratoga," in this action, was 
mainly due to the superior seamanship of her officers, as 
evinced by the manner of working her kedges and hawsers, 
a brief description of that part of the action may be in- 
structive, since we are told that the " Confiance " (English), 
with but one spring on her cable, got just so far round as to 
hang while exposed to a raking, while the " Saratoga" was 
*^ entirely successful, springing her broadside successively 
on ©very vessel wearing the British flag." 

The American vessels had each its stream-anchor hung 
over the stem, the cable bent ready for use ; and besides 
the usual springs, the "Saratoga" had a kedge planted 
broad off each bow, the hawser of each leading in tnrou^h 
the quarter ports, the bights hanging in the water. In tne 
midst of the fight, on firing the only gun (a carronade) re- 
maining mounted in the starboard battery of the " Saratoga," 
the navel bolt broke and the g^n fiew down the main hatcn. 
The attempt was then made to wind the ship. Fig. 433, 
Plate m. 

To this end the stream-anchor astern was let go, and 
clapping on the starboard quarter line, the ship was roused 
over to the kedge on that side ; a line had been bent to the 
bight of the stream-cable, and she now lay with her stem 
to the raking broadside of the ' * Linnet " (position 2, Fig. 
433, Plate 93), being for a brief space in a critical position, 
but dipping the port quarter line under the bows, it was 
passed aft to the starboard quarter, the ship's stem sprimg 
to the westward, and the port battery brought to bear on 
the enemy. 

Havixigr ancliorecl ^with a sprtxig' to the 
stern, to heave vxp. If the ship is stillriding by 
the stem cable, heave in the bower, veer away the stern 
cable, set the spanker, and wind the ship. Hang the 
stem cable outside (or stopper it) ; pass a stout hawser 
out of the sheet hawse-hole ; pass the end aft, outside of 



OROUND-TACKLE. 219 

everything, and bend it to the stern cable at the nearest 
shackle. Unshackle, and let the cable go: man the 
hawser, and walk the cable in through the hawse-hole. 
When taut in, clap a deck-tackle on it, take the bower 
cable to the capstan and heave round. Walk away with 
the deck-tackle as the bower chain comes in. When the 
anchor is up, unshackle or unbend the spring and haul it 
inboard out of the way. 

rFo Slip SI. OliAin. In preparing to slip, put a 
buoy-rope on the chain, stout enough to weigh it, lead 
the Duoy-rope out through the hawse-pipe and to the fore- 
chains, where it is made fast to a ' smaller line, equal to 
the depth of water, and bent on to the buoy. The buoy 
sustaining only the weight of the small line, can then 
watch properly. 

Stopper the cable forward of the bitts, or heave down 
the forward compressor ; have the shackle well abaft the 
bitts. Unshackle, stream the buoy, and slip by cutting the 
stopper or heaving up the compressor. 

In slipping, give a turn or two of the propeller astern 
before starting ahead, to ensure clearing the buoy-rope. 

Stand clear of the end of the chain as it runs out and 
see that it does not f ouL 



CHAPTER XV. 

CAPSTAN STEAM WINDLASS -STEERING QEAR. 

Tlie Oappjtan. The mechanical power employed 
in ships to lieave in the cable, and thereby raise the anchor, 
is a modification of the wheel and axle ; it is technically de- 
nominated a capstan, on(» portion of which, called ihe bar- 
rel, around which the rope is wound, answering to the axle 
of a mechanical machine ; the other part, the head with the 
bars, being analogous to the wheel. To set this machine in 
motion, a moving power (the crew or steam) is applied to 
the wheel, and the rope being by this means wrapped around 
the barrel of the capstan, the weight or cable is raised. The 
cable itself comes to the capstan in all modem forms of 
that power. Formerly, however, cables were connected to 
the capstan by means of a rope or chain, styled a messengeVy 
which did pass around the capstan and was made to unite 
itself firmly to the cable by means of nippers. 

The messenger,' which may still be seen in use on old- 
fashioned capstans, is commonly a rope or chain formed 
into a long loop, and, when of rope, long enough to allow 
of three or four turns around the barrel of tne capstan, 
and then for each part to reach to a vertical roller in the 
manger, where the ends are united to form the loop re- 
quired. This loop, moving around the roller and capstan, 
when the latter is set in motion, draws the cable inboard 
and aft when united to it by the nippers. When a chain 
messenger is used its links work over studs placed around 
the barrel of the capstan. A rope messenger goes around 
the barrel itself ana increases the length required by three 
or four turns around the barrel, which have to be taken to 
prevent slipping. 

A frigate is usually fitted with a double capstan, the 
upper barrel being on the spar deck, the lower on the main 
deck, on which the hawse-holes are also placed. Connect- 
ing " drop pauls," or pins, connect the upper with the lower 
capstan. 

The holes in the head of the capstan are termed pigeon- 
holes. Thev receive the capstan bars which work the 
capstan. To secure these bars, holes have been bored 

220 




"0=^=TT 




rj 



^ip 



13 



CAPSTAN — STEAM WINDLASS — STEERING GEAR. 221 

through the head of the capstan and through the bars and 
pins placed in them. At present the capstan bars are 
usually kept in place only by a rope wound around their 
outer ends, joining them together and called a swiftering 
line. 

The drumrhead is the circular top of the capstan, in 
which are the pigeon-holes. 

Pauls are stops which are fitted so as to drop from the 
sides of the capstan against apaul-rim or rackety to prevent 
the recoil of the capstan. 

The ribs or sides of the capstan are termed whelps. 

Fig. 439, Plate 06, represents the American capstan, the 
chain being taken directly without the use of the messenger. 

Fig. 440, Plate 90, shows Brown's patent capstan. 

6, elevation of the lower capstan with fittings at the 
lower part of it formed of iron, the ribs or vnld cats, g g, 
in it, acting like teeth or sprockets to clasp the cable, 
similar to the sprocket-wheel with studs, as shown, i?. Fig. 
439. 

Plate 96, of the common capstan. 

c, elevation of a friction roller, round which the cable is 
wound, as shown on the plan, three or four being used as 
marked. 

dy of the plan, shows the controller for stopping the 
cable. See also Fig. 441. 

hy the cable leading to the hawse-hole. The method of 
bringing the cable to the capstan may be traced on the 
plan ; the links shown in dotted lines being those in contact 
with the ribs (gg) of the elevation. 

The "W^indlaHH used in small vessels is a capstan 
with the barrel worked horizontally, the power bein^ ap- 
plied by levers, which are shipped or worked in holes 
similar to those in the capstan-head. 

In bringing a hawser to a capstan, take three or four 
round turns around the barrel, the inboard part being 
always the upper turn. 

The Hyde Steam AVincllasK and Cap- 
stan 9 Plates 97 and 98, is in use on board U. S. battle-ships 
of the Alabama and Wisconsin type. This machinery is 
built by the Hyde Windlass Co. of Bath, Me. 

The Windlass and Capstan are driven by a vertical 
double engine, the cylinders of which A, A, are 15 inches 
diameter, 14 inches stroke. The engines are reversed by 
link motion worked by the hand wheel B. The crank shaft 
C, extends under the windlass shaft, and carries a worm 
which engages the worm-wheel D, driving the windlass. 
Forward of this is another worm whi(;h ciiga^c^s the worm- 
wheel E, which drives the capstan. The rims of both these 
wheels are independent. By throwing out the pawls F, F, 
on the windlass gear, the capstan may bc^ run independently 
in either direction. In a like manner, by working the hand 



222 CAPSTAN — STEAM WINDLASS — STEERING GEAR. 

wheel, G, the pawls in the worm-wheel E, are lifted clear 
and the windlass may be run independently of the capstan. 

In heaving in chain, the capstan being unlocked, the 
pawls F, F, mentioned above, are thrown in. The wild- 
cats H, H, are locked by the pawls J, J, which are thrown 
in and out, by the sleeves K, K, and the engine started 
ahead. Or, if it be desired to veer the chain by power, the 
backing pawl L, is thrown in, and the engine reversed. 

In veering chain, the wild-cats are unlocked by sleeves 
K, K, and are free to revolve. Their motion is then con- 
trolled by the friction bands M, M, which are set up by the 
hand wheels N, N. These friction bands are used also to 
control the chd,in when riding in heavy weather; the chain 
in this case being unstoppered. 

The Capstan O, is so arranged that it may be used as a 
hand capstan, in the usual manner. It revolves at the same 
rate as the bars, when they are worked in a right hand direc- 
tion ; and at one-third of this speed, when they are worked 
in the left hand direction, giving increased power, the bar- 
rel in either case revolving in one direction. 

When used by steam, by inserting pins in the base of 
barrel Q, it is locked to the sleeve gear, and the pawls P, 
being lifted, it is free to be worked in either direction. 

The windlass is so arranged, that, for ordinary opera- 
tions, little attention to the pawls is necessary ; as, in heav- 
ing in chain, the engine is run ahead, the capstan being 
free to revolve. If it be desired to work the capstan ahead, 
the engine is reversed, the windlass automatically remain- 
ing stationary. 

The windlass is composed, almost entirely, of forgings 
and steel, or bronze, castings, to insure the utmost protec- 
tion against breakage, and the minimum of weight. 

Steam Steering* Cireai*. The following is a 
description of the latest patent of the steam steering gear 
of Williamson Bro's Co., of Philadelphia, as applied to the 
battle-ships of the United States Navy. 

Plate 99 shows plan and side elevation. The engine 
moves the rudder by means of a screw shaft G, on which 
work sleeves, or driving nuts, connected to side rods from 
the yoke of the rudder. One-half the length of the threaded 
part of the screw shaft is right handed and the other half 
left handed, so that the sleeves simultaneously approach 
towards, or recede from, each other; both side rods thus 
acting to turn the rudder in the same direction. 

To operate the engines, see that the necessary clutches 
are in, and that the proper connections are made: revolve 
the automatic shaft L by turning the small steering wheel I 
in either direction a sufficient number of turns to give the 
desired movement to the rudder. 



The Hyde Steam Windlass and Capstan. 



The Hyde Steom Windlois ond Copston . 



CAPSTAN — STEAM WINDLASS — STEERING GEAR. 223 

The movement of the automatic shaft gives horizontal 
motion to a sleeve working on a threaded portion of it. 
The horizontal motion of the sleeve moves a rock shaft 
that opens the reversing valve and admits steam to the 
steering engine H. 

The engine H revolves the screw shaft G which, as 
above described, moves the rudder. 

This motion continues until the rudder is in the desired 
position, shown by pointers on a dial plate. The steering 
wheel is then stopped. A spur wheel, carried by the screw 
shaft, gears into a spur wheel that turns the slec^ve on the 
automatic shaft, moving the sleeve in an opposite direction 
to that originally given it, thereby closing the reversing 
valve.* 

The rudder is then rigidly held in this position. To 
move the rudder, simply turn the small steering wheel I, 
and the operation is repeated. 

The automatic shaft may be revolved from the pilot 
house, conning tower, or any steering station in the ship 
by means of transmission ropes wound on drums J. The 
motion of the drum is transmitted by gearing as shown in 
the plates. 

The hydraulic telemotor K is used to obtain the same 
motion required of the transmission ropes, that is, to operate 
the automatic shaft and by it, as already described, the re- 
versing valve. 

The hydraulic system is really the primary system, the 
transmission ropes being intended as secondary, to be used 
in case of injury to the hydraulic system. The two pipes 
can be run in any direction desired. The movement of the 
steering wheel is very easy, the only friction to overcome 
being that of the hydraulic pistons. 

To steer by hand, throw out clutch M, and any others 
that move unnecessary parts. See clutchc^s to hand wheels 
in place. Man the wheels. From the upper decks the power 
is transmitted through shafting, such as at O, from the steer- 
ing room, as indicated at P. 

Some of our battle-ships, such as the Iowa, are fitted 
with an electric telemotor. Electric motors are used to give 
motion to the automatic shaft, and through it to open and 
close the reversing valve. 

Tlie Hycli^aiilie Stec^i-ing- Ci^ofii", The ar- 
rangement of yoke and side rods is practic^ally the same as 
for the steam steering gear just described. The forward onds 
of the side rods form cross heads to piston rods working in 
two hydraulic cylinders, one on each side. The forward 
end of each cylinder is conne(*ted l)y a pip(^ with the after 
end of the other cylinder. Each of th(*se pipes is connected 
to one of two pipes of the main hydraulic system which 



\ 



234 CAPSTAN — STEAM WINDLASS — STEERIN(J GEAR. 

operates as supply and exhaust alternately, according to the 
direction of the rudder. 

Turning the steering wheel by means of transmission 
ropes, from any part of the vessel, opens valves which admit 
water into one or the other of the first mentioned pipes, as 
the helm is to go to starbord or to port, and allows it to ex- 
haust through the other. 

By means of a system of levers connected to the cross- 
heads of the side rods, a reverse motion is given to the 
valves, thus closing them automatically, when the steering 
wheel stops. The rudder is held firmly in place by the 
water which fills the hydraulic cylinders on both sides of 
the piston. 

The change from hydraulic to hand power, or vice versa, 
is simple and rapid. 

The r^neixmatic Steei*ii:igr Ci-eai*. In this 
the work is done by two horizontal cylinders arranged one 
on each side of the tiller. They are provided with a com- 
mon piston rod. in the centre of which is a hollow cross- 
head in which the tiller is free to slide as it is moved from 
side to side by the pistons. 

Compressed air is admitted to the outer ends of the 
cylinders by means of a D-valve, the air being simultan- 
eously admitted at the back of one piston and exhausted 
from the other. The inner ends of the cylinders are con- 
nected by a pipe so that the air may flow freely from one 
to the other as the pistons move. In the centre of the con- 
necting pipe is a by-pass valve which is open when the 
tiller is being moved, but closes when it has moved through 
the desired angle and holds the air in the cylinders, thus 
locking the tiller between two elastic cushions. 

The valve admitting the compressed air can be worked 
from any steering station in the vessel by means of trans- 
mission ropes, or by means of electric motors. 

It will be observed that the general arrangement of 
yoke, side rods, and the applying of power, is practically the 
same in each system. To steer with tiller only, take out the 
bolts connecting the side rods to the sleeves, or cross-heads. 

In these several designs the customary practice is ob- 
served of heaving the wheel in direction the ship's head is 
to go. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

MOORING- CLEARING HAWSE. 

In speaking of a vessel as moored, we may refer to the 
use of fixed moorings in a harbor or alongsiae of a wharf ; 
or the ship may be moored head and stern. But the ex- 
pression, as generally understood, means (when her own 
^ound-tackle is used) that the ship has two anchors down 
in opposite directions from the vessel, one cable having been 
made rather taut before the second anchor was let go, and 
there being an equal scope on each chain. 

If a ship lets go her single anchor (say in 5 fathoms), in 
the very centre of a harbor, which we will call about 200 
fathoms wide, and ^^ steep to," all around, and then veers 
100 fathoms of cable, she would occupy every part of the 
harbor, as the wind or current happened to move her. 

If it be desired to keep her stationary in the centre, 
shortening the cable in to 5 fathoms would not effect it, for 
the first puflf of wind would cause her to start her anchor. 

But let us ascertain from what quarter the prevailing 
heaviest wind blows; weigh, haul over, and let go an 
anchor in that direction, 60 fathoms from the centre ; then, 
with a warp, haul the ship over in the very opposite direc- 
tion, veering the cable 1;;^0 fathoms from tne last position, 
and then let go the second anchor. Now heave in 60 
fathoms of the first cable, veering 60 fathoms on the last, 
and we shall have the ship moored in a stationary position 
in the centre of the harbor ; and many other ships (suppose 
room on each side) may share the harbor by similar means, 
as shown by the full-lined ship is Fig. 443, Plate 100. 

Now with regard to the direction. Say that the prevail- 
ing gales are northerly, and one comes on from that quarter 
so heavy that we should veer cable. If the other ships have 
attended properly to this contingency, all may veer simul- 
taneously without fouling each other, and the riding cable 
of each ship will tend straight to their weather anchors ; in 
other words, they will all have open berths and open hawse, 
as shown by the dotted line ships in Fig. 443. 

It is clear that with a long scope of cable, we have all 
the additional weight of chain in our favor ; the ship's bows 
are less dragged downward than at a short stay, and the 

325 



\- 



226 MOORING — CLEARING HAWSE. 

pull on the anchor approaching the horizontal, the palm 
bites all the harder. Some officers prefer veering, even as 
much as two cables on end, to letting go other anchors. 

Now suppose that one or both of the other ships had 
moored without regard to the position of their anchors and 
the direction of the prevailing gales. Plate 100, Figs. 444, 
445, shows what would happen in case it should come on to 
blow, and each vessel had to veer; also the trouble that 
would ensue in getting under way. 

Hence it is, that, when a flag oflBcer desires to have 
his ships as close together as possible, he orders them to 
moor ; and to prevent collisions while veering or picking up 
their anchors, he points out the direction of the anchors. 
To preserve, likewise, an imposing and well-dressed line, he 
specifies the quantity of cable that is to be veered by each, 
and also enforces the use of buoys, that each ship may be 
enabled to ascertain the position of another's anchors. 

These are some, but not all, of the reasons for mooring. . 
For instance, in a river too narrow for a ship to swing in at 
single anchor without grounding, or too shoal to do so 
witnout striking on the upper pee of her anchor, and per- 
haps settling on it as the tide fell, it would be necessary to 
make her a fixture. But this also would require considera- 
tion. By laving the anchors out in a line with the stream, 
they would be in the best position for holding, in the event 
of freshets or gales coming on, in concert with the tide ; 
but, excepting the small distance she could sheer by the 
action of the helm, her exposure to collisions from an 
enemy's fire-ships or rafts dropping down with the tide, or 
from vessels navigating the river, would be great ; whereas, 
by having the anchors athwart the stream, either cable 
could be veered, and the ship quickly moved to one side or 
other. 

If the water is shoaler than the ship can reach, one 
anchor may be carried out in a boat, and a greater scope 
given in consequence. 

When it is optional, moor in northern latitudes with 
reference to the chances being strongly in favor of gales 
beginning at southwest, and ending at northwest. 

For the same reason, in northern latitudes lie at single 
anchor with the port bower ; if you have to let go tne 
starboard anchor, you will then have open hawse. 

If safety is the only consideration, and there is plenty of 
room to swing, a ship is obviously better oflf when riding 
at single anchor than when moored. For upon the appear- 
ance of a gale, you can veer at pleasure and be certain of 
having your second anchor in line with the wind when let 

go, with a long scope on each chain. A vessel which has 
een moored never nas both cables in line with the wind, 
except when the ship is just between them, and therefore 
only riding by one, or after veering, when she lays with a 



i 



Plate 100 





/ 




iJ 




B'ig. 443 





B'ltf. 440 




\J 



MOORING — CLEARING HAWSE. 227 

very long scope on one chain, and a correspondingly short 
scope on the other. 

When moored and veering in a gale, the anchors being 
in the direction of the wind, the lee cable must be shortened 
in to prevent dragging it over its anchor; for there is 
some nsk of tripping the lee anchor as the weather cable 
is veered. 

A ship should never be girt by her moorinja^s. At such a 
place as Panama, for example, where the rise and fall of 
the tide are very great, suppose a ship were to be moored 
and both chains hove taut at low water. The ^reat strain 
brought on her by the rising tide, provided the anchors 
held, majr be imagined ; and if, in addition to this, she 
should swing around several times and foul her hawse, the 
effect on her copper and fastenings would soon tell. 

Preparations forl^Iooring-, StationK, 
etc. All hands having been called to ''moor ship," the 
first lieutenant takes the deck, and the other officers repair 
to their stations as in ' ' bringing ship to anchor. " The officer 
of the forecastle will see hands by the anchor to be let go, 
and will give directions to those on the main deck as to 
veering, &c. 

The officer of the forecastle will see the second anchor 
ready for letting go, and the chain clear. Let us suppose 
that the starboard anchor was first let go, the port one must 
then be ready. He will see all clear for veering on the 
starboard cable, and men at their stations as in ''coming 
to." When the starboard cable is veered as far as necessary, 
he will *' bring to" on it, and unbitt the port one, for 
convenience in veering, unless in very deep water. The 
boatswain attends on the forecastle, and pipes as directed 
by the lieutenant in charge of the forecastle. The car- 
penter, with his crew, will ship and swifter in the capstan 
bars, put on gratings, knock up stanchions, &c., and report 
to the lieutenant in charge of main deck when ready. 

The principal stations of the crew are, to man both cap- 
stans, to veer cable, on deck at the wheel, the lead, signals, 
by the anchor, two men in each top, a man at each mast 
to attend gear. Tierers below, compressor-men on berth- 
deck. In a modern ship a man is stationed to run the steam 
capstan. See steam turned on, &c. 

Having- ^A^ncliox-ecl >^^itli that ^^iow — 
to IWCoor iShip. The first anchor having been let go 
in the proper position, and with reference to the state of 
the hawse to prevailing winds, the first lieutenant will in- 
form the officer of the forecastle as to the scope he wishes 
on each chain. The officer of the forecastle will veer away 
to double this range (supposing an equal scope on each), 
keeping the last shackle abaft the bitts, for otherwise, sup- 
posing the chain well.laid out, it would be mooring too taut. 



228 MOORING — CLEARING HAWSE. 

The mizzen topsail may be set, if necessary, and the ship 
sheered with it, and the helm, to the position of the second 
anchor. The chain must be laid well out before the second 
anchor is let go ; when the second anchor is let go the first 
lieutenant directs the boatswain to call '*furl sail," and 
having furled them, will direct him to call '*moor ship." 
The chain is "brought to," and the first lieutenant then 
commands, "Heave round!" the stoppers are taken off (if 
any have been put on), when the caole is hove taut, and 
the chain is unbitted as it comes in, and payed below, if 
clean. Let us suppose that the port anchor was first let go, 
and that we veered ninety fathoms on it. Veering the 
starboard cable is regulated by the amount hove in on the 
port ; observing never to check her. Finally, veer the forty- 
five-fathom shackle half way between the hawse-hole and 
bitts, and heave in the forty -five-fathom shackle on the 
port chain, to the same place. They will then be con- 
venient for clearing hawse. 

If the swivel is to be put on immediately, the lee shackle 
had better be kept just outside of the hawse-hole, provided 
the swivel is so small that it can be passed through the 
hawse-pipe : keep the shackle of the riding cable (the port 
one in this case) inside the hawse-hole. In regard to the 
position of the shackles, it may be well to bear in mind, if 
in any doubt, that it is much better to keep them too far 
inside than the other way, as cable can be veered by two 
or three hands; but to heave it in, requires a deck tackle 
and all hands. 

When intending to put the swivel on, the v/eather cable 
may be veered a fathom or so more than otherwise before 
the lee anchor is let go, as putting it on slacks the chain. 

If a ship is moored too taut she may trip her anchors in 
case of a foul hawse, and the cables chafe the cutwater. 
If moored too slack, the swivel will not turn. The execu- 
tive officer should look at the state of the hawse every 
morning, in order to assure himself that the swivel is in 
good order. 

When the ship is moored with the proper scope, the 
officer of the forecastle will put on the stoppers, and report 
to the first lieutenant, who then directs the boatswain to 
"pipe down." 

The vessel is now moored with a scope of forty-five 
fathoms on each cable, and will swing to the wind or tide, 
forming a sweep within her moorings. No vessel should 
be moored with cables so slack, or with so little scope out, 
as to swing over her buoys or beyond her own moorings. 

The foregoing example shows the proper course to pur- 
sue, when the spot to place the second anchor is directly to 
leeward of the first; but should that not be the case, she 
must be, by the use of hawsers, taken out to the shore, or 



MOORING — CLEARING HAWSE. 229 

to another vessel; or by the use of a kedge, roused over to 
the proper spot, veering on the first cable while doing so. 
Then place the second anchor and proceed as just directed. 

Should steam be up, of course that would be used. 

To l^Ioor in a. Tide^va^. You may veer to the 
full scope (ninety or one hundred and twenty fathoms) any 
time during the tide, and drop the second anchor before 
slack water; for with a good scope of cable, and the current 
still running, you may give her a considerable sheer with 
the helm. After the second anchor is down, bitt and stop- 
per the cable, and wait the change of the tide; when, hav- 
ing swung to the second anchor, you may proceed to moor 
as before directed. 

To IVfiooi* Head, and Stei-n. As there are 
rarely any fitments for securing stern cables we must take 
them to the mizzen mast, lash them to bolts in the bul- 
warks, or to the cradle bolts, or to the mooring shackles 
outside. 

Sometimes the ends of the stern cable are secured on 
shore, the bight being on board ; in this case, after veering 
away on the bowers, and securing the stern fasts, heave 
ahead until moored taut enough. When using hemp cables 
or hawsers in this way, put plenty of good parcelling on in 
the wake of all chafes, and occasionally *' freshen the nips," 
or use mats instead of parcelling. 

Should four anchors be required, ascertain the ship's 
berth when moored, and mark the intended position of each 
anchor by small temporary buoys. Make every preparation 
for mooring. Place the anchor by the best available means 
and heave in on the chains as required. 

HavlupT ]V[ooved Head and Stei*n — to 
TTnmooi* ^liip. If the stern moorings are made fast 
to the shore, simply cast off the ends, clap on deck-tackles, 
and walk them inboard. 

If moored with anchors astern, to unmoor, proceed to 
pick up stern anchors, then the bowers. 

TO KEEP THE HAWSE CLEAR OR TEND SHIP WHEN 

MOORED-(TWO BOWERS). 

When a ship is moored the sails are generally unbent, 
with the exception of the jib and spanker. With these two 
sails, the helm, and a knowledge of the principles of tend- 
ing ship, an officer can scarcely go amiss. If the stern of 
the ship must go to starboard to Keep the hawse clear, put 
the helm to starboard at the last of the old tide, and to port 
at the beginning of the new. This will have the effect of 
sending the stem to starboard and making her swing as 
desiredT Use the spanker if it can be made effective. 

A little attention in this matter on the part of the officer 



230 MOORING — CLEARING HAWSE. 

of the deck may save a great deal of work in clearing 
hawse. Should it be required to swing against the wind, 
use the jib. 

CLEARING HAWSE. 

A vessel moored, and riding by either anchor, having 
the cables clear of each other, ^^ rides with a clear hawse.^ 
If her head is in a line between the two anchors, so that 
the cables will each lead out from their respective sides, 
and clear of the stem, she then ' * rides to an open hawse.^^ 

If, by swinging, she brings the cables to bear upon each 
other, so as to be chafed by the motion of the vessel, she 
has ^^ a foul hawse,^^ 

If, from having an open hawse, she has swung half 
round, or performed a half circle, she brings " a cross in the 
hawse" and that cable will be uppermost from which she 
swung. If it is the starboard cable which is uppermost, she 
must swing to starboard, if the port, to port, to clear the 
hawse. 

But if she swings the wrong way, that is, continues the 
same way she swung before, performing another half 
circle, then there will be " aw elbow in the hawse," the same 
cable being uppermost. We will suppose that in both in- 
stances she has swung to port, then tne starboard cable is 
of course over the port one, and she must swine to starboard 
to bring the hawse clear. Thus, from an opennawse she has 
performed a full circle to produce an elbow. 

The next half circle in the same direction brings "a 
round turn " in the hawse. 

And the next half circle, " a round turn and elbow" and 
so on. 

An attentive officer will always endeavor to make his 
vessel, having a cross in the hawse, swin^ so as to clear it, 
by means of tne helm or otherwise. But if she swings the 
wrong way, he should lose no time in resorting to the opera- 
tion of clearing hawse by the cables. 

To Cleai* Ha^wse. Get up the clear-hawse gear. 
This consists of deck-tackles, hook-ropes, the clear-hawse 
pendant and the hawse-rope. 

I>ecl£-Tackles are heavy double purchases, with 
a hook in each block. 

HooIj: IRopes are single ropes, with a hook in one 
end, and are used in lighting along the chain, in con- 
nection with long-handled cfeatn-Z^oofc^. Fig. 459. 

The Clear-Ha^WKe Fenclaiit is a heavy 
hemp rope, tailed with chain and having a shackle, or (better) 
a pelican hook in the chain end. 

The Hawse-H/ope is a stout hemp rope tailed 
with chain, with sister-hooks in the chain end. 



MOORING — CLEARING HAWSE. 231 

If the turns are under water thev must first be hove out 
clear. This is usually done by clapping a deck-tackle on 
the riding cable, forward of the bitts, hauling in and stop- 
pering the riding chain forward ; light the slack around the 
bitts and pass the after stoppers afresh. 

Pass the clear-hawse pendant out of the sheet hawse-hole 
on the side of the lee caole, shackle it to that cable below 
the turns, bouse it taut with a deck-tackle and belay it. 
Now pass the end of the hawse-rope out through the lee 
hawse-hole, take it around the riding cable in the direction 
opposite to the turn in the hawse, pass the end in again. 
Fig. 447, and hook it to the lee cable forward of the shackle. 
Now unshackle the lee cable, haul away on the hawse-rope 
and light out the lee cable, usin^ a line from the bowsprit 
if necessary to assist in hauling it out. 

When the hawse-rope brings in the end of the cable 
again, secure the cable end temporarily if need be, and re- 
peat the operation with the hawse-rope from the beginning, 
if there are more turns to be taken out. 

When the lee cable comes in clear, clap on a deck-tackle, 
walk away and shackle, unhooking tne hawse-rope. 

Take off finally the clear-hawse pendant, and dry and 
stow away the clear-hawse gear. 

When the clear-hawse pendant is fitted with a pelican 
hook it can be readily cleared from the chain, even if it gets 
under water, by a laniard from the upper part of the linK. 

In small vessels, or with light ground-tackle, the above 
plan may be slig:htly modified, to advantage, especially 
when the hawse-pipes are narrow. Fig. 448. 

The turns being hove above water, clap on the clear- 
hawse pendant as before. It is advisable also to clap a 
lashing on the two cables below the turns, if the moorings 
are slack, to keep the turns from sliding down under water 
again on the nding chain. Now, instead of using the 
hawse-rope, pay out the nearest shackle of the lee cable 
into a boat under the bows, unshackle there and use a 
hook-rope to clear the turns, having the hauling end in- 
board. When the turns are clear, hook the hawse-rope into 
the end of the lee chain to rouse it inboard through the 
hawse-pipe. Shackle, cast off the lashings on the chains, 
and take off the clear-hawse pendant. 

One object is not to have so many parts (two of hawse- 
rope and one of chain) in the hawse-hole at once. More- 
over, when the use of the boat and hook-rope is practicable, 
the hook-rope can be more readily shifted and the operation 
performed quicker. 

When veering out the end of the lee cable have a good 
turn with the hawse-rope, so that in case the clear-hawse 
pendant parts, the hawse-rope may hold the weight of the 
chain. 

Never clear by the riding cable, nor at any other time 
than at slack water if it can be avoided. 



232 MOORING — CLEARING HAWSE. 

A screw steamship, with steam up, can turn round with 
her screw and helm, and clear hawse in a short time. But 
the steam would not be up unless she was about to sail ; 
and in that case she should clear hawse, unmoor, and heave 
in to a short scope while raising steam. 

The hawse is sometimes cleared, when there is no wind 
and a smooth surface, by towing the stem of the ship round 
in the required direction. A long ship should never attempt 
it, and it is not a very seamanlike way of clearing hawse at 
any time. 

In weighing, if there is a cross in the hawse, the under- 
most cable should be hove in first ; the upper anchor, if 
hove up first, would foul the under cable. 

If it is necessary to pick up the upper one first, dip it 
before weighing. 

In unmooring, heave up the lee anchor first to avoid the 
chance of fouling other ships or your own anchor. 

To pixt tlie IVIooi'iiig- S4>vlvel on. Fig. 449. 
By putting the mooring swivel on, the hawse is more easily 
kept clear. 

The best time to put it on is at slack water, or as near it 
as possible. To do so, shackle the clear-hawse pendant to 
the lee cable, as in clearing hawse, and haul it taut. Send 
a boat under the bows with the swivel. Make fast a bow- 
line from the bowsprit end, rouse out chain and pav the 
shackle into the boat ; the men in the boat unshackle the 
chain and shaqkle it to the swivel. 

Now put the clear-hawse pendant on the riding cable, 
haul it well taut, unshackle the riding cable, veer it into 
the boat, and shackle it there to the swivel as we did the lee 
one. 

If there is any doubt about the clear-hawse pendant 
being strong enough, we must use a large hawser, or the 
stream chain, to secure the riding cable, or postpone putting 
the. swivel on the riding cable until the ship has swung. 

When the swivel is on, it must be hove up clear of the 
water. 

It is usually hove up close to one hawse-hole, and the 
other chain is then overhauled clear of the bows, or un- 
shackled altogether. After the swivel is on, the two chains 
from inboard constitute what is called the bridle. 

Finally, take off the clear-hawse pendant. 

The swivel should be put on with the cup upward that it 
may be more effectually lubricated. 

If the swivel is so small that we can pass it through the 
hawse-hole, it can be put on with much less trouble. We 
have only to stopper the riding cable inboard, unshackle, 
put the swivel on and veer it outboard. Then send a boat 
under the bows and put it on the lee cable as just described. 

Many seamen object to the use of mooring swivels under 
any circumstances. They should certainly not be used when 
bad weather is liable to make veering necessary. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

CARRYING OUT ANCHORS BY BOATS. 

To cai'ry oi:it a K^edg-e oi* Sti:*ea»m. 
.il^nclioi* lyy a I3oat. Hoist the kedge out by yard 
and stay purchases and lower it into the water astern of the 
boat. The coxswain, having previously unshipped the rud- 
der, and protected the stern of the boat with old canvas, 
hangs it there by a piece of three-inch stuff. One end of this 
is secured to the ring-bolt in the stern, the other end, passed 
abound the shank just under the stock, is belayed for slip- 

Eing. Settle down the yard tackle and unhook. Bend the 
awser and coil it away in the boat. When the kedge is to 
be let go, heave the remainder of the hawser overboard and 
slip the stopper. 

A small feedge may be made much more effective by 
lashing pig ballast or other convenient weight to it. 

Circumstances will determine whether it is better to take 
the entire hawser in the boat, drop the kedge and bring the 
end back, or to pay and go from the ship, as assumed above. 

CARRYING OUT A HEAVY ANCHOR WITH ONE BOAT. 

F'ii'Ht >Ietlio<l. {The quickest way.) Sling empty 
casks or beef barrels in pairs, marrying their slings and 
snaking them to prevent them from being shaken off. 
Bung the casks weU and lowfer them overboard. 

Out launch, lower it so that the stem will be supported 
by the casks, lash these securely to the boat, two on each 
.quarter. 

Haul the launch forward with a boat rope from the jib- 
boom end, steady her if necessary by a whip from the fore- 
yard braced forward. 

Cockbill the anchor and lower it with the stock hanging 
horizontally across the stem of the launch. Take a stout 
strap^ around the shank, reeve one bight through the other, 
and jam the turn close up under the stock, take the other 
bight through the stem nng-bolts, and toggle it. In letting 
go, out toggle, or cut the strap. 

233 



234 CARRYING OUT ANCHORS BY BOATS. 

With a large launch prepared as above, a good sized 
anchor and cable can be carried out. Fig. 451, Plate 102. 

Second IMetliocl. Anchor too heavy to hang from 
launch's stem. In this case, the flukes must be hove up 
under the bottom of the boat, the stock being perpendicular. 
Fig. 453. 

Out launch, increase her buoyancy aft as before. Rig 
the fish-davit. Seize two large thimbles into two straps, 
which are clapped around the arms of the anchor just inside 
the flukes, a piece of a stout towline is rove through the 
thimbles, the tow-line being stopped to the shank to keep it 
middled. Put a long pair of slings around the shank near 
the stock, and lash them to its upper end to keep the stock 
perpendicular. Round the shank also, and stopped to the 
stock is the end of a stout rope, to be used in securing the 
ring. Hook the fish to the inner arm from aft forward, 
hooK the cat to the stock slings and ease the anchor down, 
keeping the shank horizontal and the stock perpendicular 
until it is about four feet under water ; bring the launch's 
stem against the stock ; haul her side in close to the fish ; 
secure me stock end of the anchor to the stern by the end 
of rope provided for the purpose, passing the turns through 
the stern rin^-bo.ts ; bring the ends of the towline stuff 
in on each side through the rowlocks, and secure them 
throiigh the foremost ring-bolts ; ease up and unhook cat 
and fish ; stop a length of chain round the boat outside, 
and then range as much more chain in the bottom as is 
intended to be carried out, stopping it in several places, and 
making the end well fast that it may not fetch away in 
veering. Fig. 453. 

To let go, cut or slip the stock and fiuke fastening^ to- 
gether. 

In either of the above methods the casks are of course 
dispensed with if unnecessary (Fig. 452) : but with the 
relative sizes of launches and ground-tackle supplied to 
our ships of war, it is most nkely that the additioncd 
buoyancy will be needed. 

A boat will tow more easily by the first method than 
with the anchor entirely under her bottom. 

Tliircl ]\Xetliod.. {Stock horizontal, flukes perpen- 
dicular.) This plan was first suggested by a Mr. Cows, of 
England. The object is to bring the weimt of the ancnor 
on that part of the boat most capable of bearing it, and to 
use a purchase in the boat equal to heaving up any weight 
she can sustain. 

This is done in suspending the anchor by a rope passing 
through a hole in the bottom of the launch, a tube placed 
over the hole preventing the water from filling the boat. 

Launches are fitted with such a hole, covered by a brass 
screw-tap, outside of which screws a cojpiper funnel. When 
preparing for use, screw on the funnel, or trunk as it is 



CARRYING OUT ANCHORS BY BOATS. 235 

sometimes called, unscrew the tap ; as soon as the latter is 
oflf, the water rises in the trunk till level with the water 
outside. 

Immediately over the trunk, Fi^. 455, is placed a wind- 
lass, the pins in its ends working m bearings on the gun- 
wale. 

Haul the launch forward, cock-bill the anchor ; secure 
to its forward arm the end of the windlass-rope. 

To get the other end of the windlass rope through the 
trunk, drop a lead and line through first, nook the lead- 
line from outside with a boat-hook, and haul through, 
marrying the lead-line to the end of the windlass-rope. 

Lower the anchor by the cat, with the stock athwart the 
stern of the launch, man the windlass, and heave the flukes 
under the boat, keeping the boat clear of the shank. When 
the anchor is lowered have the usual stopper rove through 
the ring and taken over the stern roller of the launcn. 
When tne stock is close up under the boat secure the 
stopper through the after ring-bolts, with turns around its 
own part and around the after-thwart. 

Fig. 454: represents a first-rate's launch, with a bower 
anchor suspended under the bottom, and a hemp cable 
coiled away in the boat ; c is the buoy-rope ; d the rope by 
which the anchor is hove up ; e the line of flotation when 
the vessel is light ; / the line of flotation with bower anchor 
hung in the ordinary way to the stern ; g the line of flotation 
with anchor hung as represented, a cable and twenty men 
in the boat. 

When a ship is on shore forward, unless Cows' method 
is used it maj be impossible to carry out a large bower with 
one boat, owing to the shallow water. 

CaxTj^itigr out a Bo>\"ei* "between t^wo 
Onttersj Plate 105. The stream anchor having been 
previously sent out and planted, with the top-block at the 
ring, hawser rove off, &c., prepare to send out the bower 
between two cutters, as follows : 

Hook the cat to the ring, the fish to a strap around th*^ 
inn?r arm of the anchor, ease off tlie stoppers and lower tli 
anchor into the water, stock athwartships, flukes up and 
down. Haul up two cutters, one on each side of the pur- 
chases. Lash two suitable spars cut flat on the under sides 
across the boats, one a little forward of the centre of 
gravity, the other further aft at a distance nearly equal to 
the length of the shank. The spars rest on the gunwales 
of both boats, building up if necessary in wake of the inner 
gunwales to strengthen them. 

Clap on the cat and pull up till the stock takes under the 
keels of the boats, Secure the ring to the forward spar by 
a lashing long enough to lower the anchor to the bottom on 
the bight, taking two round turns through the ring and 



:i36 rARKYiN(; out anchors by boats. 

around the spar, and expending the ends in opposite direr- 
tions around the spar. 

Now clap on the fish and pull up till the upper pee is 
nearly level with the sifter spar. Secure the fluke to the 
after spar by a lashing similar to the ring lashing, and 
passed under the shank. The strap for the flsh will prob- 
ably be jammed between the lashing and the upper nuke 
(hence the reason for using a strap instead of hooking the 
nsh itself to the inner arm), but by bending a small line to 
the strap it can be recovered after the anchor has been 
eased down. Clap rackings on the lashing and knot the 
ends together above each spar until ready for easing 
away. 

Fit a span across the stems of both boats, and to it secure 
the end oi the hawser used in hauling out. 

Lastly, ease off and unhook the cat and fish. The anchor 
now hangs between the two boats, which are only separated 
by a distance a little greater than the width of the anchor 
fiuke. 

The bower cable, shackled to the anchor, is unshackled 
at fifteen fathoms and the end carried in another boat, 
which tows out in rear of the first two. 

When ready to let go, the rear boat being close up, ease 
away together on the ends of the lashings, and lower the 
anchor to the bottom. 

Half the turns of the lashing on each spar being taken 
in one direction and half in the opposite way, the spars have 
no tendency to roll out of position, and any undue strain on 
their lashin^^ is avoided. 

Cast adnft the spars and send back one boat with the 
standing part of the nawser. Let her take the end of the 
chain in ner bows with end enough to shackle, hang the 
bight to her stem and haul out again by the hawser from 
on board. When the chain begins to drag, the second boat 
is brought under the bows and a bight hung to her bow and 
stern in the same manner. On reaching the boat support- 
ing the end of the first fifteen fathoms, the leading cutter 
receives that end, shackles, and both cutters slip the bights 
at the same time. 

If the state of the sea does not admit of towing out the 
cutters stern first, we must forego the advantage of sup- 

Eorting the greatest weight of the anchor by the sterns,*Hnd 
aul the boats alongside the purchases, bows aft. 
Lowering the anchor instead of cutting it adrift, enables 
the end of the chain to be carried out in a boat instead of 
Imoying it. which is believed to save time in the shackling, 
while the tow is lightened. 

The lashings used in lowering an anchor were 5|-ine]i 
rope, the depth of water four fathoms, weight of the anchor 
5,500 pounds. 



CARRYING OUT ANCHORS iiY BOATS. 23: 



NOTES ON CARRYING OUT ANCHORS. 

To carry out a heavy anchor and chain is considered a 
somewhat difficult as well as a dangerous operation. In 
1842 a lieutenant and several men lost their lives while 
attempting it in a launch belonging to the U. S. S. Mis- 
souri, then agroiind in the Potomac River. This accident 
was due to the chain being stowed in the boat. 

A long range of chain should never be carried in the 
boat with the anchor. Even when small anchors and haw- 
sers are being carried out, heave overboard enough of the 
hawser and plenty to spare before letting go the anchor y to 
allow it to reach the bottom. If not, the anchor on beinjg 
let go, will take the boat with it. A bight of chain is 
usually stopped around the boat ready for dropping, and if 
this is not enough, more must be paid out. Put check- 
stoppers on the chain while it is being stowed in the boat, 
securing them to a thwart or ring-bolt ; this will decrease 
the danger of the cable's taking charge when paid out. 

When about to let go the anchor, make sure oy a cast of 
the lead that you have cable enough outside the boat to 
reach the bottom, and hang it well to the stern that no 
more may run out. If there be a greater quantity of chain 
in the boat than can be ranged in one layer, there will be 
damage done unless you disconnect at the first shackle and 
bring it to the last one, which will be the upper one of the 
range paid down. 

Let go the anchor with the ring toward the vessel. 

In veering chain, lash a capst9,n bar athwart the 
stern ; lay the cable over it and veer awav cautiously 
fathom by fathom. If the end of another cable is brought 
to you, join it ; hang the joining shackle outside your boat, 
and throw the bight out, letting both parts hang from the 
stem .over the bar — that is to say, nave no cable now 
remaining in the boat, and when all is clear, slip the 
bight. 

This proceeding will suggest the necessity of always 
taking pimches, shackle-pins, and hammers in a boat, when 
setting out on an anchor expedition. 

After letting go an anchor, if the cable remaining in the 
boat gets away from you, direct the men to jump overboard 
and hang on to the gunwale till the cable is out. 

When using a buoy on a bower that is laid out, stop 
the buoy-rope to one pee of the anchor and stopper it short 
of the (iepth of water ; this insures canting the anchor for 
biting. 

Warping out (igainst wind and sea, lay out the cable on 
your return : if before it, pay as you go. 

When likely to weigh a stream or heavier anchor by 



238 CARRYING OUT ANCHORS BY BOATS. 

boat, put a block on the crown and reeve a double buoy- 
rope tnrough it. 

In lowering a waist anchor by the tackles to be carried 
out, hook the main yard-tackle on the inner arm, and the 
fore yard-tackle in the ring to ease it down with the stock 
athwartships. A bill-tackle on the inner arm will keep the 
anchor from canting too quickly. 

Sweeping- tV>v -^Vnchoi'ssj ox* Ca'bles. 
Having lost an anchor and chain, attempt first to catch the 
chain ; failing in that, the anchor itseli. The position of 
the anchor is Known by the cross-bearings taken when the 
ship anchored, also the direction of the chain. 

First: To catch the chain. Send out boats to pull at 
right angles to its direction, each dragging a grapnel after 
her. 

In addition to ordinary grapnels, use for this purpose 
two fish-hooks (hooks used in fishing the anchor), joined at 
the eyes and kept apart with their hooks in tne same 
direction by a few small battens lashed across their backs. 
This is dragged by the eyes, the bills of the hooks are kept 
down with a back-rope, which should always be used m 
grappling, to clear rocKS and other obstructions. 

When the chain is grappled, send out the launch and 
weigh it ; hang the bight ana drop the creeper down again, 
and so work till the end is l^eached, carry this to the ship, 
heave in, and heave up the anchor. 

Second : To sweep for the anchor. Weight the bight of 
a line for some distance each side the middle, ana put- 
ting an end in each of two boats, let them pull across the 
position of the anchor. A small chain is the best to sweep 
with. 

The boats must be well apart^ and the line dragging on 
the bottom. Sweep in the direction from ring to crown. 

When the anchor is caught, cross the boats and haul up 
over it ; drop the bight of a hawser down over the line so 
as to catch over the upper flukes, slip an anchor shackle 
down over both parts to confine it, warp the ship up, take 
one end of the hawser to the capstan, clap a deck-tackle on 
the other and weigh the anchor. 

A running bowline may be slipped over the upper fluke. 

To AVeigh a I3o^ver* Ijry a t«aiiiichL 
Fitted Avith a Tr\%nli. Elaving caught the 
upper fluke as described above, pass the ends of the hawser 
through the trunk, bring to on the windlass and heave 
up. 

The crown being up, pass the end of the after-stopper 
from one quarter around the bow and aft the other side, let 
go the bight forward, and it will catch the shank of the 
anchor, hook on the luffs, and heave up the stock ; catch 
the chain in the same way and heave it up to another 
boat. 



CARRYING OUT ANCHORS BY BOATS. 239 

The boat might be warped alongside as soon as the crown 
is up; then sweep a strap under its bottom, crossing the 
parts with a round turn around the shank of the anchor. 
Hook the fish tackle in the ends, walk up the anchor crown 
first until the rinff is high enough to hoot the cat. 

To get the anchor up, ring first, sweep the stream cable 
under the boat (so as to catch between the stock and flukes), 
form a running clinch with the end around the other part, 
heave in on the stream, ease off the hawser, haul the ooat 
clear, hook the cat when the ring is high enough. Should a 
portion of the cable be attached to the anchor, sweep under 
it, take the end through the hawse-hole and heave in. 

Use the buoy-rope instead of the hawser in heaving up, 
if it is strong enough. 

A. mJjxi'y A\^iiicllass, in a launch, may be rigged 
by having a roimd spar secured athwart the boat, and 
working it with straps and heavers, having the hawser, 
buoy-rope or cable, led over a roller at the stem. 

TO WEIGH THE STREAM ANCHOR BY THE LAUNCH. 

Ship the davit or roller in the stern, pass in the boat a 
couple of good luffs, straps, spun-yarn, and stuff for stop- 
pers. Bring the cable over tne roller, and clap on a luff, 
single block to ring-bolt in the bows. Clap luff upon luff if 
necessary to break ground. If the anchor holds hard, 
heave to a short stay, getting the stern well down, and 
helsLj ; then let all hands go forward and try to jump the 
anchor out. When aweign, clap the luffs on alternately, 
faking the cable in the boat. 

When the anchor is up, hang it to the stern of the boat 
and pull on board. 



CHAPTER XVII I. 

PORT DRILLS WITH SAILS AND SPARS, AND MISCELLA- 

NEOUS PORT EVOLUTIONS. 

Tlie Trampet.* The preceding chapters contain 
the prominent features of fitting out a ship for sea. We 
have now arrived at that part of the course where the 
young officer may be supposed to take charge of the deck 
to conduct the usual port exercises. 

The regularity and precision of military movements are 
not suited to a ship's decks, nor are the commands to be laid 
down with the exactness given in works on military tactics ; 
but those officers who give their orders in accordance with 
the customs of the service, and in a tone and manner which 
command attention and inspire respect, will, all else being 
eaual, get more work out of a ship's company than those 
who coin expressions for the occasion, and issue their 
orders as if obedience were doubtful or indifferent to 
them. 

Ooiiiiiia.iicl^. The commands are of three kinds : 
first, the preparatory command, which indicates what is to 
be done ; as Ready about! Oet the starboard stun^-sails 
ready for setting ! &c. Second, the command of cautioUy 
which elicits immediate attention, and which is quickly 
followed by the third — the* command of execution; as Haul 
well ta ut ! Let go and Hav l I in tacking ; Set taut ! Hoist 
AWAY I when setting studding-sails, hoisting boats, &c\ 
Stand by! Let fall I in loosing sail. (The first or cau- 
tionary command is printed in italics ; the latter, or com- 
mand of execution, in small capitals.) 

When using the trumpet, place it so that the least con- 
cave arc of the mouth-piece may rest against the upper lip, 
while the greater is below and gives room for the play of 
the lower lip. 

The commands of caution, haul taut, and stand by, are 
absolutely essential when working a number of men (as a 
watch, or all hands, for instance), for it is not possible with- 

♦ At sea the officer of the watch is required to carry a speaking-trumpet. 
This is done, not only that he may liave an auxiliarj', often necessary to the 
voice, but also that ne may be readily distinguished as the one, for the time 
l)eing, responsible for the safety of the ship. 

In port the distinctive mark is a binocular, or the spy-glass. 

^■±KJ 



POKT DRILLS, ETC. 241 

out such commands to get them to exert themselves at the 
same instant, as they should do. 

The preparatory command, if given deliberately, will be 
better understood, though it should not be uttered without 
due energy. The cautionary command should be sharp, 
quick, and full of energy, while that of execution should 
be distinct and emphatic. 



PORT EXERCISES. 

The following forms of port exercises are based upon the 
idea : 

1st. That the drills are carried on under nearly the same 
conditions as in actual practice at sea ; 

2d. That " ready men " are superfluous ; 

3d. That the li^nt yardmen start from the tops in work- 
ing their yards, sails or topgallant masts. * 

The exercises designated as Color Evolutions are those 
commonly performed at the hoisting or hauling down of 
colors ; such as crossing the light yards or loosing sail in 
the morning, and sending down masts and yards at sun- 
set. 

When exercising in obedience to signal, the squadron 
orders will show the time allowed between the preparatory 
signal and signal of execution. That allowance is usually 
as follows : Crossing or sending down li^ht yards, loosing 
or furling sail, the preparatory is hoisted six (6) minutes 
before the moment of execution, and the execution signal 
three (3) minutes before it is hauled down. 

In sending up and down topgallant-masts and yards, the 
preparatory signal is made ten (10) minutes before, and the 
signal of execution is hoisted five (5) minutes before the 
time. 

In bending sail the preparatory is hoisted fifteen (15) 
minutes before the time of execution ; left up five (5) min- 
utes and hauled down. The execution signal is hoisted 
three (3) minutes before the time of hauling down.f 

In color evolutions, if not exercising in obedience to sig- 
nal, give the order of execution at the third roll of the 
drum. 

If obeying signals, always give the order of execution 
the instant the execution signal starts from the truck. 

* The practice of sending seamen on the run from tlie sheer-pole to the 
cross-trees has frequently resulted in permanent injury to the individual. It is 
said to induce heart disease. The light yardmen should not only be sent into 
the tops in advance, but in sufficient time to allow them to regain their wind 
before going further.— €. B. L. 

t In the Training Squadron, it has been customary, after hoistinnf a prepara- 
tory signal, to unbend the signal part and hoist the preparatory pennant, as a 
signal of execution. This is convenient and saves the bunting. 



242 PORT DRILLS, ETC. 

That all the squadron may be prepared to cross yards or 
loose sail at eight, or for anv other manoeuvre at the hoist- 
ing of the colors, the flagship makes it a rule to designate 
seven bells (7:30 a.m.) by making a "time" signal at that 
hour. The squadron then have an opportunitv of regulating 
their time by the flagship, and msu^ing such preparations 
for eight as may be necessary. 

No exercise aloft is completed while a single straggler 
remains above the rail ; the order to lay down from £uoft 
should therefore not usually be given until all can obey it. 
There are one or two cases (as in crossing yards and loosing 
sail) where a certain number of men must remain aloft after 
the rest. In such instances, these men perform their duty 
promptly, lay down into the tops and remain there until 
piped down. 

In all port evolutions, as soon as the crew are ordered to 
their stations, the men who are to go aloft place themselves 
inboard at the foot of the rigging Ikdders on their respective 
sides by watches. Men stationed on the head booms place 
themselves inboard of the head rail. 

When about to lay aloft from the tops, the light yardmen 
place themselves at the foot of the topmast rigging outside 
of the tops. If going aloft to send down yards, they carry 
with them the oending ends of their respective tripping 
lines. Once bent, these are often left permanently aloit 
during drills, and lie in a loose coil at the foot of the respec- 
tive masts. 

When the men reach the yards, they should remain at 
the slings until ordered out. This rule is general. 

Substitute signs for verbal commands whenever practica- 
ble. Commands can be frequently omitted with good effect. 
For example, in crossing yards or loosing sails, beating 
the *• call bv the drum ^or sounding it by DUgle) is a suflB- 
cient signal for the men lo lay aloft. So also the third roll 
indicates the moment of letting fall, and dispenses with a 
certain amount of unnecessary noise. 

Should the bugle be used at colors instead of the drum, 
give the orders ^^ sound the calV^ and '^ sound o^." 

At the first note of the bugle the light yardmen lay aloft 
from the tops, or the yards are swayed across, sails let fall, 
&c., as the case may oe. 



EXERCISES WITH SAILS. 

Grenei'al Directions. In all routine exercises 
with sails, as soon as the lower yardmen are on the lower 
yards, the two out-board men lay out quickly and unclamp 
the quarter-irons of the topmast stun'-sail booms. The two 
out-board men on the topsail-yards lay out to stop out the 
royal and topgallant yard-ropes to the topsail liits in case 



PORT DRILIiS, ETC. 243 

the light yards are in the rigging. These men should per- 
form their duty promptly, and lay out and in together to the 
slings of the yards. 

At the end of an exercise the same men on topsail-yards 
cast adrift the yard-ropes, and those on the lower yards 
remain out to clamp the boom-irons after the booms are 
lowered, then lay in quickly and down from aloft together. 

In loosing, furling, bending, &c., the captain of the top, 
or man in charge at the slings of the yard, raises his right 
hand, as a signal to his oflficer on dect, the moment when 
the sail is ready for letting fall, as the case may be. No 
hailing from aloft is needed, and none should be tolerated. 

If there are officers in charge of the tops they should re- 
ceive and transmit reports in a similar way, and the officers 
in charge of the respective masts on deck should also sig- 
nify their readiness by signal of the hand to the executive 
officer. 

For frequent port drills topsail-sheets may be singled 
and securea together with the clewlines by means of a 
short pendant fitted with sister-hooks connecting sheet and 
clewline to the clew of the sail. 

The tacks and sheets may also be singled, or you may 
reeve one piece of half -worn rope, long enough for both 
tack and sheet, form a cuckold's neck in the middle, lead 
one end aft and the other forward. In the place of the 
regular clew-garnet reeve a rope through the clew-garnet 
block, half -hitch it to the cuckold-neck: in the tacK and 
sheet, leaving enough to splice in a pair of sister-hooks, 
which hook into the clew, tnus connecting tack, sheet and 
clew-garnet to the sail. 

These single tacks and sheets answer all purposes for 
drilling, and preserve the regular ones. 

Use single ropes' ends for trysail sheets. 



TO LOOSE SAIL TO THE BUNTLINES. 

{Color Evolution.) 

The preparatory signal being made, direct the boatswain 
to call : 

Loose Sail! 

When the men are up : 

Man the clew-jiggers and buntlines ! * 

This command shows how the sails are to be loosed. 
Let go and overhaul leechlines, reef tackles, brails, and 
bowlines; also tacks, sheets, clew-garnets, and clewlines, 
if hooked. 

When preparatory signal is hauled down : 

* If clew-jiggers are not used the clewlines should be kept fast and the 
Imntlines hauled up square with the yard. 



•-i44 PORT DRILLS, ETC. 

LOOSERS OF TOPGALLANT SAILS AND ROYALS IN THE TOPS I 

As execution signal is hoisted : 

Beat the call ! Aloft sail loosers ! 

Man the boom tricing-lines ! 

Trice up ; lay out ; loose ! 

Keep fast topgallant and roval clewlines. 

If tne light yards are not aloft, the ^ard-ropes should be 
overhauled. The light sails are loosed m the rigging. 

If ship has fires li&^hted, cast off forward stops of the 
covers of the main-sail and main-topsail, so that the sails 
will drop clear. Sail covers are taken off the fore and aft 
sails and head sails. 

The officers having signalled their readiness : Stand by ! 

To the drummer: Roll off! At the third roll, or when 
execution signal "leaves the truck : 

Let fall ! 

Lay in ! Lay down from aloft ! 

The buntlines are hauled up about two-thirds of the top- 
mast, or square with the yards. Top-gallant sails and roy- 
als hang down, their clews hauled up snug. The head sails 
are spread on the booms, heads of fore and aft sails hauled 
about half-way out. 

The booms remain triced up. 

Do not allow the leeches to be stopped in along the 

yards. 

When loosing, if the sails are reefed, first let fall, shake 
< >ut the reefs and then pull up the buntlines or haul out the 
bowlines, as the case may be. 

If boats are to be lowered at colors, give the command 
in season: 

Bont-keepevfi aft to lower your boats! and lower at the 
tliird roll. The falls should be hooked in their beckets and' 
hauled taut, boat stoppers passed inboard and the boats 
liauled out to the booms, with their colors set, awnings 
»-|>read, or sails loosed, as may be tho example of the flag- 
sliip. In addition to the boat-keepers of the day, their re- 
liefs lay aft to tend the boats' falls. 



TO FURL SAIL. 

{Loosed to the buntlines.) 

The preparatory signal being made, direct the boatswain 
to call : 

Furl sail! 

If the light yards are across, on hauling down the pre- 
paratory signal : 

Topgallant and royal yardmen in the tops ! 

Have hands by the clew-jiggers and buntlines, man the 
buntwhips, spanker and trysail brails. 



PORT DRILLS, ETC. 245 

As execution signal is hoisted : 

Aloft topmen! Lower yardarin on the sheer pole! 

Topgallant and royal yardmen start at this command 
from the tops. 

Aloft lower yardmen ! Lay out 1 The men all get 
in their places, the sails not to be handed until the execu- 
tion signal is hauled down, then : 

Furl away ! 

The leeches are passed in rapidly, the sail gathered up 
snugly, and the caskets passed square. When ready, the 
clew-]iggers and buntlines are eased down and buntwhips 
hauled up. Haul taut clew-lines and topsail sheets, clew- 
Kamets, Dowlines, leech-lines and brails. Put covers on 
fore and aft sails. 

When ready aloft : 

Lay in ! Stand by the booms ! 

Down booms ! Lay down from aloft 1 

And then : 

Square Yards ! 

Haul taut the rigging, square yards as described further 
on, clear up the decks and pipe down. 

If the light yards are in tne rigging, the sails are furled 
there — ^the light yardmen laying up in the lower rigging 
after the men have been sent aloft. 

It will be noticed that the time of giving the commaml 
to Lay aloft and to fi'RL differ from the instructions given 
in the signal book ; but the method adopted is the best to 
insure the working together of other ships with the flag- 
ship. This is presumed to be the object of port drills in 
squadron. 

If the drills are to be competitive in their character, an 
easy method of attaining the object is to hoist a general 
signal without preceding it by the preparatory. 

Rema^rl^cs on F'urling-. To furl a sail well, 
every cloth must be gathered up in handfuls, and each 
handful stowed. When this is done, let all hands lay 
hold of the skin ; shake the slack canvas into it, and theii 
toss the sail up, bringing the skin as a covering over the 
upper side of it. The bunt in this way will be low and 
round. The outside only will be wetted in the event of 
ram, and will dry without even being loosed. 

Hig-Ii And Low Bxintn. Low, or rolling bunts, 
require bunt-gaskets, and are tedious to stow, anoT secure 
snugly ; high or French bunts require no gaskets, but 
secure to the topsail-tye by a becket and stop. Being 
larger, and more open abaft, the slack sail is more easily 
stowed in them than in low bunts ; neither is any time or 
labor lost about bunt-gaskets, a circumstance not to be 
overlooked, in competing with other vessels. 

The look is a matter of taste : in foreign navies topsail 
yards are thought neatest, with first or second-reef earings 



240 



PORT DRILLS, BTC. 



hauled partly out, but neither reef -points tied, nor bunt- 
gaskets on. In our service the reefs are never hauled out 
for furling and the bunt is peaked up by the bunt-jigger. 
Bunt-gaskets are used in addition, though objected to by 
many officers, as superfluous. 

The proper place for the bunt- whip glut is two-thirds the 
depth of the first reef. 

TO LOOSE SAIL TO A BOWLINE. 

{Color Evolution.) 

Preparatory sic^nal being made, the boatswain and his 
mates give the call : 

Loose sail ! 

The men bein^ up. Lead along and man the bowlines and 
head halUard.s! This indicates the manner in which the 
sails are loosed. 

As preparatory signal is hauled down : 

LOOSERS OF TOPGALLANT SAILS AND ROYALS IN THE TOPS I 

Let go and overhaul clew-jiggers, buntlines, leechlines^ 
down-hauls, reef -tackles, brails, and royal and topgallant 
clew-lines. Lead out and man bowlines, head hiSliards 
and sheets and spanker and trysail out-hauls and sheets ; 
but a turn is kept on the pins till the men are ready aloft. 

On hoisting of execution signal : 

Beat the call! Aloft sail loosers ! 

Man the boom-tricing lines! Trice up ! 

Lay out ! Loose ! Toggle the boivlines! 

At this order the men in the bunt toggle the bowlines to 
the buntline toggles. Unhook topsail sheets and clewlines; 
or. overhaul the latter roundly. 

The sails being ready and gear manned : 

Stand by ! 

To the drummer : Roll off! 

At the third roll (or when execution signal leaves the 
truck) : 

Let fall ! Haul out ! Hoist away I 

Lay in ! Lay down from aloft ! 

The men on deck run away with the bowlines and head 
halliards. The bowlines are hauled out square, the courses 
let fall so as to hang square, head sails hoisted, and sheets 
hauled aft, fore-and-aft sails hauled out, and trysail sheets 
and spanker out-haul hauled aft. 

Overhaul roundly the topgallant and royal clew-lines^ 

In foreign navies the topgallant and royal sheets are 
hauled taut — ^the plan is not generally followed in our own 
service. The booms remain triced up. 

Observe remarks about reefed sails under Loosing to 
the Buntlines. 



PORT DRILLS^ ETC. 247 



TO FURL SAIL FROM A BOWLINE. 

The preparatory signal being made^ call : 
Furl sail ! 

When preparatory signal is hauled down, 
Topgallant and royal yardmen in the tops 1 
Man the clew-jiaqers and huntlinesj head down hauls , 
spanker and trysau oralis! 

Man the above-named gear, also the leechlines, top- 

Sallant and royal clew-lines, and spanker and trvsail head 
own hauls and clew ropes. Tend the head sheets and 
halliards, trysail and spanker outhauls and top bowlines. 

Signal of execution being hoisted : 

Aloft topmen ! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole! 

Aloft lower yardmen ! 

The topgallant and royal yardmen start from the tops 
as the topmen start from tne deck. 

Haul taut! Shorten sail 1 

The men on deck let go the gear tended, and haul on the 
gear manned. 

Lay out 1 

The men take their stations on the yards. 

As the signal of execution is hauled down : 

Furl away ! 

The bunt-jigeers are hauled taiit as soon as practicable 
and bunt roused up, top bowlines untoggled and hitched to 
the neck of the topsail tye-blocks, bights overhauled down 
and stopped to the forward part of the top. Unhook clew- 
jiggers and hook them in the top, hook clew-lines and sheets 
and tacks, if unhooked before loosing. 

The head and fore-and-aft sails are stowed and covers 
put on. 

When ready : 

Lay in! 

Stand by the booms ! Down booms 1 

Lay down from aloft ! 

Then square yards, clear up the decks, and pipe down. 



HAVING LOOSED TO A BOWLINE TO SHORTEN SAIL. 

If the sails are sufficiently dry, it is usual to furl at 
seven bells in the forenoon watch ; before furling, however, 
it may become necessary to shorten sail. When a fresh 
breeze springs up, a ship with so much canvas gets uneasy 
at her anchor ; or, there may be indications of rain. For 
whatever reason, if it becomes desirable, call 

Shorten sail ! 

And when the people are up. 

Aloft top-gallant and royal yardmen ! 



248 PORT DRILLS, ETC. 

Man the clew-Jigaers and buntUnes, head doum-hauls! 
spanker and trysail brails I 

Man and tend the gear named under Fxtrlino from a 
Bowline. 

Haul taut ! Shorten sail I 

Furl the topgallant sails and royals ! Stow the 
plying jib ! 

Furling the light sails before the rest is a common prac- 
tice, particularly when short handed. It is entirely op- 
tional, however, and if preferred to furl all together, the 
orders relating to them will be omitted. The same applies 
to them when in the ri&^^in^. At the order. Shorten 
sail, the bowlines and hailiaras are let go, the head sails 
are hauled close down, the square sails are hauled up by 
the clew-jiggers and buntlines, and the trysails and spanker 
brailed up. 

TO MEND SAIL 

If the sails have been badly furled, or for any other rea- 
son require restowing, the preparatory signal will be made. 
Call: 

Mend sail ! 

When the men are up, as the preparatory signal is hauled 
down : 

LoosERS of the topgallant-sails and royals in the 

TOPS ! 

On hoisting of execution signal : 

Aloft sail loosers ! 

Man the boom tricing-lines ! 

Trice up ! Lay out ! 

On hauling down of execution signal. 

Mend the furl ! 

The gaskets are cast oflf and the sails are restowed, with 
a fresh skin outside, the gaskets secured afresh. 

When completed. 

Lay in ! Stand by the booms ! 

Down booms ! Lay down from aloft I 

If the sails are very badly furled, send aloft the 
PURLERS instead of the loosers, and Let fall! then 
Furl away ! 

The clew-jiggers and bimtlines are usually run up a 
few feet while mending the furl, lowering as the bunt is 
^stowed. 

BENDING SAIL. 

In practice, square sails should be kept on board ship (if 
the sail-room space permits) ready for bending, made up a.s 
furled. 



PORT DRILLS, ETC. 241) 

Preparations for I^eYiding-. All square sails 
are fitted with gaskets, stitched on the head at equal dis- 
tances. 

Seize the sail straps to the heads of all three of the top- 
sails at the middle eyelet holes ; let them always remam 
there, and when using them, after the sail is roUea up, carry 
the foremost leg round the after one, and seize its bight to 
its own parts. Topmen are very apt to cut this seizing too 
soon ; but by having the strap fast to the head, their mis- 
take may be partly remedied by a pull on the sail burton, 
which is always hooked to the after leg. 

rFopsaiiH. Haul the head of the topsail along the 
deck, after side downward ; gather all the slack canvas 
back from the head ; lay the second reef -band along the 
head, and haul this and the head taut fore and aft by the 
earings. Bring the leeches as far as the reef -tackle cringles 
along the head ; knot the fourth reef -earing into the third 
reef-cringle, and the third into the second ; carry the clews 
into the quarters about six feet over the head ; bring the 
buntline toggles about a foot over the head between the 
clews : coil all the remainder of the roping, so as not to 
ride, leaving the bowline cringles out; face the foot and 
gather up ; then face the head and roll up, pass the gaskets 
taut ; stop the clews up abaft the head, after having passed 
them over the fore part of the bunt ; seize the strap ; hook 
the sail tackle ; knot the second reef -earing into the first 
reef -cringle, the first into the head, unless buU-earings are 
used on the yards ; and secure the head-earings along the 
top of the sail on each side. 

Fig. 373 and Fig. 375, Plate 7*3, show the mode of passing 
sail straps. The latter with single legs is preferable for 

f)ermanent straps, as it is easier to stow away aloft. Each 
eg should be seized to the head of the sail. 

Oonrsef^. Place, open out and stretch the heads of 
the courses taut along the deck well amidships, after sides 
down ; the foresail on the starboard side of the forecastle, 
port head-earing well forward ; the mainsail in the port 
gangway, bunt abreast the mainmast, starboard head-earing 
forward ; gather the sail back from the head, making a 
smooth surface ; stop the first reef-cringles to those of 
the head-earing ; pass the leeches taut untu within six feet 
of the clews, leaving the leechline cringles out. If the 
leeches are too short to allow the clews to reach to the bunt 
by taking the first reef -cringle to the head-earing cringle, a 
bending cringle must be worked on the leech about a foot 
under the head-earing cringle ; in which case, make the sail 
up without seizing the first reef -cringle to the head-earing. 

ghe yard-arm jiggers will hoOk to the bending cringle.) 
aul the clews and the remainder of the leeches out clear of 
the head of the sail ; carry the foot-rope up to the head, 
leaving the buntline toggles out clear about the middle of 



250 PORT DRILLS, ETC. 

the sail ; gather sufficient of the slack sail to make a long 
low bunt; the men cross over, face the head, roll up taut 
and pass the gaskets ; coil and stop the earings to head of 
the sail ; take the clews over, around and under the sail, and 
stop them to the head of the sail ; place marks on the head 
of sails, at distances from the middle equal to the distance 
from the slings to the leechline blocks on the yards, so that 
the leechlines will haul the sail up fair in benaing. 

In bending courses and topsails together, the topsails 
are placed fore and aft forward of their respective masts, 
fore and mizzen on the port side, main on the starboard 
side. The courses are atnwai*tships under their respective 
yards. 

Oear for Bendina Topsails, The sail burton, hooked be- 
fore the sail leaves tne deck ; yard-arm jiggers, hooked when 
sail is aloft. 

1st. The sail burton is the top burton of the side on 
which the topsail is swayed aloft. The upper block is 
hooked into a strap at the crotch of the topmast-stav ; the 
lower block and fall are sent on deck forward of all. To 
the hook of the lower block secure a tail-block, through 
which reeve the fall, leading it thence through a snatch- 
block hooked to a bolt well forward. This arrangement 
guys the sail clear as it goes aloft. The fall leads aft for 
the fore and main, forward for the mizzen. The lower 
block of the sail burton hooks into the sail strap. Fig. 266, 
Plate 38, also Figs. :37:} and 375, Plate 72. 

2d. The yard-arm jiggers have the lower blocks hooked 
at the forward side of the top rim, ready for hooking into 
the second reef -cringles of the topsail as soon as they are 
high enough. 

The topsail reef -tackles are used for this purpose. 

Oear for Bending Courses, Buntlines, leechlines, and 
yard-arm jiggers; all bent (or hooked) before the sail leaves 
the deck. 

Toggle the buntlines to the sail ; pass them abaft, under 
and up forward around the bunt of the sail, around their 
standing parts, and stop to their own parts. 

Leechlines are clinched to their cringles and stopped to 
their marks at the head of the sail. 

The yard-arm jiggers are the reef -tackles ; lower blocks 
hooking to the lirst reef-cringle, head-earings hitched to 
standing parts oi the jiggers. 

Gear for the Jib, The down-haul and halliards, and a 
strap around the body of the sail to which the halliards are 
hooked and down-haul bent. 

Oear for the Spanker, If the gaff is not lowered, a whip 
from unaer the top to hook into a strap around the head of 



PORT DRILLS, ETC. 261 

the sail. The detail does not differ from the description of 
bending spanker given under Sails. 

The Qourses, topsails, jib and spanker are generally bent 
together. To perform the evolution, at the preparatory 
signal the boatswain will be ordered to call *' Bend sail." 

Loosers of topsails and courses, and men stationed at 
boom tricing-lines, stand by to lav aloft. 

The balance of the men in each part of the ship go below 
and rouse up the sails, or if the hatches open fair to the 
sail-room, clear these hatches away to rouse up the sails 
from below with the spare main-top burton , overhauled 
down abaft the top, or with the trysail vangs. 

On hauling down of preparatory : 

Aloft sail loosers ! Loosers of courses go on the lower 
yards, overhaul lower blocks of clew-jiggers to the deck, 
stand by to carry out upper blocks, cast adrift bunt-whips, 
overhaul buntlines and leechlines to the deck. 

Loosers of topsails ; shift upper block of sail-burton to 
strap on stay, send down lower block and fall, forward ; 
hook lower blocks of yardarm-jiggers to top rim, stand by 
to carry out upper ones, secure back cloths, unless these 
are sewn on the sail, cast adrift buntlines and bunt- 
jiggers. 

1/OOsers of jib lay out and bring in jib halliards and end 
of down-haul, place centipedes. 

On deck, let go and lead cut sail-burtons, buntlines, 
leechlines and jib down-haul, lower spanker gaff and pre- 
pare sails for going aloft as before directed. 

Carry out yardarm-jiooers ! The men lay out with 
the upper blocks and hook them, unclamp the booms, and if 
the lignt yards are in the rigging stop their yard-ropes out 
of the way. 

Lay in on the yards ! The men aloft lay in and stand 
by to receive the sail ! 

Man the sail-burtons and buntlines ; jib-halliards ! 

As the sifipal of execution is hoisted : 

Haul tarn ! Sway aloft ! Pull up on the jib-halliards, 
raising jib well clear of the rail ; run away with the sail- 
burtons and jib down-haul. When the bunt of the top- 
sail reaches the lower yard, start up the courses. 

The yardarm-jiggers and leechlines should not be 
touched, the sails hanging up and down the masts by the 
burtons and buntlines. When high enough, with the 
second reef cringle of the top-sails above the tops and the 
bunt of the course abreast of its yard : 

A turn with the burtons ! The men in the tops slew turns 
out of the sails and hook the yardarm-jiggers. 

Hook the bunt-whips and take the weight of the bunts 
off the sails, the sail-burton can then be unhooked and the 
strap gotten out of the way. 



'Zrti POST DRILLS, ETC. 

Stand by to lay aloft ! 
and when ready : 

Alopt topmen ! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole! 

Aloft lower yardmen ! 

Man the boom tricing-lines, yardartn-jiggers and leech- 
lines ! 

Trice up I Haul out ! Lay out ! and bring to I as 
the signal starts from the truck. 

At the order Haul out : 

Tap-sails are hauled out taut along the yard by the yard- 
arm-jiggers, the burtons slacked until the middle bending 
hole is abreast the jackstay. 

Courses are hauled out by the yardarm-jiggers and 
leechlines ; jib is swayed out by the down-haul. 

At the order '' Bring to : 

1st. Secure the midship stop and two robands of a side.* 

2d. Pass two turns of the head-earings through their re- 
spective eye-bolts and four turns through the thimble of the 
backer and head-earing cringle. 

3d. Secure the balance of the robands. 

4th. Cut adrift the buntlines, leechlines and sail-strap^ 
and haul the former up clear. 

Let go on deck ana cast off the yardarm-jiggers^ stand 
by to carry in their upper blocks, hook the topsail reef- 
tackles to their proper cringles ; hook the reef pendants to 
the courses ; hook and haul taut buntwhips, toggle top-bow- 
lines and topsail buntlines ; hook sheets and clew-lines to the 
clews ; shackle tacks and sheets and hook clew-garnets to 
clews of courses ; shift upper block of sail-burton to mast- 
head pendant ; round up the burton on deck, shift its lower 
block and fall abaft the topsail yard to its place. 

The jib is swayed out bv its down-haul at the order 
"sway aloft," tending the halliards ; land the tack on the 
boom, book the tack, shackle the sheets, shift the down- 
haul and halliards to their proper places, take off sail-strap, 
hoist the sail as the hanks are being secured. Then haul 
down and stow it, and put the cover on, unless sail is to be 
made. 

While the sails are bein^ bent, the signal will probably 
be made. Make sail ! Order : 

Stand by to let fall: Man the topsail sheets and hal- 
liards ! 



*A metallic roband consists of a ga]vanize<l iron book which hooks upon the 
bending jackHtuy and which has, on its forward side, a projecting lug. like a 
button. The Iiend of this button is pierced with a thwartship hole. In bending, 
the roband eyeha on the sail is put over the head of the lug, and when all the 
robands have been attached, a piece of ratline stuff is rove through the heads ol 
all the lugs, forward of the sail, as a preventer. The hooks trayerse on the 
jackstay, so that the head of the sail may be stretched at any time by hauling on 
the head earings without unbending the sail. 



PORT DRILLS, BTC. 25? 

The sail being bent and loosed : 

Stand by ! Let fall ! 

Sheet home ! 

Lay in ! Stand by the booms 1 

Down booms ! Lay down from aloft I 
and proceed as in Making sail. 

It is always advisable to proceed as above in bending new 
sails or preparing for sea, to see if the gear is property bent 
and the sail sets well. 

Should there be no signal for making sail after bending, 
then, the sails being bent and the furl " mended," as neces- 
sary, order : 

Lay in ! Stand by the booms ! 

Down booms ! Lay down from aloft ! 

The booms are lowered and clamped, and all the men 
lay down from aloft, without straggling. 

To Bend tlie Lig-ht Sa^ifs. The light sails 
are penerallv bent immediately after the others, to do 
which, give tne command : 

Stand by to bend the light sails ! At this the yards are 
prepared for getting out of the rigging, and the flving-jib 
for going out, on the port side, owing to the lead or the 
downhaiu ; when ready — 

Man the topgallant and royal-yard ropes ! flying-jib hal- 
liards ! 

Haul tant ! Sway out of the chains I Pull up on the 
flying- jib halliards, and then haul out the flying-jib by the 
down-haul at the same time that the yards are swayed in- 
board. The yards being clear of the hammock nettings — 

Lower away together ! 

The sails are bent and neatly furled, with the clews in ; 
the yard-ropes hooked and manned ; the flying-jib being 
bent at the same time. Then, command : 

Man the yard-ropes ! 

Haul taut! Sway out together! 

When placed in the rigging the bunts of the light sails 
should be slewed outboard. 

On board large ships, it is convenient to get these yards 
in and out of the rigging with the lower clew-jiggers. 



TO UNBEND SAIL. 

{Port Routine — Light Yards in the Rigging.) 

At preparatory signal, call : 
Unbend sail 1 

On hoisting of execution signal : 
Aloft sail loosers ! 

The loosers of courses, topsails, jib, flying-jib, spanker 
and trysails go to their stations. 



/ 



254 PORT BRILLS, ETC. 

Man the boom tricing-lines ! 

Trice up ! Lay out and unbend I 

Cast gaskets adrift from the yard and pass them around 
sail. 

On Topsail-lkTarcl. Cast off midship stop, im- 
hook the bunt-whip and secure it to the tye, secure the 
buntlines around the body of the sail, take the bight of the 
buntline on the side opposite to the one on which the sail is 
lowered, and stop this bight snuglv to the head-earing 
cringle. Hitch bowlines to tyes, unhook clews and stop 
them to the buntlines, unhook reef-tackles and pass the 
lower blocks into the top ; pass slij) stops if necessary to 
hold up the sail, single the head-earings for easing away, 
cut robands. 

Make similar preparations on the lower yards, except 
that the leechlines are secured to the slings and the reef« 
pendants stopped along the yard to the jack-stay. 

Hea^d. ^a.ilis. Cast adrift sail covers, secure them 
with the sails, unshackle sheets, stopping them to the stays, 
cap or wythe, as the case mav be, pass stops around the 
sails, cast off gaskets, unhook the tacks, hook the halliards 
and secure the down-haul to a strap around the body of the 
sail, cut adrift the hanks, or untoggle them. 

Trysails^ &c« Let the covers fall on deck, hook 
whip under top and to strap around head of sail, unbend 
head out-haul and down-haul and throat lashing, cut adrift 
stops on hoops of gaff and mast, cast off tack lasning. 

Man the nead halliards, tend buntlines, trysail whips, 
brails and clew-rope and head down-hauls. 

Stand by ! 

When execution signal is hauled down — 

Ease away ! 

Ease away the earings, let go the slip stops on the yards, 
run away with the topsail buntline of the opposite side, 
tricing up the upper earing of the topsail. Run the head 
sails up by their halliards some ten or twelve feet. 

Lower together ! 

The men aloft see the vards clear of stops and yams, and 
if so ordered strip them of reefing beckets and back cloths, 
unless the latter are stitched to the sail. Ease in the head 
sails by their down-hauls. 

When ready — 

Lay in ! Stand by the booms I 

Down booms ! Lay down from aloft ! 

Then square yards, haul taut the gear and pipe down. 

If the light yards are in the rigjging, sails oent, the sails 
may be unbent in the rigging, but it is decidedly more ship- 
shape to sway out of the chains and unbend inboard after 
the evolution aloft has been performed. 

If the light yards are aloft, sails bent, see Unbend sail 

AND SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS. 
22 



?OBT DRILLS, ETC. 255 

Note. A handsome method for unbending topsails in 
port is to reeve a li^ht line from deck, through a tail-block 
on the lift, at the side iipon which the topsail is to be lowered, 
taking the end along the yard and bending it to the opposite 
head-earing. At order "ease away" keep fast the nead- 
earing on the lowering side, ease away tne other earing, 
hauling on the light line on deck and rousing over one head- 
earing toward the other. 

At order " lower away," lower the buntlines, keep fast 
the light line and head-earing for a moment, to fully aecide 
the sail's lowering well clear of the lower stay, top rim, 
lower braces, &c., then lower rapidly together. 



TO MAKE SAIL. 

Preparatory signal will be hoisted ten (10) minutes before- 
hand. 

Direct boatswain to call : 

Make sail ! 

As soon as the simal is made out, get the lower booms 
alongside and unhook topping-lifts ; cast adrift rid^e-rope 
and top up spanker boom. The crew ^o to their stations as 
in 'loosing sails." In addition, hook leaders and snatch 
topsail halBards and lead the halliards and sheets out ; lead 
jib halliards through a leader hooked forward, and close 
amidships, clear of the topsail halliards ; lead out spanker 
outhaul ; lay down on deck, tacks, sheets, buntlines, clew- 
lines, clew-garnets, leechlines, reef-tackles, down-hauls, 
brails, braces, lifts and bowlines. 

Signal of execution will be hoisted three (3) minutes be- 
forehand. 

loosers op the topgallant-sails and royals in the 
tops! 

Will be given as soon as the signal of execution reaches 
the truck. 

As the signal is hauled down : 

Aloft sail loosers ! 

Man the topsail sheets and halliards ; jib halliards and 
spanker outhaul ! 

The starboard fore and port main topsail halliards are 
manned bv a few hands, and a good strain is kept upon 
them, while the topsail yards are being hoisted. 

Lay out ! Loose ! 

Will be given as soon as the men reach the vards. Keep 
the sails well up on the yards and on the head booms : over- 
haul topsail buntlines, tore and main leechlines ana bunt 
whips ; the men on deck let go topsail buntlines and reef- 
tackles ; tend bunt whips and topsail clewlines, down-hauls 
and brails. 

Stand by I 



^.Vj PORT DRILLS, ETC. 

Let fall I Sheet home ! Lay in ! Lay down from 

ALOFT ! 

Hoist the jib ! Haul out the spanker 1 

Tend the braces ! 

Hoist away the topsails ! 

Will be given when all ready aloft and about decks. 
Make a short pause after the cautionary command "stan<l 
by." The remaining parts of the command, save the last, 
are given in quick succession. The jib is hoisted and the 
spanker hauled out. The command to *' hoist the topsails" 
is given as soon as the men are off the yards. The loosers, 
(»xcept those stationed aloft to light up gear, rapidly la}*" 
down from aloft and in from off the head booms, and clap 
on their respective topsail halliards. The clewlines are 
eased down, to prevent accident to the men on the lower 
yards. The topsail braces are let go and tended. The miz- 
zen topsail is hoisted by the men stationed on the halliards; 
the men on the fore and main topsail halliards walk re- 
spectively aft and forward, cross the deck abaft the engine- 
rr>om hatch and forecastle, and clap on the main and fore 
topsail halliards. 

Well the mizzen topsail! Belay the fore topsail 
halliards I Belay the main topsail halliards ! 

Will be ©Yen when the leeches of the respective topsails 
are taut. The topsail halliards are belayed, unsnatched, 
and coiled down clear for running. 

Topgallant sheets and halliards! 

Will be given as soon as the topsail halliards are be- 
layed. The gear will be manned, and the topgallant clew- 
lines, buntlines and braces tended. 

Sheet home and hoist away the topgallant sails! 

The topgallant sheets are hauled home ; the sails hoisted 
to a taut leech j the braces are let go and tended. When 
the sails are hoisted and the sheets home : 

Royal sheets and halliards ! Flying jib halliards! 

Overhaul down-haul and royal clewlines ; tend royal 
braces. 

Sheet home, hoist away ! hauling aft the port (star- 
board) flying jib sheet. 

The halliards and sheets are belayed and coiled down 
clear for running. 

Man the port {starboard) head and main, and starboard 
(port) crossjack braces : 

Fore and main tacks and sheets: let go and overhaul the 
lower lifts : Clear away the bowlines : will be given as soon 
as the royals and flying jib are set. 

Haul taut ; brace up : clear away the rigging : haul 

ABOARD. 

A short pause is made after the cautionary command. 
The yards are braced sharp up on the starboard (port) tack, 
and the courses set as when ''by the wind. ' 



I 

i 



PORT DRILLS, ETC. 2o7 

Haul fduf the weather lifts: steady out the bowlines: 
Lay down from aloft: 

Will be given as soon as the previous command has be(»n 
executed. The lifts and bowlines are hauled well taut; 
everybodv will lay down from aloft. The men on deck will 
see everything clear for shortening sail, 

A common error in this evolution is to man the topsail 
sheets heavily, and ensure getting the sheets home before 
attention is paid to hoisting rapidly. This makes heavy 
work for- the sheets, sawing the foot of the sail across the 
stay. It is better to put all but a few hands on the hal- 
liards till the sail is about two-thirds up, then if the sheets 
are not home, break off hands from the halliards to the 
sheets as required. 



TO SHORTEN SAIL 

{Ship under all plain sail by the wind,) 

, Preparatory signal will be hoisted ten (10) minutes be- 
fore clewing up. Direct the boatswain to call : 

Shorten sail! 

When the preparatory signal is hauled down, the men 
stationed in the tops to light up rigging and to lay out on 
the lower yards to attend at tne topsail sheets, are sent 
aloft: the former will go to the topmast lieads and over- 
haul down the clew-jiggers forward of the topsails, and 
the latter to the quarters of the lower yards, and stand by 
to carry out the lower blocks. The men on deck lead out 
the royal and topgallant braces, clew-lines, topgallant bunt- 
lines, nying jib down-haul, and fore and main clew-garnets, 
buntlines and leechlines. 

Signal of execution will be hoisted three (3) minutes 
before clewing up. 

Man the royal and topgallant clewlines : flying jib down- 
haul : fore ana main clew-garnets and. buntlines ! 

Will be given when the signal reaches the truck. 

The fore and main clew-garnets, buntlines and leech- 
lines ; royal and topgallant clewlines, weather braces, top- 
gallant buntlines and flying jib downhaul are mannea. 
Have hands by fore and main tacks and sheets, royal and 
topgallant sheets and halliards, lee braces and flying jib 
halliards. The men on the lower yards lay out and nook 
the topsail clew- jiggers. 

Haul taut : Shorten sail 1 

Will be given when the signal of execution is hauled down ; 
a short pause is made after the cautionary command. The 
t?ear tended is let go, the lee royal and top-gallant braces 
are let go and belayed at their square marks; run away 
with the gear manned. The courses are hauled up: the 



• J':"K'ri. ari'i tr.r w-a^r.-r-r.-r^T^ r^'ini-ii in an-i b^-iavt^l at 
tr.^ir vj'iar*r rriark*: ;h-r i^jin^ j:'r> i-» haul-'i down. Tht- 
ta/^:itM. .-^r-*^*.*. and L^Iliar»i-'* ar^ Li^-»i taut and belayed; 
X\i*z W.*rf:r».\u>^., bintlin-^. c;*rw-s^am«rts. clrrw-lines, braces, 
and doT«rn-r.A'jl are c.il-tl down. 

Tend th*' topsail ^L»^t>. jib halliard-^, spanker outhaul 
and V>p >K^wlin*-<*. 

Haul ianf / Shortev sail ! 

Hi*; jib i.s hauled dr» wn and spanker brailed up; tht- 
}fffw]ir}f^ are let ^o; the men run away with the topsail 
clewdin^-M and buntlines. until up to their marks. The 
ci';wdineH and buntlines are belayed and coiled down. 

JUan the weather brciees ! Stand by the topsail halliards f 
will be ^yen an h^mju as the topsails are clewed ap. The 
men jump to the weather lower and topsail braces, and 
lower liftSy and stand by to lower away on the topsail hal- 
liards. 

The men on the lower yards, unclamp the studding sail 
iKH^ms, and lay in to the slm^ of the yard. 

Settle away the topsail halliards! square away ! 

Will >>e given as soon as the gear is manned. The topsail 
halliards are lowered roundly, until the topjsail yards are 
down, when haul them taut, belay and coil them down. 
The braces are hauled in and the lower lifts down and 
belav(;d at their square marks, and coiled down. 

Furl sail ! 

Will be given when the "signal of execution" for that 
evolution is hoisted. This order will be repeated by the 
boatswain and his mates, and executed as per furling sails 
when looH(?d to the buntlines. But after '^ Aloft lower 
YARDMEN, add : Man the boom tricing lines! Trice up ! 

If the ch^w-jiggers are already hooked (or not used) the 
nuai stationed on the lower yardarms are not sent alott till 
(execution signal is hoisted. 



TO SQUARE YARDS. 

Th(^ yards are generally squared daily in port at seven 
bcOlH in thi' morning watch, and also after any exercise 
aloft. 
Ordor : 

SguARK yards ! Call away the cutter! 

Mastnion lay down braces and falls of lower lifts. The 
Htiuuro vardniiMi stand bv to lay aloft. 

The boatswain should first assure himself that the slings 
of tljo light yartls are down in their places^ and also that 
the nuists an^ proi>erly lined ; particularly the lofty spars 



PORT DRILLS, ETC. 259 

which are apt to get out. Then commencing forward, the 
boatswain squares the yards by the braces, fining them by 
the break of the forecastle, coamings of hatches, &c., as 
may be most convenient. 

The yards being squared by the braces, and the cutter 
manned at the port gangway, as the boatswain leaves the 
side command — 

Aloft square yardmen ! 

Get the lift-jiggers on ! 

The square yardmen stand by to come up the racking^ 
seizing and tend the lifts. The boatswain pulls ahead of 
the ship, the chief boatswain^s mate lays out to the flying 
iibboom end, and repeats such orders as are issued by the 
boatswain. The boatswain's mates place themselves at each 
mast, and carry out the orders received. 

When the yards are square by the lifts and braces, the 
boatswain's mates go to the sides or poop to repeat such 
orders as the boatswain may give in pulling around the 
ship. 

The boatswain carries with him a white, a red, and a blue 
flag, each bent to a short staff, to denote respectively yards 
on the fore, main, and mizzen masts. He faces the ship. A 
flag held in the left hand signifies yards to starboard, that 
is, the starboard lift must be hauled upon; in the right 
hand, yards to port, port lift to be hauled upon. 

For lower yards the flag is held depressed at an angle of 

For topsail yards it is held horizontal. 

For topgallant yards it is elevated 45°, and for royal 
yards held vertically over the head. 

Signal for topping up lower booms with empty hand. 

The lower yards are squared first, beginning with the 
fore, then the upper yards. In squaring the topsail-yards 
by the lifts the laniards are come up to two or three turns, 
and the jiggers hooked and hauled taut — that when topping 
up on one the other may be eased by the jigger steadily. 
When belay is piped clap on a heavy racking of spun-yarn. 

In squaring light yards by the lifts, terid the oraceSy or 
the yards will get bowed. The boatswain's mate at the 
mast must see fnat in checking a light brace the yard is 
kept square by the braces. Sometimes a hand must be sei .t 
aloft to ride a light yard down. 

Having squared the yards, the boatswain pulls around 
the ship, directing all gear to be hauled taut, and boats and 
lower Dooms squared. The stun'-sail booms should be 
rigged out alike and heels square, gaflfs peaked up alike, 
the head booms properly stayed (usually straight, or with 
a slight downward curve — never with an upward curve).- 
Harbor clothes-lines should be on a level from fore to miz- 
zen mast, whips hauled up alike. 

See that no ropes' ends are overboard or hanging from 



2(70 PORT DRILLS, ETC. 

the tops ; windsails squared ; hammocks leveled ; clew- 
lines chock up : and that the tops, chains, &:c., look neat. 

When satisned, the boatswain returns on board and re- 
ports to the officer of the deck : 

The yards are square and the rigging hauled taut. 

And the decks being cleared up, he is directed to 

PiPB DOWN ! 

At which the square yardmen lay down from aloft to- 
gether. 

HANDLING LIGHT YARDS. 

For description of fittings on the yards see BiGOiNa 
Ship. 

Ti^ippinor Lines. The hauling end reeves through 
a small tail-block. In port the other end is kept perma- 
nently bent to the snorter, and when the yard goes aloft it is 
toggled at the slings. It serves in this way to guy the yards 
clear when going aloft. 

In sendingdown the toggle is slipped at the first roll.* 

^ITaiTcl Itopew. Tne after or hauling part of the 
yard-rope is kept coiled down in the top, and is paid down 
on decK and rove through a snatch-block hooKed to the 
deck, abaft the mast, when prepared for use. 

When not crossed the yards are kept in the lower rigging, 
the topgallant yard on one side and the royal yard on the 
other, their lower ends resting in a becket or stirrup, and 
the upper end secured to the lorward shroud. 

The fore and mizzen topgallant yards are kept on the 
port side, the main on the starboard. 

When the light yards are crossed the gear should always 
ho bent and clear for making sail. The *' gear " comprehends 
topgallant and rojal sheets and clewlines, topgallant bunt- 
line and bunt-whip. 

13u.lI-Hope for topgallant yards. A small bull's- 
eve is secured to the forward swifter, at the height of 
tlie upper topgallant yard-arm, when the yard is m the 
rigging. 

The bull-rope has a good-sized eye formed in its upper 
end, and a small whip from the pm-rail tailed on to its 
lower end ; or it mav reeve through a leader at the rail, 
then through the bulrs-eye, with the standing part seized 
to the swifter. 

The eye (or bight) of the bull-rope is overhauled to the 
lower yard, and there slipped over the ui)per yard-arm as 
the yard comes down, in order to trice it into the rigging. 
When in the rigging the upper yard-arm is secured l>y a 

grab lashing and the eye of the bull-rope hove off and 
rought down to the pin-rail, or the bight hauled taut. 

* See these tripping lines coiled down clear when exercising at making oaU 
with light yards aloft. 



PORT PBILLS, BTC. 261 

Grewkir Stops are placed on each side of the topmast 
head, secured at the eyes of the topmast rigging. They are 
used to stop in the topgallant sheets, topgallant clewline, 
royal sheet and clewline, and eye of the topgallant lift and 
brace. 

Topgfallant StvLxi'-sa^il JTe^vel I31ock». 
The eves of the jewel-blocks are marled to the eyes of the 
topgallant lifts and braces. 

»lieet» stud. Ole^wlineN of topgallant sails, also 
of royals, are made fast together, so that they may be bent 
with one motion. 

C^nairtei' Blocks. When unhooked from the 
yards, the topgallant quarter-blocks hook to the topmast 
cap, royal quarter-blocks • to beckets at the eves of the top- 
gallant rigging. Topgallant buntline and bunt-whip stop 
to the forward edge of the topmast cap. 

Indi^^idiial tstsitioiiH, showing number of men 
aloft : 

SENDING UP YARDS. J SENDING DOWN YARDS. 

Tn top — To tend lifts, send In top-^To tend lifts and 
down yard ropes and put checking lines, send down 
on topgallant halliards.* yard ropes, take oflE top- 

1 gallant halliards. 

The captains of tops and two men. 

TOPGALLANT YARDS. 

On topmast cap — Rig upper i On topmast cap — Unbend 
yard-arm, tend lizard, pass gear, stop out yard rope, 
parrel, bend gear. cast off parrel, draw toggle 

of tripping line. 

One man. 



On topmast crosstrees — Over- 
haul lower lift and brace 
down, assist with parrel 
and gear. 

One man. 



On topmast crosstrees — Bear 
off yard, unbend gear, as- 
sist man on cap. 



On topsail yard — Rig lower 

?rara-arm, then in top to 
ower lift. 

One man (from the top). 



On topsail yard — To bear 
off. 



In topmast rigging — To over- 
haul down lower lift, then 
in top. 

One man. 



In the top — At checking lines, 
&c. 



* VsobWj put on at croM-trees. 



262 PORT DRILLS, ETC. 



In lower rigging — Clear away 
the upper yard-arm, then 
to yard rope. 



On lower yard — ^With eye of 
bull rope to heave over 
the upper yard-arm. 



One man, 
with additional assistance in the chains, as needed. 

ROYAL YARDS. 
SENDING rr YARDS. \ SENDING DOWN TABD6. 

At jack — To rig upper yard- i At jack — Unbend gear, stop 
arm, tend lizard, pass par- out yard rope, cast off par- 
rel, bend gear. rel, draw toggle of tripping 

line. 
One man. . 



On topmast cross-trees — Rig 
lower yard-arm, bear off 
yard, bend gear. 



On topmast cross-trees — ^Un- 
bend gear, light up yard 
rope, bear off yard, &c. 



One man. 

In lower rigging — Clear away In lower rigging — Receive 
yard, then to yard rope. yard and secure it. 

One man. 

Note. — The stations given above are those adopted in the 
Navy Station bill. But a common practice is to put on both 
royal lifts at the jack, the upper topgallant lift, Ac, at the 
cap and the lower one at, or lust below, the cross-trees. In 
each case the upper lift and brace is put on first, the yard 
then swayed cnock up, and the lower lift put on. This 
avoids overhauling down the lower lifts and braces. 

TO CROSS TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS. 

{Color evolution,) 

Preparatory signal being made, give the order to call : 

Up topgallant and royal yabds 1 

The crew having gained their stations, when the pre- 
paratory is hauled down. 

Topgallant and royal yardmen in the tops ! 

Send down the yard ropes I 

Lead them out and man them. When execution signal 
is hoisted : 

Beat the call ! 

This is the signal for the light yardmen to lay aloft from 
the tops. (If not at colors substitute the order Aloft top- 
gallant and royal yardmen !) 

Set taut ! Sway out op the chains 1 

At this command, the upper topgallant yard-arm is car- 
ried clear of the top rim. the royal yard clear of the topsail 
yard. 



PORT DRILLS, ETC. 26^- 

When the yards are steady and the men shortened in on 
their holds — 

Sway aloft ! When high enough for rigging the yard- 
arms, the conmiand is given — 

High enough ! And when rigged — 

Sway higher ! 

When ready for crossing — 

Tend the lifts and braces ! 

Stand by ! 

To drummer : Roll off! and at the third roll, or as signal 
is hauled down : 

Sway across I Bend the gear ! 

The yards are squared by lifts and braces. 

Haul up the yard ropes ! * 

When they are hauled up and neatly coiled away in the 
tops. Then : 

Lay down prom aloft ! 

When topgallant yards are across, the jack must be 
hoisted and nauled down with the colors. 

If a yard has been crossed with a lift and brace foul, 
stop out the yard rope for a preventer lift lay out— take off 
the lift and brace and clear it, then cast off the stop and 
haul taut the yard rope. 



TO SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS. 

(Color evolution,) 

At five (6) minutes of sundown preparatory signal will 
be made. Order the boatswain to call : 

Down topgallant and royal yards ! 
when preparatory is hauled down, 

Topgallant and royal yardmen in the tops I 

Sevid down the yard-ropes! 

At the hoisting of the execution signal three (3) minutes 
before sundown : 

Beat the call! The light yardmen lay aloft from the 
tops. (If not at colors, substitute the command: Aloft 
topgallant and royal yardmen I) 

Snatch and lead along the yard ropes, man them (but not 
too strongly), take them near a cavil ready to catch a turn 
for lowermg, which should be done by a careful hand. The 
tail blocks of the tripping lines are secured to eye-bolts well 
forward of the mast and at the side. Yard ropes and trip- 
ping lines are toggled in to the slings of the yards by a 
toggle to be drawn at the first roll. 

Man the yard-ropes and tripping lines ! Tend the lifts 
and braces ! Stand by ! 

* Not usually given, if drills are to be continued. 



204 PORT DRILLS, ETC. 

Be careful to start nothing till the execution signal is 
hauled down, then : 

Sway ! 

Sway at the third roll if not working by signal. 

Pause, till all the lifts and braces are clear, then 

Lower away together ! 

Keeping a ^ood strain on the tripping lines. 

The checking lines being hauled m and everything 
secure aloft : 

Lay down prom aloft ! 

When the yards are crossed in the morning, the vard- 
rope is left stopped out to the quarter strap, and the oight 
overhauled down and stopped in to the slings ; then at the 
first roll at sunset, the stop may be cut or broken ; or toggle 
it with the tripping-line toggle. 

TO CROSS TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS AND 

LOOSE SAIL TO A BOWLINE. 

{Color evolution.) 

When the preparatory signal is hoisted, call : 
Loose sail ! Up topgallant and royal yards ! 
Lead along the bowlines and head halliards. (Indicates 
fNanner of loosing.) 

On hauling down the preparatory : 
Topgallant and royal yardmen in the tops ! 
Send down the yard ropes ! 
At signal of execution : Beat the call ! 
Aloft sail loosbrs ! Set tavt ! Sway out of the chains I 
Man the boom tricing lines I 
Sway ALOFT ! Trice up I Lay out and loose ! 
Man the bowlines, halliards^ and head outhauls! 
As soon as the yards are high enough for crossing, th« 
men on the topmast cap and jacK cast adrift the gaskets of 
the lig^ht sailSy keeping fast the lower bunt gasket, and hold 
the sails up. 
When ready : 
Roll off I 

At the third roll (or when execution signal is hauled 
down), 

Sway across ! Let fall ! 
Lay in ! Lay down from aloft ! 

At which command the men run awav with the halliards 
and bowlines, and head outhauls. 

Bend the gear of the light sails! 
The light yardmen lay down into the tops when they have 
bent the gear, and will lay down on deck at the command: 
Pipe down I 

The evolution of Adding topgallant-masts, crossing yards 
and loosing sail is also frequently performed with a well- 



PORT DRILLS, ETC. *65 

drilled crew, and is similar to the above, the masts being 
fidded first, and the sail loosers sent aloft when the yards 
are swayed out of the chains. 



TO SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS 

AND UNBEND SAIL. 

{Sails loosed to a bowline.) 

Preparatory signal being made, call : | 

Furl and unbend sail I 

When preparatory is hauled down : 

Topgallant and royal yardmen in the tops I 

Send down the yard ropes I 

Man and tend the gear as in furling sail from a bowline. 
When execution signal is hoisted : 

Alopt topmen ! Lower yardmen on the sheer pole f 

Aloft lower yardmen I Haul taut I Shorten saiu 

Note. If short-handed, it may be necessary to shorten 
sail before the topmen are sent aloft, in which case. Shorten 
SAIL ! as execution signal is hoisted. 

Man the boom tricing lines! Trice up ! 

Lay out ! Furl and unbend 1 

Oet the light yards ready for cominq down I 

In addition to the ^ear named and manned in unbend- 
ING SAIL, man the yard-ropes and tripping-lines. 

Tend the lifts and braces ! Stand oy ! 

As the simal of execution is hauled down : 

Sway ! Ease away ! 

Sway the yards, ease away the head-earings. 

Lower away together ! 

Lower the light yards on deck ; unbend their sails. 

Lay IN ! Stand by the booms I 

Down booms ! 

Lay down from aloft I 

When the light sails are unbent — 

Man the topgallant and royal yard ropes! 

Sway out In the chains ! 

Square y;ards ; clear up the decks and pipe down. 

It in this instance the topgallant-masts are also to be 
sent down, take the strain off the fids * by swaying up on 
the mast-ropes before sending the men aloft. 

After the vards are swayed, and the royal yardmen off 
the jack, the nd is drawn by the man on the cross-trees. 

The command Man the mast-ropes would come in after 
Send down yard-ropes. 

The yard ropes in this instance reeve through jack- 
blocks, as explained further on. 

* This does not mean to draw them, as topmen are likely to do, U not ctiVk 
tioned. 



266 PORT DRILLS, ETC. 



SENDING UP AND DOWN TOPGALLANT-MASTS. 

The Mast-rope reeves from aft forward through the 
topgallant top-block, at the topmast cap, then through 
the thimble of a lizard and the sheave in the heel of 
the mast. The end is hitched to a cap bolt on the op- 
posite side. 

The Lizard is lone enough to pass through the royal 
sheave-hole, around the standing part of the mast-rope, 
and to secure with two half -hitches to its own part close to 
the thimble. 

The Heel-rope is fitted with a tail-block, like a tripping- 
line. When in use its upper end is hitched to the link in 
the heel of the topgallant-mast ; lower end and block paid 
down on deck. 

Preventer Fid, If used, each mast is bored parallel to 
and about sixteen inches above the regular fid, to take a 
preventer fid of iron, about an inch in diameter, with an 
eye in the end. To this eye is secured a laniard made fast 
to the eyes of the topmast rigging. 

The reeving line has a tail-block which secures to the 
after topgallant shroud. Both ends of the whip are sent 
on deck, and one end secured to the mast-rope, previously 
•rove through its top-block and lizard. When swayed aloft, 
hook the top-block, cast off the reeving line, and reeve the 
mast-rope. 

The flying jih heel-rope reeves through a tail-block which 
secures to the jib-stav; Hitch the end of the heel-roi)e 
through the score in the heel. The flying jib down-haul is 
bent to the heel of the boom to assist in rousing in. 

The flying jib, if bent, is roused in with tne boom and 
secured alongside the jib-boom. 

The flying jib-boom is not usually rigged in when exer- 
cising top^aUant-masts. 

Topgallant and royal yard-ropes. In port, when top- 
gallant-masts are to be frequently sent up and down, the 
mast-ropes are kept aloft ready for use, and the yard-ropes 
rove off through the jack-blocks at the eyes of the top- 
gallant and royal rigging. 

The topgallant-masts when down are landed up and 
down and forward of their respective masts. The flying 
jib-boom is rigged in alongside of the jib-boom, its end 
pointing througn the wythe. 

When the topgallant-mast is up and down, put a stop 
around the royal pole, securing it to lower stays. If there 
is any danger of tne ship's rolling, secure the heel also, or 
land the mast on deck. 

In swaying aloft to fid, when short-handed, the standing 
part of the mast-rope^ may lead through a second top-block, 
hooked to the eye-bolt where the end is usually hitched. 



PORT DRILLS, ETC. 267 

The top burton of the side (led down on deck) is then hooked 
into a thimble clinched in the end of the mast-rope. After 
swaying the mast aloft as high as possible with the mast- 
rope, cross the deck and clap on the burton. 

In unfidding, belay the mast-rope, pull up on the burton, 
out fid, belay burton, and lower with the mast-rope. 



TO SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT-MASTS. 

{Port Routine.) 

Light yards on deck, using lizards. 

Preparatory signals being made, call— 

Down topgallant-masts I 

On hauling down preparatory signal : 

Topgallant and royal yardmen in the tops I 

Send down heel-ropes and reeving lines ! 

On deck. Get up the mast-ropes, and bend on the 
reeving lines ready to sway aloft. Let go all ^ear holding 
the mast ; lifts, braces^ and topgallant studding-sail hal- 
liards. Stand by to come up royal and topgallant back-stays. 

In tops. Pay down reeving line aoaft and heel-rope 
forward. 

On hoisting of execution signal : 

Aloft topgallant and royal yardmen ! 

On decky slack up topgallant and royal back-stays, stays 
and flying-jib guys ; sway aloft the mast-ropes and top- 
gallant top-blocks ; lead out the mast-ropes. 

Aloft. Slack up topgallant and royal shrouds and stays ; 
hook topsail clew-jiggers to the crane lines on the back- 
staySy and haul them taut ; unhook block (if any) at the 
heel of the topgallant-mast, shift to strap on collar of top- 
mast stay, bend the heel-rope, secure the Iblock of the reev- 
ing whip to the after topgallant shroud, and when mast- 
rope ana block are swayea aloft, hook the block and reeve 
the mast-rope ; cast off laniards of Jacob's ladder, and light 
up all the ^ear and topgallant shrouds. 

On Flying jib-boom and bowsprit cap. Secure tail-block 
of heel-rope, pass the heel-rope, bend the flying jib down- 
haul to the heel of the boom ; render the flying jib and 
royal stays through their scores, and cast off belly lashing, 
if used. Let go flying- jib halliards. 

Man the topgallant mast-ropes ! 

Haul taut I Sway and unpid ! 

Haul out the regular fid, stand by to haul out the pre- 
venter. 

On bowsprit cap, unclamp the heel of the flying jib- 
boom. Take turns for lowering fore and aft (or for easmg 
in). 



268 PORT drill:;, etc. 

Stand by! Men aloft draw preventer fid. 
As signal of execution is hauled down : 

Lower away together ! Rig in ! 

Lower roundly till the topgallant-mast head is clear, then 
handsomely till the lizard is passed through the royal 
sheave-hole : haul on the heel-rope to keep the heel clear, 
and land the masts up and down with their heels on chocks. 
Ease in the flying jib-boom, hauling in on the down-haul ; 
secure the spar alongside the jib-boom. In the chains and 
head stop in the bights of all topgallant and royal stays and 
back-stays. 

Aloft. Open the gate when the topgallant-mast head is 
abreast of the cap ; pass the lizard ; secure the topgallant 
and roval funnels to the cap, and make everything snug 
about the cross-trees and in the tops. 

As soon as the work is done ; 

Lay down from aloft 1 



TO SEND UP TOPGALLANT-MASTS. 

V 

{Pot't Routine.) 

The mast-ropes being rove off. 

Preparatory signal being made, call : 

Up topgallant-masts 1 

When preparatory signal is hauled down : 

Topgallant and royal yardmen in the tops 1 

On deck. Lead out mast-ropes and heel-rope of flying 
jib-boom ; have straps and jiggers ready for setting up top- 
gallant and royal stays, back-stavs and flying jib guys ; let 
go royal and topgallant gear, lifts, braces, clewlines, bunt- 
unes, &c., and topgallant studding-sail halliards. 

Man the topgallant biast-ropes 1 

At the same time man the flying jib heel-rope. 

Signal of execution being hoisted : 

Aloft topgallant and royal yardmen ! 

At cross-trees. Cut stops on royal and topgallant stays. 

At the cap. Place the truck and funnels fair for receiv- 
ing the topgallant-mast ; see signal halliards and royal 
braces clear. 

In the tops. Out the stops on the topgallant and royal 
shrouds ; tnence to the topsail-yard to keep mast on the 
right slue. 

Forward. Cast off lashings that secure flying jib-boom ; 
have clamp ready for heeL 

Sway aloft ! 

Men on the topsail-yard keep the mast on the right 
slue for Adding, using a heaver through the heel. 

At the cross-trees. The lizard is cast off and mast-head 
pointed ; clamp the gate when the heel is above the topsail- 



PORT DRILLS, ETC. 269 

yard ; light up rigging : stand by with preventer, then with 
regular fid. 

On the cap. Place the truck and funnels. 

The flying jib-boom is roused out by its heel-rope, bear- 
ing down on the heel if necessary. 

When the sheave of the topgallant-mast arrives above 
the cap, shorten in on the mast-rope. 

As execution signal is hauled down : 

Sway and fid ! 

At the topmast cap keep the Jacob's ladder from 
fouling ; * give timely warning if any gear holds the mast ; 
prepare reeving line to send down mast-rope, if desired. 

At cross-trees shove in preventer, and then regular fid 
as soon aspossible. When fid is in. sing out " Launch !^^ 

Cast on the mast-rope, send it down with the top-block, 
by the reeving line, it desired, then carry the latter into 
the top. Unhook clew-jiggers from crane lines. 

Set up all topgallant and royal shrouds, stays and back- 
stays ; naul taut on deck all topgallant and royal gear ; 
stow away mast-ropes, luffs, and jiggers. 

When ready aloft : 

Lay down prom aloft I 

If these exercises are to be continued the mast-ropes re- 
main rove off in port. 



TO SEND DOWN TOPGALLANT AND ROYAL YARDS 

AND TOPGALLANT MASTS. 

{Color evolution.) 

Mast ropes rove off. 

The preparatory signal being made, call : 

Down topgallant and royal yards and topgallant 

MASTS I 

Men go to their stations for sending down the light yards 
excepting those who can be spared to prepare for coming 
up the topgallant and royal back-staj^s, &c. 

On hauling down of preparatory signal : 

Topgallant and royal yardmen in the tops I Send 
down the yard-ropes and h'eel-ropes ! 

The execution signal being hoisted : 

Beat the call, or 

Aloft topgallant and royal yardmen I 

Man the yard ropes and tripping lines! 

Tend the lifts and braces ! Stand by ! 

As execution signal is hauled down, 

* A small qnarterround chock on after part of topmast-head will accomplish 
this purpose. Similarly a scorod wedge forward on the under side of the cap is 
used to prevent the hounds from catching. 

23 



270 PORT DRILLS, ETC. 

Roll off! At third roll: 
Sway ! Lower away 1 

The men on the jack lay down to the cross-trees as soon 
as the yards are swayed. 

Man the mast-ropes ! Swat and unfid 1 
When ready : Lower away together 1 Ria m I 
And when everything is secure aloft : 
Lay down from aloft ! 



TO SEND UP TOPGALLANT MASTS AND TOPGALLANT 

AND ROYAL YARDS. 

{Color evolution,) 

Masts up and down. 

The preparatory signal being made, call : 
Up topgallant masts and topgallant and royal 
yards! 

Men go their stations for sending up topgallant masts. 

When preparatory signal is hauled down : 

Topgallant and royal yardmen in the tops 1 

Man the topgallant mast ropes I 

At the same time man the flying jib heel rope. 

When the signal of execution is hoisted. 

Aloft topgallant and royal yardmen I Sway aloft 

AND FID ! 

When Added, ^^ Launch ^^ (the fore, main, or mizzen). 
Then go to stations for crossing light yards. 

Man the yard ropes ! Beat the call I Sway out of 
THE chains I 

When the yards are up and down : 

Sway aloft I 

Proceed as in sending up topgallant and royal yards. 
When ready for crossing : 

Tend the lifts and braces ! 

Stand by ! As signal is hauled down, Roll off I At the 
third roll : 

Sway across ! Bend the gear ! 

And when ready : 

Lay down from aloft ! 

For quick work the topgallant mast ropes and topgallant 
yard ropes should be on the same side, the men turning^ 
from one to the other. 



PORT ROUTINE-MISCELLANEOUS. 



To H^ipr Oixt cincl In T^owei* Booms. 

Having the booms rigged for port and ready, command: 
Man the boom topping-lifts ! Forward guys ! This gear is 
manned, both sides equally, if by the watch, first part star- 



PORT DRILLS, ETC. 271 

board side, second part port side, and have a hand to tend 
the after-guy. 

Hani taut ! Top up I 

Walk away with the topping lifts until the blocks are 
down to the mark. When, Rig out! ease away the after- 
guys and square the booms. 

To get them alongside — Man the after-gnys! Tend the 
topping-lift and forward guy! Set taut! Rig in! 

To Spi*eacl A-wninpr®* Place the awning 
stanchions and ridge ropes, get the awnings up out of the 
sail room and fore-and-aft in their respective parts of the 
ship. (If awnings are up and on a stretch they must be 
slacked down together to loose). Call : 

Spread awnings ! 

Loose the awnings, haul out on the fore-and-aft tackles, 
reeve and man the earings. When ready, 

Haul out ! and when the earings are out, 

Lay up and Bring to ! 

The men all lay out together, haul out the side stops, 
expending the ends. Pass the lacings connecting the 
dinerent awnings. When finished, Lay in ! 

Let go crow-foot halliards before hauling out earings 
and stops, and haul taut again after these are passed. 

To FiM-l ^vrning-is. Call : 

Furl awnings I 

Men being up : 

Lay up and cast off side stops ! 

At the same time cast adrift the lacings. When ready, 

Ease away ! Lay in ! 

The earings are eased away together, the men lay in, 
roll up the awnings neatly^ hook tne fore-and-aft tackles, 
and HAUL OUT .! together. 

Ha III mock Grirt lines a^ncl Hax'l>or 
Clothes-lines are fitted double. In the bight of the 
line is seized a hook and thimble : the hook secures to a bolt 
in the stem. The two lines leading forward pass through 
thimbles in rope iackstays that hang up and down each 
mast. Forward, the ends of the lines are spliced together 
around the after-sheave of a fiddle-block. Through the for- 
ward sheave is rove a whip, one end spliced into a block 
hooked at the bowsprit cap, the other rove through the 
fiddle-block, and thence through the block on the cap and 
inboard. 

The rope jackstav at each mast has an eye in its upper 
end for the mast-whip and a tail at the lower end to use as 
a down-haul. 

These lines are prepared beforehand, and triced up at 
the third roll at sunset, at which time boats are also 
hoisted. 

To HiOiver "Wasli Clothes Avith the 
A-wning-s Spread. ; after the men are on deck : 



272 PORT DRILLS, ETC. 

Stand by to lay out! When ready, Lay out! Cast off 
side tops — Easb away! Lay in! 

Easing away the earings and slacking the lacings, then : 

Pipe down! the clothes; and when the lines are triced 
up again, or unhooked for sending below, haul out the 
earings; Stand by to lay out! Sec, as in spreading awn- 
ings. 

Have the master-at-arms on deck to look out for cloth- 
ing of men away in boats. See the lines weeded of rope- 
yarns before tricing up again or stowing below, but it is 
still better to enforce the use of regular clothes stops, which 
are secured to the clothing and cast adrift, not cut. 

In firing a salute, with scrubbed hammocks or clothes 
on the lines, man the down-hauls and lower and haul down 
before the first gun, tricing up again after the last gun. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

INTERNATIONAL REGULATION'S FOR PREVENTING 

COLLISIONS AT SEA. 

(See Act of Congress, Aug. 10, 1800; May 25, 1804; June 10, 188G.) 

VESSELS' LIGHTS, AND RULES OF THE ROAD. 

The following regulations for preventing collisions at 
sea are law, by international agreement, and have to be fol- 
lowed by all public and private vessels upon the high seas 
and in all waters connected therewith, navigable by sea- 
going vessels. 

Preliminai^y Definitions. In the following 
rules every steam-vessel which is under sail and not under 
steam is to be considered a sailing-vessel, and every vessel 
under steam, whether under sail or not, is to be considered 
a steam- vessel. 

The word '* steam-vessel" shall include any vessel pro- 
pelled by machinery. 

A vessel is **imder way" within the meaning of these 
rules when she is not at anchor, or made fast to the shore, 
or aground. 

LIGHTS, AND SO FORTH. 

The word *' visible" in these rules when applied to lights 
shall mean visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere. 

Article 1. The rules concerning lights shall be complied 
with in all weathers from sunset to sunrise, and during such 
time no other lights which may be mistaken for the pre- 
scribed lights shall be exhibited. 

Art. 2. IMast-Head. Lig-ht. A steam-vessel 
when under way shall carry — (a) On or in front of the fore- 
mast, or if a vessel without a foremast, then in the forepart of 
the vessel, at a height above the hull of not less than twenty 
feet, ai^ if the breadth of the vessel exceeds twenty feet, 
then at a height above the hull not less than such breadth, 
so, however, that the light need not be carried at a greater 
height above the hull than forty feet, a bright white light, 
so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an arc of 
the horizon of twenty points of the compass, so fixed as to 
throw the light ten points on each side of the vessel, namely, 



274 PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA. 

from right ahead to two points abaft the beam on either 
side, and of such a character as to be visible at a distance 
of at least five miles. 

(b) Side I-^i^IitH* On the starboard side a green 
light so constructed as to show an unbroken light over an 
arc of the horizon of ten points of the compass, so fixed as 
to throw the light from right ahead to two points abaft the 
the beam on the starboard side, and of such a character as 
to be visible at a distance of at least two miles. 

(c) On the port side a red light so constructed as to show 
an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of ten points of 
the compass, so fixed as to throw the light from right ahead 
to two points abaft the beam on the port side, and of such a 
character as to be visible at a distance of at least two miles. 

(d) The said green and red side-lights shall be fitted with 
inboard screens projecting at least three feet forward from 
the light, so as to prevent these lights from being seen 
across the bow. 

(e) Jl.a.ng'e I^i^IitH. A steam-vessel when under 
way may carry an additional white light similar in con- 
struction to the light mentioned in subdivision (a). These 
two lights shall be so placed in line with the keel that one 
shall be at least fifteen feet higher than the other, and in 
such a position with reference to each other that the lower 
light shall be forward of the upper one. The vertical dis- 
tance between these lights shall be less than the horizontal 
distance. 

Art. 3. Towing* T^ipfhts*. A steam-vessel when 
towing another vessel shall, in addition to her side-lights, 
carry two bright white lights in a vertical line one over the 
other, not less than six feet apart, and when towing more 
than one vessel shall carry an additional bright white light 
six feet above or below such light, if the length of the tow, 
measuring from the stern of the towing vessel to the stem 
of the last vessel towed, exceeds six hundred feet. Each of 
these lights shall be of the same construction and character, 
and shall be carried in the same position. as the white light. 
mentioned in article two (a), excepting the additional light, 
which may be carried at a height of not less than fourteen 
feet above the hull. 

Such steam-vessel may carry a small white light abaft 
the funnel or af termast for the vessel towed to steer by, but 
such light shall not be visible forward of the beam. 

Art. 4. Si>ecia,l Lig-litsi*, (a). A vessel which from 
any accident is not under command shall carry at the same 
height as a white light mentioned in article two (a), where 
they can best be seen, and if a steam-vessel in lieu of that 
light, two red lights, in a vertical line one over the other, 
not less than six feet apart, and of such a character as to 
b(^ visible all around the* horizon at a distance of at least 



PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA. 275 

two miles; and shall by day carry in a vertical line one over 
the other, not less than six feet apart, where they can best 
be seen, two black balls or shapes, each two feet in diameter. 

(b) A vessel employed in laying or in picking up a tele- 
graph cable shall carry in the same position as the white 
light mentioned in article two (a), and if a steam-vessel, in 
lieu of that light, three lights in a vertical line, one over the 
other, not less than six feet apart. The highest and lowest 
of these lights shall be red, and the middle light shall be 
white, and they shall be of such a character as to be visible 
all around the horizon at a distance of at least two miles. 
By day she shall carry in a vertical line, one over the other, 
not less than six feet apart, where they can best be seen, 
three shapes -not less than two feet in diameter, of which 
the highest and lowest shall be globular in shape and red 
in color, and the middle one diamond in shape and white. 

(c) The vessels referred to in this article, when not mak- 
ing way through the water, shall not carry the side-lights, 
but when making way shall carry them. 

(d) The lights and shapes required to be shown by this 
article are to be taken by other vessels as signals that the 
vessel showing them is not under command and can not 
therefore get out of the way. 

These signals are not signals of vessels in distress and 
requiring assistance. Such signals are contained in article 
thirty -one. 

Art. 5. I^i^IitK Toi* Sailing— Vesseln and. 
Vesselw in To^v. A sailing-vessel under way and 
any vessel being towed shall carry the same lights as are 
prescribed by article two for a steam-vessel under way, with 
the exception of the white lights mentioned therein, which 
they shall never carry. 

Art. 6. X^iglitH for Small T^ewwelH. When- 
ever, as in the case of small vessels under way during bad 
weather, the green and red side-lights can not be fixed, these 
lights shall be kept at hand, lighted and ready for use ; and 
shall, on the approa(^h of or to other vessels, be exhibited 
on their respective sides in sufficient time to prevent col- 
lision, in such manner as to make them most visible, and so 
that the green light shall not be seen on the port side, nor 
the red light on the starboard side, nor, if practicable, more 
than two points abaft the beam on their respective sides. 
To make the use of these portable lights more certain and 
easy the lanterns containing them shall each be painted 
outside with the color of the light they respectively contain, 
and shall be provided with proper screens. 

Art. 7. Lig-htK f <>!• Small Steam and Sail- 
ing—Vessels and i<>r Open X^oatK. Steam- 
vessels of less than forty, and vessels under oars or sails of 
less than twenty tons gross tonnage, respectively, and row- 



276 PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA. 

ing boats, when under way, shall not be required to carry 
the lights mentioned in article two (a), (b), and (c), but if 
they do not carry them they shall be provided with the fol- 
lowing lights : 

First, steam-vessels of less than forty tons shall carry — 

(a) In the forepart of the vessel, or on or in front of the 
funnel, where it can best be seen, and at a height above the 
gunwale of not less than nine feet, a bright white light con- 
structed and fixed as prescribed in article tM o (a), and of 
such a character as to be visible at a distance of at least 
two miles. 

(b) Green and red side-lights constructed and fixed as 
prescribed in article two (b) and (c), and of such a character 
as to be visible at a distance of at least one mile, or a com- 
bined lantern showing a green light and a red light from 
right ahead to two points abaft the beam on their respective 
sides. Such lanterns shall be carried not less than three 
feet below the white light. 

Second. Small steamboats, such as are carried by sea- 
going vessels, may carry the white light at a less height 
than nine feet above the gunwale, but it shall be carried 
above the combined lantern mentioned in subdivision 
one (h). 

Tnird. Vessels under oars or sails of less than twenty 
tons shall have ready at hand a lantern with a green glass 
on one side and a red glass on the other, which, on the ap- 
proach of or to other vessels, shall be exhibited in sufficient 
time to prevent collision, so that the green light shall not 
be seen on the port side nor the red light on the starboard 
side. 

Fourth. Rowing boats, whether under oars or sail, shall 
have ready at hand a lantern showing a white light which 
shall be temporarily exhibited in sufficient time to prevent 
collision. 

The vessels referred to in this article shall not be obliged 
to carry the lights prescribed by article four (a) and article 
eleven, last paragraph. 

Art. 8. Lights foi- Pilot- Vessels. Pilot- 
vessels when engaged on their stations on pilotage duty 
shall not show the lights required for other vessels, but 
shall carry a white light at the masthead, visible all around 
the horizon, and shall also exhibit a flare-up light or flare- 
up lights at short intervals, which shall never exceed fifteen 
minutes. 

On the near approach of or to other vessels they shall 
have their side-light lighted, ready for use, and shall flash 
or show them at short intervals, to indicate the direction in 
which they are heading, but the green light shall not be 
shown on the port side, nor the red light on the starboard 
side. 



1»RKVENT1NG COLLlSIOKS AT SEA. 277 

A pilot-vessel of such a class as to be obliged to go 
alongside of a vessel to put a pilot on board may show the 
white light instead of carrying it at the masthead, and may, 
instead of the colored lights above mentioned, have at hand, 
ready for use, a lantern with a green glass on the one side 
and a red glass on the other, to be used as prescribed above. 

Pilot-vessels, when not engaged on their station on pilot- 
age duty, shall carry lights similar to those of other vessels 
of their tonnage. 

Art. 9. Lights^etc.jof Fishing"- Vessels. 
Fishing-vessels of less than twenty tons net registered ton- 
nage, when under way, and when not having their nets, 
trawls, dredges, or lines in the water, shall not be obliged to 
carry the colored side-lights ; but every such vessel shall in 
lieu thereof have ready at hand a lantern with a green glass 
on the one side and a red glass on the other sidie, and on ap- 
proaching to or being approached by another vessel such 
lantern shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent a 
collision, so that the green light shall not be seen on the 
port side, nor the red light on the starboard side. 

ILiig-Iits forFisliing'-'Vessels oflTEvxro- 
pestn Coasts. The following portion of this article 
applies only to fishing-vessels and fishing-boats when in the 
sea oflf the coast of Europe lying north of Cape Finisterre : 

(a) All fishing- vessels and fishing-boats of twenty tons 
net registered tonnage or upward, when under way, and 
when not having their nets, trawls, dredges, or lines in the 
water, shall carry and show the same lights as other vessels 
under way. 

(b) All vessels when engaged in fishing with drift-nets 
shall exhibit two white lights from any part of the vessel 
where they can be best seen. Such lights shall be placed 
so that the vertical distance between them shall be not less 
than six feet and not more than ten feet, and so that the 
horizontal distance between them, measured in a line with 
the keel of the vessel, shall not be less than five feet and 
not more than ten feet. The lower of these two lights shall 
be the more forward, and both of them shall be of such a 
character and contained in lanterns of such construction as 
to show all round the horizon, on a dark night, with a clear 
atmosphere, for a distance of not less than three miles. 

(c) All vessels when trawling, dredging, or fishing with 
any kind of drag-nets shall exhibit, from some part of the 
vessel where they can best be seen, two lights. One of 
these lights shall be red and the other shall be white. The 
red light shall be above the white light, and shall be at a 
vertical distance from- it of not less than six feet and not 
more than twelve feet; and the horizontal distance between 
them, if any, shall not be more than ten feet. These two 
lights shall be of such a character and contained in lanterns 



278 PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA. 

# 

of such construction as to be visible all around the horizon, 
on a dark night, with a clear atmosphere, the white light 
to a distance of not less than three miles and the red light 
of not less than two miles. 

(d) A vessel employed in line-fishing, with her lines out, 
shall carry the same lights as a vessel when engaged in 
fishing with drift-nets. 

(e) If a vessel when fishing with a trawl, dredge or any 
kind of drag net, becomes stationary in consequence of her 
gear getting fast to a roc^k or other obstruction, she shall 
show the light and make the fog-signal for a vessel at anchor. 

(f ) Fishing vessels may at any time use a flare-up in ad- 
dition to the lights which they are by this article required 
to carry and show. All flare-up lights exhibited by a vessel 
when trawling, dredging, or fishing with any kind of drag- 
net shall be shown at the after-part of the vessel, excepting 
that if the vessel is hanging by the stern to her trawl, 
dredge, or drag-net they shall be exhibited from the bow. 

(g) Every fishing-vessel when at anchor between sunset 
and sunrise shall exhibit a white light, visible all round the 
horizon at a distance of at least one mile. 

(h) In a fog a drift-net vessel attached to her nets, and 
a vessel when trawling, dredging, or fishing with any kind 
of drag-net, and a vessel employed in line-fishing with her 
lines out, shall, at intervals of not more than two minutes, 
make a blast with her fog-horn and ring her bell alter- 
nately. 

Art. 10. LigflitK loi- a,n Ovoi'taken Ves- 
sel. A vessel which is being overtaken by another shall 
show from her stern to such last-mentioned vessel a white 
light or a fiare-up light. 

The white light required to be shown by this article may 
be fixed and carried in a lantern, but in such case the lan- 
tern shall be so constructed, fitted, and screened that it 
shall throw an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of 
twelve points of the compass, namely, for six points from 
right aft on each side of the vessel, so as to be visible at a 
distance of at least one mile. Such light shall be carried as 
nearly as practicable on the same level as the side-lights. 

Art. 11. .A^iichoi* T^iprlits. A vessel under one 
hundred and fifty feet in length, when at anchor, shall 
carry forward, where it can be best seen, but at a height 
not exceeding twenty feet above the hull, a white lantern 
so constructed as to show a clear, uniform, and unbroken 
light visible all around the horizon at a distance of at least 
one mile. 

A vessel of one hundred and fifty feet or upwards in 
length, when at anchor, shall carry in the forward part of 
the vessel, at a height of not less than twenty and not ex- 
ceeding forty feet above the hull, one such light, and at or 



1^ 



PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA. 279 

near the st^ern of the vessel, and at such a height that it 
shall be not less than fifteen feet lower than the forward 
light, another such light. 

The length of a vessel shall be deemed to be the length 
appearing in her certificate of registry. 

A vessel aground in or near a fair-way shall carry the 
above light or lights and the two red lights prescribed by 
article four (a). 

Art. 12. Special Sigrka^lH. Every vessel, may, 
if necessary in order to attract attention, in addition to the 
lights which she is by these rules required to carry, show a 
flare-up light or use any detonating signal that can not be 
mistaken for a distress signal. 

Art. 13. Naval Lig-lits and. Xl/ecog-nitloii 
Sig'nals. Nothing in these rules shall interfere with 
the operation of any special rules made by the Government 
of any nation with respect to additional station and signal- 
lights for two or more ships of war or for vessels sailing 
under convoy, or with the exhibition of recognition signals 
adopted by ship owners, which have been authorized by 
their respective Governments and duly registered and pub- 
lished. 

Art. 14. Steam-Vessel xmcler Sail \>y 
T>ay« A steam-vessel proceeding under sail only but 
having her funnel up, shall carry in day-time, forward, 
where it can best be seen, one black ball or shape two feet 
in diameter. 

SOUND SIGNALS FOR FOG, AND SO FORTH. 

Art. 15, Preliminary. All signals prescribed by 
this article for vessels under way shall be given : 

First. By ** steam vessels" on the whistle or siren. 

Second. By ''sailing vessels" and "vessels towed "on 
the fog horn. 

The words ''prolonged blast" used in this article shall 
mean a blast of from four to six seconds duration. 

A steam-vessel shall be provided with an efficient whistle 
or siren, sounded by steam or by some substitute for steam, 
so placed that the sound may not be intercepted by any ob- 
struction, and with an efficient fog horn, to be sounded by 
mechanical means, and also with an efficient bell. (In all 
cases where the rules require a bell to be used a drum may 
be substituted on board Turkish vessels, or a gong where 
such articles are used on board small sea-going vessels. ) A 
sailing vessel of twenty tons gross tonnage or upward shall 
be provided with a similar fog horn and bell. 

In fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rainstorms, whether 
by day or night, the signals described in this article shall 
be used as follows, namely : 



1 



280 PRBVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA. 

(a) Steaixi-^'ewHel undei? AVay* A steam 
vessel having way upon her shall sound, at intervals of not 
more than two minutes, a prolonged blast. 

(b) A steam vessel under way, but stopped, and having 
no way upon her, shall sound, at intervals of not more than 
two minutes, two prolonged blasts, with an interval of 
about one second between. 

(c) Sail-VetsMel vxndex* TV^ay. A sailing 
vessel under way shall sound, at intervals of not more than 
one minute, when on the starboard tack, one blast; when 
on the port tack, two blasts in succession, and when with 
the wind abaft the beam, three blasts in succession. 

(d) A'^ewwelw at .A^nclioi^. A vessel when at 
anchor shall, at intervals of not more than one minute, ring 
the bell rapidly for about five seconds. 

(e) VeHKels nrc»vingr oi* Towed stnd 
>"ewwelH XTxial>le to iVIanenvei*. A vessel 
when towing, a vessel employed in laying or in picking up 
a telegraph cable, and a vessel under way, which is unable 
to get out of the way of an approaching vessel through be- 
ing not under command, or unable to maneuver as required 
by the rules, shall, instead of the signals prescribed in sub- 
divisions (a) and (c) of this article, at intervals of not more 
than two minutes, sound three blasts in succession, namely : 
One prolonged blast followed by two short blasts. A vessel 
towed may give this signal and she shall not givp any 
othe. 

Small SailinpT-VewwelH and Boats. 
Sailing vessels and boats of less than twenty tons gross 
tonnage shall not be obliged to give the above-mentioned 
signals, but if they do not they shall make some ofiter 
efficient sound signal at intervals of not more than one 
minute. 

Art. 1G. Speed in Fopf. Every vessel shall, in a 
fog, mist, falling snow, or heavy rain-storms, go at a mod- 
erate speed, having careful regard to the existing circum- 
stances and conditions. 

A steam-vessel hearing, apparently forward of her beam. 
the fog-signal of a vessel, the position of which is not ascer- 
tained, shall, so far as the circumstances of the case admit, 
stop her engines, and then navigate with caution until dan- 
ger of collision is over. 

STEERING AND SAILING RULES. 

P8.islc oT Collinion. can, when .circumstances 
permit, be ascertained by carefully watching the compass 
Ixviring of an approa(*hing vessel. If the bearing does not 
appreciably change, such risk sliould be deemed to exist. 

Art. 17. Sailingr-A'ewwels. When two sailing 



PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA. 281 

vessels are approaching one another, so as to involve risk 
of collision, one of them shall keep out of the way of the 
other as follows, namely : 

(a) A vessel which is running free shall keep out of the 
way of a vessel which is close-hauled. 

(b) A vessel which is close-hauled on the port tack shall 
keep out of the way of a vessel which is close-hauled on the 
starboard tack. 

(c) When both are running free, with the wind on differ- 
ent sides, the vessel which has the wind on the port side 
shall keep out of the way of the other. 

(d) WTien both are running free, with the wind (m the 
same side, the vessel which is to the windward shall keep 
out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward. 

(e) A vessel which has the wind aft shall keep out of 
the way of the other vessel. 

Art. 18. Steam-A"eKHel»*«« When two steam ves- 
sels are meeting end on. or nearly end on, so as to evolve 
risk of collision, each shall alter her course to starboard, so 
that each may pass on the port side of the other. 

This article only applies to cases where vessels are meet- 
ing end on or nearly end on, in such a manner as to involve 
risk of collision, and does not apply to two vessels which 
must, if both keep on their respective courses, pass clear of 
each other. 

The only cases to which it does apply are when each 
of the two vessels is end on or nearly end on, to the other ; 
in other words, to cases in which, bv day. each vessel sees 
the masts of the other in a line or nearly in line with her 
own; and by night to cases in which each vessel is in such 
a position as to see both the side lights of the other. 

It does not apply by day to cases in which a vessel sees 
another ahead crossing her own course; or by night, to 
cases where the red light of one vessel is opposed to the red 
light of the other, or where the green light of one vessel is 
opposed to the green light of the other, or where a red light 
without a green light, or a green light without a red light, 
is seen ahead, or where both green and red lights are seen 
anywhere but ahead. 

Art. 10. TA'Vo Steain A^e^KKel^s C>i'c>!-«Kiii<r- 
When two steam- vessels are crossing, so as to involvi' risk 
of collision, the vessel which has the other on her own 
starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other. 

Art. 20. When a steam-vessel and a sailing-vessel are 
proceeding in such directions as to involve risk of collision, 
the steam-vessel shall keep out of the way of the sailing- 
vessel. 

Art. 21. Coixvsse Mn<l Si>eecl. Where, by any 
of these rules, one of the two vessels is to keep out of the 
way the other shall keep her course and speed. 



282 PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA. 

Note, When, in consequence of thick weather or other 
causes, such vessel finds herself so close that collision can 
not be avoided by the action of the giving-way vessel alone, 
she also shall take such action as will best aid to avert col- 
lision. (See articles twenty-seven and twenty -nine.) 

Art. 22. Every vessel which is directed by these rules to 
keep out of the way of another vessel shall, if the circum- 
stances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other. 

Art. 2;{. Every steam-vessel which is directed by these 
rules to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, on ap- 
proaching her, if necessary, slacken her speed or stop or 
reverse. 

Art. 24. Overtalting-^^eHwelis. Notwithstand- 
ing anything contained in these rules every vessel, over- 
taking any other, shall keep out of the way of the over- 
taken vessel. 

Every vessel coming up with another vessel from any 
direction more than two points al)aft her beam, that is, in 
such a position, with reference to the vessel which she is 
overtaking that at night she would be unable to see either 
of that vessel's side-lights, shall be deemed to be an over- 
taking vessel ; and no subsequent alteration of the bearing 
between the two vessels shall make the overtaking vessel 
a crossing vessel within the meaning of these rules, or re- 
lieve her of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken ves- 
sel until she is finally past and clear. 

As by day the overtaking vessel can not always know 
with certainty whether she is forward of or abaft this di- 
rection from the other vessel she should, if in doubt, assume 
that she is an overtaking vessel and keep out of the way. 

Art. 25. IVai'i*<>AV Cliaiiiielw. In narrow chan- 
nels every steam-vessel shall, when it is safe and practica- 
ble, keep to that side of the fair-way or mid-channel which 
lies on the starboard side of such vessel. 

Art. 20. PMorhtw of AVa^' orFiwhirig- A^es- 
>«els« Sailing-vessels under way shall keep out of the 
way of sailing-vessels or boats fishing with nets, or lines, 
or trawls. This rule shall not give to any vessel or boat 
engaged in fishing the right of obstructing a fair- way used 
by vessels other than fishing-vessels or boats. 

Art. 27. Ciren.ei*al Pi-vicleiitial !R.iile. In 
obeying and construing these rules due regard shall be had 
to all dangers of navigation and collision, and to any spe- 
cial circumstances which may render a departure from the 
above rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger. 

Art. 28. Soixnd-SigrialH for Vessels in 
Sigrlit of One ^^.iiotlier. The words *' short 
blast " used in this article shall mean a blast of about one 
second's duration. 

When vessels are in sight of one another, a steam-vessel 



PREVENTING COLLISIONS AT SEA. 283 

under way, in taking any course authorized or requirea by 
these rules, shall indicate that course by the following sig- 
nals on her whistle or siren, namely : 

One short blast to mean, "" I am directing my course to 
starboard." 

Two short blasts to mean, '* I am directing my course to 
port." 

Three short blasts to mean, **My engines are going at 
full speed astern. " 

Art. 29. I^recavitions. Nothing in these rules 
shall exonerate any vessel or the owner or master or crew 
thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to carry 
lights or signals, or of any neglect to keep a proper lookout, 
or of the neglect of any precaution which may be requirecl 
by the ordinary practice of seamen, or by the special cir- 
cumstances of the case. 

Art. 30. Reservation ot" K.ulew Foi* Tlar- 
l>or^« and Inland Navig'ation. Nothing in 
these rules shall interfere with the operation of a special 
rule, duly made by h>cal authority, relative to the naviga- 
tion of any harbor, river, or inland waters. 

Art. 31. T>iHtT*eK!Si; Sig-nalK* When a vessel is 
in distress and requires assistance from other vessels or 
from the shore the following shall be the signals to be used 
or displayed by her, either together or separately, namely : 

In the dniitime — First. A gun or other explosive signal 
fired at intervals of about a minute. 

Second. The international code signal of distress indi- 
cated by N. C. 

Third. The distance signal, consisting of a square flag, 
having either above or below it a ball or anything resem- 
bling a ball. 

Fourth. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal ap- 
paratus. 

At night — First. A gun or other explosive signal at in- 
tervals of about a minute. 

Second. Flames on the vessel as from a burning tar 
barrel, oil barrel, and so forth. 

Third. Rockets or shells throwing stars of any color or 
description, fired one at a time, at short intervals. 

Fourth. A continuous sounding with any fog-signal ap- 
paratus. 



284: YfiSSELS' LIGHTS, ETC. 

BUOYS. 

ON THE COAST OF THE UNITED STATES. 

In ^ a^proSiChing the channel, &c., frma seaward, red 
buoys with even numbers will be found on the starboard 
side of the channel, and must be left on the starboard hand 
in passing in. 

In approaching the channel, &c., from seaward, black 
buoys with odd numbers will be found on the port side of 
the channel, and must be left on the port hand in passings 
in. 

Buoys painted with red and black horizontal stripes will 
be found on obstructions with channel ways on either side 
of them, and may be left on either hand in passing in. 

Buoys painted with white and black perpendicular stripes 
will be found in mid-channel, and must be passed close-to 
to ^void danger. 

All other aistin^uishins' marks to buoys will be in addi- 
tion to the foregoing, and may be employed to mark par- 
ticular spots. 

Buoys to mark abrupt turning points in channels, or 
obstructions requiring a specific and prominent mark, may- 
be fitted with staves surmounted by balls, cages, triangles, 
and other distinctive marks. Yellow buoys, without num- 
bers, are used to mark any danger at a quarantine station. 

The largest description of buoys (*' mammoth" or special 
buoys) are to mark the approaches to channels over sea- 
ward bars and isolated shoals, rocks, or other obstructions 
to navigation which lie at considerable distances from the 
coast. 

First and second class buoys are to mark the approaches 
to, the obstructions in, and to point out and mark tne limits 
of channels leading to the principal harbors along the coast, 
and also to mark the channels and obstructions adjacent to 
the coast and those in the large bays and sounds. 

Second and third class buoys are to mark the approaches 
to and the channels and obstructions of the lesser narbors, 
bays, &c. 

Nun or can buoys liable to be damaged or swept away 
by floating ice are removed on the approach of freezing 
weather, and spar buoys put in their places. In the spring 
the larger buoys are replaced. 

Small spar-buoys are to mark channels and obstructions 
in shoal-water navigation. 

Different channels in the same bay, sound, river, or 
harbor are marked, as far as practicable, by diflferent 
descriptions of buoys. Principal channels are marked by 
nun-buoys, secondary channels by can-buoys, arid minor 
channels by spar-buoys. When there is but one channel. 



vessels' lights, etc. 285 

nun-buoys, properly colored, and numbered, are placed on 
the starboard side, and can-buoys on the port side of it. 

Buoys are placed in the best positions to mark obstruc- 
tions, or to define channels, and are made to float as high, 
and as nearly upright, as possible, during the strongest 
winds and tides. White numbers, as large as the class of 
the buoy will admit, are painted on four sides of red and 
black buoys, and the other distinguishing marks made to 
show as prominently as possible. 

Canada is buoyed on the same system as the United 
States. 

White buoys are used to mark special points but have no 
reference to dangers to navigation. 

Buoys indicate the set of the tide by the trdf/ they natch, 
that is, the direction in which they are inclined. 



CHAPTER XX. 

GETTING UNDER WAY AND ANCHORING UNDER SAIL. 

I{.eiiiax*kK on CaHting-. When there is plenty 
of sea-room, and the wind is fair, it is best to cast under 
the head-sails and to make sail when before the wind. 

In casting with the square sails set, ships invariably 

gather stemway the moment the anchor breaks ground, 
^n this account, and under these circumstances, it is con- 
sidered a ffood general rule (in the case of a foul wind) 
to cast with the head towards the nearest of the neigh- 
boring dangers, to make a stern board while the anchor 
is being catted, then to fill and make sail enough to insure 
going about in stays when requisite. 

When there is not room to admit of going much astern, 
set the main-sail before starting the ancnor, if possible, or 
as soon after as it will take, and have a purchase all ready 
to clap on the cable the moment that the anchor promises 
to give a heavy heave ; otherwise the ship may go tripping 
it astern into shoaler water, and certainly will oe unman- 
ageable until it is at the bows. 

As a general rule, and one not to be neglected, when 
weighing one anchor have the other ready lor letting go, 
and as soon as an anchor is weighed get it ready for letting 
go at once. 

Before getting under way, shift the helm over two or 
three times, to insure the rendering of the wheel ropes, and 
that the tiUer is clear in its sweep. 

When you have room, and are pitching, it will be best to 
get the anchor up before making sail. By so doing you will 
ease the chain,. capstan, &c. 

When about to get under way (the ship being tide rode 
and the wind aft), the comparative strength of wind 'and 
tide must be well considered before coming to the decisiou 
to make sail and weigh, or to weigh first and to make scul 
afterwards. For it does not look seamanlike to see^ a ship 
under canvas forging ahead over her anchor, tearing the 
copper off her bottom, and sheering unmanageably about 
before breaking ground ; and it is equally' bad management 
when the anchor is hove up and the ship is drifted oy the 
tide without steerage wav. 

If the wind were light, it would be necessary to make 

286 



Plato 106 




/ 
















/ 













/nrtgn ■ ■ ■ ?* \ 







GETTING UNDER WAY UNDER SAIL 287 

nearly all sail before breaking ground ; or if moderate, 
merely to loose them. If it were blowing strong, the ship 
might stem the tide without any sail ; out in this latter 
case it would be well to have a head-sail set, so as to pre- 
vent the possibility of breaking the sheer while stowing the 
anchor. 

TO GET UNDER WAY AND STAND OUT ON A WIND. 

(Case 1, Plate 106.) 

Having the vessel in readiness for sea. and unmoored, 
prepare to get under way as under ordinary circumstances, 
witn the wind fair for standing out of the harbor. 

Big the capstan and fish-boom, reeve the cat and fish 
purchases, ship the gratings, swifter the bars, call : 

Up anchor ! 

If there are two capstans, the one on the g^n-deck is 
Inanned by the port watch. If fitted with a steam capstan, 
see steam turned on, and a man stationed to run it. The 
principal stations are : 

Forecastlemen to clean off chain with hose, stand bv 
with cat, fish, &c. 

Mastmen see gear ready for making sail. 

Quartermaster and men stationed at the wheel go to 
their stations ; also, leadsmen in both chains or quarter 
boats. 

Gunner's gang tend chain around capstan, fore and 
main topmen port watch be ready to bitt or unbitt, tend 
stoppers, or at controllers, &c. Master-at-arms and servants 
or berth-deck cooks tend berth-deck compressors ; tierers in 
the chain locker. Man the bars. Heave around ! and heave 
in the cable to a short stay. 

As soon as "brought to," the first lieutenant orders the 
officer of the forecastle to inform him when the chain is in 
to a certain scope, say fifteen fathoms chain in five fathoms 
water, though it depends entirely upon the strength of the 
wind and sea.* When in to the required scope, the officer of 
the forecastle commands. Avast heaving! and reports to 
the first lieutenant, who then directs the men to be sent up 
(supposing it a frigate) to make sail. 

The cable being in to a short stav, Heave and paul! 
stopper the cable well, and unship the bars, on the spar 
deck. 

Stations for making sail ! Lay aloft sail loosers ! and 
when the men are aloft and readv, Lay out and Loose ! 
Man the topsail sheets and halliards ! In the meantime the 
forecastle men are loosing the head sails, and the afterguard 
the spanker ; when ready, Stand by ! Let fall ! Sheet 

* The old rale for a short stay was, that the cable should be on a line with 
the foretopmaflt stay. 



-5^^ GETTING UNDER WAY UNDER SAIL. 

home! Lay in! Lay down from aloft ! The men all lay 
down on deck, except a few hands in the tops to liirht up 
and overhaul the rigeing ; at the same time, ease away the 
topsail clewlines, and haul close home the topsail sheets 
As soon as the men are clear of the yards,. Ifenrf the braces! 
Haul taut ! Hoist away the topsails ! giving also the 
cautionary order Light up the rigging aloft ! Hoist the 
topsails to a taut leech, and Belay the topsail halliards » 
or High enough the fore ! Well the mizzen ! Belay the main f 
&c., &c. Sheet home and hoist the topgallant sails, and 
then the royals, if the wind is light. Brace up the after 
yards for the tack on which you wish to cast, and the head 
vards abox to pay her off. Top up the spanker boom, and 
bear it over on the side you wish to cast. 

The following commands are commonly given, sail be- 
mg made : 

Man the port head brakes ! Starboard main, port cross* 
jack braces ! —or, the reverse, as you wish to cast (after part 
generally to after, forward part to head braces). 

Let go and overhaul the lifts ! Clear away all the bow- 
lines ! Tend the lee braces ! 

Haul taut ! 

Brace up ! 

Brace abox ! 

It will be observed that the booms are not triced up when 
loosing to get under way. 

The sails being set, Man the bars! ship and swifter 
them ; Heave abound ! at the same time giving her a sheer 
with the helm. The officer of the forecastle reports when 
the cable is ''up and down,"' and also when the anchor is 
a weigh! at the former report, Man the rib and flying-jib 
halliards ! The fore topsail pays her head off, ana as soon 
as the head sails will tate the right way, Let go the down- 
hauls, hoist away ! Put the helm a-lee for stemboard, at 
the same time, heave the anchor up to the bows ; and as soon 
as it is high enough, Ava^t heaving ! Paul the capstan I 
stopper the cable ; cat and fish the anchor. When sne has 
fallen off sufficiently, Right the helm ! Brace around the 
liead yards, and set the spanker. Trim the yards and stand 
out to sea, making sail as required. 

As soon as the anchor is catted and fished, the cable is 
bitted and cleared for running. Having passed the bar- 
buoy, and seeing that all the sails are properly set, the 
anchors and boats secured, and no further necessity for all 
hands to be on deck, the first lieutenant reports the fact to 
the captain, who directs him to **pipe down." On the 
boatswain piping down, the officers leave their stations and 
the lieutenant of the watch takes the trumpet, receiving the 
course from the pilot or navigator. 

In some cases, though rarely, the captain gets the ship 



GETTING UNDER WAY UNDER SAIL. 289 

under way. When he does not. the first lieutenant does 
it, though the captain is still responsible for the manner in 
which it is done. 

In getting under way in a spacious harbor, where you 
have sufficient room, if circumstances will admit of it, it is 
advisable, particularly if blowing fresh, to keep the f oretop- 
sail to the mast until the anchor is catted and fished : to do 
w^hich set the spanker as soon as, or before, she oreaks 
^oimd, and keep the head sails down ; or flow the jib- 
sheet. 

Should it blow sufficiently fresh, and present appear- 
ances of heavy weather outside, it is advisable to reei the 
topsails while setting them. 

When getting under way to stand off on a wind, the 
spanker may be set, and very often is, when sail is made ; 
guying the boom on the lee quarter, or the side to which 
you cast, as this catches the vessel snould she be inclined 
to fall off too much. 

To Cret uncler* ^^^^y fi*oiix F'ixecl IMooi-- 
ingrs. Proceed as in the above, bracing the yards as you 
wish to cast, then slip the moorings and trim the yards to 
the course, or use a spring from the moorings if circum- 
stances require, taking both ends of the spring inboard that 
you may let go one end, unreeve and haul it on board. 

RIDING HEAD TO WIND, 

WITH A BOCK OR SHOAL ASTERN, AND CLOSE ABOARD — ^TO GET 
UNDER WAY AND MAKE SAIL, BY THE WIND, ON THE STAR- 
BOARD TACK. (Case 4.) 

The object now is to get the vessel under way without 
losing anythin|^, either in drift after the anchor is aweigh, 
or in falline on after casting. 

Having hove in to a safe scope, run out a hawser ahead, 
^th a kedge, from the starboard bow ; and having let it 
go, haul the nawser well taut ; masthead the topsail and 
topgallant yards, having the sails loosed, and only confined 
to the yards by the quarter gaskets ; brace the yards sharp 
up by the port braces, fore and aft ; loose the courses, jib 
and spanker, and have them ready for setting ; the star- 
board jib-sheet aft, and the fore and main tacks and sheets 
stretched along the deck. 

Man the bars and heave around briskly, until the anchor 
is up, taking in at the same time the slack of the hawser ; 
cat and fish the anchor ; and have it ready for letting go as 
soon as possible. 

Man the hawser and warp the vessel ahead, sheering her 
with the starboard helm. Have the topsail sheets well 
manned, and as soon as the kedge is short apeak, or comes 



290 (iETTINd UNDER WAY UNDER SAIL. 

home, sheet home the topsails, run up the jib, haul out the 
spanker, with the boom on the port quarter; and as soon as 
the jib takes, with the wind on the starboard bow, run the 
kedge up to the bows. 

As she falls off, and the moment the topsails take, draw 
the jib, set the courses and topgallant sails, and right the 
helm. Should the kedge come home before it is apeak, 
make sail immediately, hauling in the hawser at the same 
time. 

If she is falling off rapidly when the topsails take, set 
the spanker and mainsail alone, easing off the jib-sheet ; 
and as she comes to, board the fore tack, haul aft the jib- 
sheet, and meet her with the helm. 

If, when the kedge is aweigh, she should fall off to star- 
board, and bring the wind on the port bow, let go the 
anchor and bring her up. By this process you have warped 
considerably ahead or the anchorage, and by counter 
bracing the head yards you may get under way, as under 
ordinary circumstances, or you may run out the kedge 
again, and make a second trial. 

If, while warping ahead, the kedge comes home, or the 
hawser part^, proceed at once to make sail or let go the 
anchor. 

GETTING UNDER WAY IN A TIDEWAY. 

In the foregoing examples, we have had nothing to con- 
sider, in getting under way, but the effect of the sails and helm 
on the vessel : but in a tideway, we have also the force of the 
current to guard against, or profit by, during the operation. 
The principles involved are the same in both cases, bein^ 
careful to keep in mind that the tide, running past the ves- 
sel, will act on the rudder in the same manner as if the 
vessel were going ahead at that rate of speed ; and to allow 
for the drift of the vessel after the anchor breaks ground. 
Lying at anchor in a tideway, a vessel will ride to the wind. 
or tide, which ever is the stronger. 

I>etlnitioii of Ticlew. Flood tide, is the in- 
coming tide. 

Ebb tide, is the outgoing tide. 

A windward fide, is when the wind and tide are con- 
trary. 

A leeward tide^ is when the wind and the tide are 
together. 

A windward ebb, is when the tide is setting out, and the 
wind blowing in. 

.4 windward flood, is when the tide is setting in, and the 
wind blowing out. 

A leeward ebb, is when the tide and wind are both set- 
ting out. 



GETTING UNDER WAY UNDER SAIL. 201 

A leeward flood, is when the wind and tide are both set- 
ting in. 

A spring tide is the highest tide, and occurs just su^- 
sequent to the fttll and change of the moon. 

A neap tide is the lowest tide, occurring when the moou 
is near the first and third quarters. 

TO BACK ASTERN. (Case 7, Plate 109.) 

If you have not room to cast, either to port or starboard, 
from your anchorage— suppose a vessel on each quarter — 
weigh the anchor, and drift down between the vessels be- 
fore you cast, thus : 

Heave short ; set the topsails and spanker ; brace all the 
yards about halfway up by the port braces ; then heave in 
on the cable, and as soon as the anchor is aweigh, put the 
helm to port ; the tide acting against the starboard side of 
the rudder, casts the stern to port ; the sails being aback, 
she will soon gather stemboard, when the effect of the tide 
upon the rudder will be lost ; but the resistance by stern- 
board on the port side of the rudder and the effect of the 
spanker will counteract the tendency of the fore topsail to 
pay her off. In this manner let her drift down with the 
tide, between the two vessels. Shoidd she pay off too much 
you may bear the spanker boom well over to windward, 
and brace the niizzen topsail sharp up. Should she, in 
stemboard, be m danger of fouling the one vessel, she will 
increase the distance from the other, when you may brail 
up the spanker, shiver the after yards, hoist tne jib, and let 
her go around before the wind, righting the helm as she 
gathers headway. 

In like manner a vessel may be backed astern where 
there is no tide. 

But this manoeuvre should not be attempted except with 
a smart working^ ship, as a sluggish vessel or one that takes 
a rank sheer, will be likely to foul one of the two dangers 
before any change in the disposition of canvas will affect 
her movements. Therefore, with an ordinary cruising 
vessel, getting imder way under sail, proceed as follows : 

Heave short ; set the topsails, reeled if necessary, and 
keep the yards sauare ; the helm amidships. Heave in 
again, ana when sne breaks ground and starts astern, paul 
the capstan and stopper the cable. You may thus chib 
down, and when clear of danger heave up briskly, wear and 
make sail as requisite. 

H.em.Cii*ks on "Weigliiiigr* If a J^hip has a 
leading wind and is anchored in a narrow channel, or in 
the midst of a number of a vessels, she should be got under 
way before the tveather tide is done, as it would be ex- 
tremely difficult to cast her upon the lee tide. 



^21)2 GETTINti UNDER WAY UNDER SAIL. 

TTlie Kleclgr*^ a^nd Tog-gle. When using a 
spring the weighing of the kedge may be much facili- 
tated by bending the hawser to the crown of the anchor ^ and 
securing it to tne ring by means of a squilgee toggle. If 
the anchor has been carried out by a boat let her hang on to 
the buov, and at a signal from the ship pull out the toggle, 
when tne kedge mav be run up to the quarter, and when 
the ship finds room sne will heave to and pick up the boat. 



ANCHORING. 

[•al Heiiiai*kK on 

Ships, on getting within signal distance of the senior officer, 
are required to show their number, and on this being recog- 
nized, that officer gives his number in return. 

Local signals, or temporary additions to the si^al books, 
general orders, and copies of the squadron routine, should 
be procured without delay after joining company. 

Shortening all sail together, in coming to anchor, how- 
ever well done aloft, cannot but crowcT the decks at a 
time when you want silence and the power of carrying out 
a sudden alteration in your plans. Except when you want 
to ** charge " into a station with great way, or catch breezes 
over the land with your lofty canvas, the seamanlike way 
to come to is under topsails, after the courses and upper 
sails have been taken in and the upper yards squared. Y ou 
can then feel your way with the to}^sails, deaden it with a 
check of the braces, freshen it with a small addition of can- 
vas, or stop it by heaving aback. 

When about to shorten sail, get the marks on the lee 
lower lifts down ; clew up ; man all the braces, and lower 
and square all together. 

In coming in, while blowing hard, get as much sail 
reefed and furled as you can spare with prudence, and the 
cables double-bitted. If running, round to before letting go, 
and have hands by the second anchor ready for letting go. 

Always double-bitt before anchoring in deep water, as at 
Madeira, and similar anchorages. 

Should you use a buoy, do not part with it until veering 
obliges you to do so. 

The rolling motion may be checked, when at anchor, 
provided there be not too much wind, by making sail ana 
oracing by. This is no unimportant object, especially in 
liandling boats. 

No one who could help it would moor in a roadstead. At 
single anchor a ship is ready for sea, and her remaining 
anchors are disposable for a gale from any quarter. 

The common rule for giving the proper scope to ride by, 
in moderate weather, is six times the depth of water. 

If possible, in coming to, the vessel should be given a 



AN'CHORING. 293 



sheer with the helm so that the anchor let go will be the 
weather one to insure the ship swinging away from it. 
This should be done whether under sail or steam. 

In coming to an anchor, it is desirable to run the cable 
out straight, clear of the anchor, after letting^ go. To do 
this we must either wait for stemway before letting go, or 
else let go while there is heawiway on, and pay out roundly. 

For tie former there must be wind enough^(if there is no 
tide) to force the ship astern. In the latter, there is the 
chance of damaging the copper and snapping the chain, 
and thus of running on board a vessel which we had 
reckoned on clearing. It is evidently an unnecessary risk 
in strong breezes, and therefore only adopted in light ones, 
where tne risk is small. The mizzen topsail is often set 
aback to g[ive the ship stemboard. 

The object in thus laying out the cable is, that not only 
will the anchor be clear, but that (except in strong breezes 
and tides) the ship will ride far from her anchor by the 
mere weight of the chain, where it rises from the bottom. 



PREPARATIONS FOR ENTERING PORT. 

It will be assumed that the ship has had a long and 
boisterous passage, and that she is approaching her port 
of destination under favorable circumstances, pleasant 
weather, and with a reasonable prospect of making a speedy 
run in. 

On striking soundings, bend chains and get the anchors 
oflf the bows. A day or two before making the port, send 
down any extra rigging that may be aloft, scrape and 
grease spars, get the upper masts in line, and see that 
all the sauare marks are on the lifts and braces. Scrub 
paint- work inside and out, and if found necessary give the 
ship a light coat of paint outside. Touc^h up all chafes on 
the spars aloft. The morning before going in. holystont' 
decks, and scrub boats, spars, and oars. Sling clean ham- 
mocks the evening before. 

As you near the port, send down all chafing gear, lower 
the boat davits and square the boats, having them all ready 
for lowering, have all the half ports squared, and see that 
no lines are towing overboard. Have sentry boards placed, 
and sentries ready for posting, the ac^commodation ladder 
scrubbed and ready for shipping. All sheets snug home, 
and sails up taut; clew-jiggers hooked, if used. If antici- 
pating a long stay in port, the studding-sails may be unbent, 
the gear unrove, tallied, and stowed away. If intending to 
moor inunediately after anchoring, rig the capstan for th" 
chain of the anchor first let go. unless the bars will be \u 
the way. The officers and crew should be dressed in the 



*>4 AX' H-»FIV",. 

urr.iorrn pr'-^Tif^*-d Ky th^ r-apiain, E^»-r7 prv-paration 
*»fjOi,'J Fj^ rna^ifr for firin;^ a saiut*-, and tin: fla^ to be Ui^t^ 
in r^-ix/iiu-^^ 

S^^m^imfrs the toj»saiI <sheets and fore and mam tacks and 
«hf?*fts ar*- sin^l*-d to facilitate shortening sail. 

If cornini^ in under steam alune, have all the sails neatly 
furl^rd, yardh J^^^uare^i, and rijrtring hauled taut. 

On approaehinj^ a p^^irt at any tune, day or night, have the 

colors h^'t. If It has been too dark to make out the colors 

Uf^ffi th*- *»lj:f/s ♦'nt^-rinK iH»rt. th^y are to be hoisted at day- 

bn-ak th** next morning, and hauled down a few minutes 

iM'f'ire th*' time for ••colors." 

I'fKin nearing the anchorage, the officer of the deck, when 
H/i orden-d. direr-t*; the boatswain to call '•Brixg ship to 
AVf'HOR I" Tlie first lieutenant then takes the tnunpet. and 
offirer^ and crew refiair to their stations. The officers, fol- 
lowing the executive, repair in the order of rank to the fore- 
cjtKtle, main d^-ck. starlxmrdand port g^angwaysandmizzen 
mast. The officer assigned to this duty, will see that both 
anchors are ready for letting go, that the chains are bitted 
and clear for nmning. compressors thrown back, with men 
U> man the falls, hfK>k-ropes, stopi>ers, &:c., at hand. 

The junior officers are distributed about the ship to the 
best advantage. 

The principal stations of the crew are at the wheel, lead, 
anchors, conn, signals, clew-jiggers and buntlines, down- 
hauls and brails, and weather braces. Hands by tacks and 
slicets, halliards, outhauls, bowlines, lee braces, and on the 
low(?r yards to overhaul the topsail sheets. Also hands by 
the compressors, and hook-rope on the main deck. 

Only those men stationed aloft will go there ; all others 
must keep below the rail, out of the chains and clear of the 
ports. Care should be taken that the general appearance of 
the ship is neat and seamanlike. 

For detail of duties of the men stationed at the anchors 
at the order Let go ! see Chapter XIV. 

If a senior officer's ship is lying in the port, observe the 
disposition made of his light spars, and, if need be, make 
the usual signals and all preparations for sending down 
light yards and masts, should his be on deck. Sway at the 
onler Lay down from aloft ! after furling sail, but lower 
carefully while men are in the rigging. 

A v(\sHol entering port with Tight yards in the rigging 
should make similar preparations for crossing them on 
anchoring if the senior officer has his light yards across. 

As soon as the sails are furled, lay down all but the 
square yard men, send a boat ahead, square yards haul taut 
and stop in rigging, and pipe down. 

Get the lower booms out, rigged for port, and lower boats 
according to circumstances. When coming in under steam 



ANCHORING. 295 

alone, the former are generally rigged out as the anchor is 
let go. At the same time, circumstances permitting, run up 
the jack if the topgallant yards are across, and fire the first 
gun of the salute. 

The catamaran should be ready, so that the copper may 
be scrubbed and oiled the morning after coming to. 

Immediately after anchoring, the navigator get's bearings 
of the prominent objects in sight, that the ship's position 
may be plotted on the chart. These bearings must be en- 
tered in the loe. 

On pipine down, the first lieutenant gives up the deck to 
the officer of the watch. 



HAVING A LEADING WIND, 

TO RUN IN AND ANCHOR. (NO TIDE.) 

Bring ship to anchor! See that all the officers and 
crew are on deck and at their stations. Top-gallant and 
ROYAL YARDMEN IN THE TOPS ! Stand by to take in all the 
studding-sails and royals ! After the men are stationed, take 
them in, giving the command. Haul taut ! In studding- 
sails AND ROYALS I Or give the command for the stun' 
sails in detail. Rig in and get alongside the studding-sail 
booms, make up and stow away the sails, trice up the gear, 
take the burtons off the topsail yard, and jiggers off the top- 
gallant lifts, if used. 

Man the top-gallant clewlines! Fore clew-garnets and 
huntlines! ancl when ready, Haul taut I In top-gallant 

SAILS, UP FORESAIL ! 

Furl the top-gallant sails and royals ! The moment 
this command is given, the light-yard men should lay aloft 
from the top, and after furling the sails snugly, lay down 
on deck. 

Square the lower yards by the lifts, and let the captains 
of the tops square the top-gallant and royal yards. 

Man the topsail clew-jiggers and bnntlines ; jib down- 
haul! spanker outhaul ! At this command hands lay out on 
lower yards to overhaul topsail sheets. Have hands sta- 
tioned by the topsail sheets and halliards, jib halliards and 
spanker brails, and to attend the braces. Bear the spanker 
boom over on the quarter. 

When near the anchorage, put the helm to starboard or 
port, as the case may be, having allowed for head -reach in 
l)ringing her to the wind. Then give the command, Haul 
taut! Let go the topsail sheets! Clew up! Haul down 
THE JIB ! Haul out the spanker ! As soon as the sails 
shake, having the wind abeam. Settle away the topsail 
halliards ! Square away ! Take in the slack of the braces 
as the yards come down, keeping them square. The bunt- 



296 ANCHORING. 

lines are hauled up above the yard, the clews hauled for- 
ward by the clew-jiggers. 

She comes to the wind by the effect of the helm and 
spanker, and as soon as she loses entirely her headway givt- 
the commands. Stand clear of the starboard (or port) chain .' 
Let go the starboard (or port) anchor ! Spanker braiLs.' 
and as soon as she swings to the anchor. Brail up the 

SPANKER ! 

Direct the officer of the forecastle as to the scope to be 
given, he reporting the order carried out when the chain is 
secured: furl sails, square yards, haul taut rigging, and 
pipe down. 

If coming in before the wind, or with the wind well aft. 
the head sails may be down, or hauled down before short- 
ening sail. 

If the crew has been well drilled, all the studding-sails, 
top-gallant sails, rovals, and foresail may be taken in to- 
gether ; and this, when well done, has a fine eflfect. 

The best command to give on such occasions, where every- 
thing is started together, is : 

Haul taut I Shorten sail ! 

This should be done in time sufficient to admit of getting 
the sails, booms, and gear out of the way before taking in 
the topsails. 

The top-gallant sails and royals should be furled at once, 
when clewed up. To this end it is well to have the light- 
vard men on tne jack and cross-trees ready to lay out the 
moment the yards are down. 

It is not advisable to attempt to reduce a cloud of canvas 
at once, unless the crew and rigging are in such a state as 
to insure success. 



TO COME TO ''HEAD ON." 

If there is not room to take the necessary sweep, in comings 
to anchor with the wind aft, check-stoppers may be put on 
the cable to deaden the headway. Having clewed up the 
sails in good time, furl them, that you may approach the 
anchorage with as little headway as possible. The anchor 
being let go, the checks, breaking one after the other, serve 
to stop her headway before the range is veered to. If no 
cable IS ranged, have careful hands at the compressors. 



TO STAND IN ON A WIND AND ANCHOR. 

Coming to anchor with the yards braced up, you must 
have the weather braces well manned, and nave hands 
ready to square the lower lifts, before the topsails are clewed 
up ; and the moment the order is given to clew up, let the 



ANCHORING. 297 

braces be hauled in, and the lower lifts hauled taut to the 
square mark. Some officers square the yards by the braces 
before they clew up the sails. This hastens to stop her 
headway, and it is necessary in some cases, as, for instance, 
in coming to in a crowded harbor, or where 70U have little 
room. But it renders the operation of clewing up difficult, 
from the sails being aback and binding against the rigging. 
Others clew up the topsails, and then, manning all the 
weather braces, command. Settle away the topsail hal- 
liards! Square away ! When circumstances permit, this 
is preferable. 

As soon as the cable is taut and the anchor ahead, " veer 
to " on the cable, giving it to her as she will take it. 

Standing in on a bowline iinder all sail, the most approved 
method is to shorten sail to topsails, jib, and spanker, and 
to come to under that sail. 

Everything being in readiness, give the conmiand — 

Man the fore ana main clew garnets and buntlines I 

Top-Gallant and royal clewlines, flying jib downhaul! 

Aloji top-gallant and royal yard men I * 

Having hands by the tacks, sheets, halliards, and lee 
braces, and weather top-gallant and royal braces manned, 
command, Haul taut ! 

Shorten sail ! 

The sails are clewed up, yards clewed down, and squared 
in by the braces. 

Furl the top-gallant sails and royals, stow the fly- 
ing-jib. 

Next command — 

Man the topsail clew-jiggers and buntlines! 

Jib dowhaul! 

At this command the men stationed there lay out on 
the lower yards to overhaul topsail sheets, and a few hands 
are sent to the spanker sheet. 

Stand by the starboard (or port) anchor! 

When it is judged that the ship can be luffed up into her 
berth, command the helm — 

Hard down ! 

Haul taut ! 

Let go the jib halliards ! Haul down ! 

Clear atvay the topsail sheets ! Clew up ! 

The spanker sheet is now hauled over till the boom is 
amidships; the jib is hauled down snug, and the topsails 
clewed up. Then — 

Man the weather braces ! Stand by the topsail halliards! 

Settle atvay the topsail halliards! Square away ! 

At this command the topsail halliards are settled away 
roundly, and the braces hauled in to the square marks. 

The quartermaster in the chains, judging by his lead, will 

* Thia presupposee the light-yard men have already been sent into the tops^ 



iJ98 ANCHORING. 

report when headway ceases; as soon as the ship com- 
mences going astern, Stand clear of the starboard chain! 
Let go the starboard anchor 1 If a buoy is used, firsts 
Stream the buoy! 

When head to wind, put the wheel amidships and secure 
it, and brail up the spanker. 

Let her take the chain from the locker if she will, and do 
not pay it down in a lump under the forefoot. If the wind 
is so light that, even with the mizzen topsail set, she will 
not take the chain, you must wait either for the tide or a 
stronger breeze to send her astern. 

The anchor being down — 

Stations for furling sail ! 

Man the bunt-jiggers, have hands by the clew-jiggers and 
buntlines, &c., and proceed to furl. Should it be found, 
after clewing up, that the ship head reaches too much, and 
is in danger of louling another vessel, sheet home and hoist 
the mizzen topsail. Should this prove insufScient^ drop the 
foresail. 



IN EXPECTATION OF BEING FOULED 

BY ANOTHER SHIP DRIFTING DOWN FROM AHEAD. 

Send hands aloft to drop the foresail, screw down the 
forward compressor, unshackle the cable, bend on a hawser, 
and, as the vessel approaches, slip, and give her a wide 
berth. A head sail hoisted, with the sheet to windward, 
may assist in canting your vessel clear of the danger. In a 
fresh breeze, stand by to veer instead of unshackling. 

If collision is imavoidable, get the swinging boom along* 
side, lower the quarter boat and lower deck ports, overhaul 
lower lifts, and orace the yards up on the tack opposite to 
the side the ship is on. 

If a vessel gets athwart vour hawse in a strong tide, 
probably the easiest wav to clear is to send a kedge astern, 
set taut the hawser, and wait for the tide to turn. When it 
does, you will swing by the stern, and the other vessel be 
drifted clear of you. 

For tending ship at single anchor, see Appendix K. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

THE DECK.-11AKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

On fi^ettine clear of the harbor, the first lieutenant causss 
everything about the decks to be secured for sea : the boat- 
swain, upon receiving the order, secures the anchors, and, 
if a long passage is anticipated, the chains are unbent and 
the hawse-bucKlers put in. If the chains are not unbent 
the hawse- pipes are closed bv means of Jackasses (canvas 
bags stuffed with oakum). The chains after being cleaned 
are paid below. Dry and stow away everything used in 
getting under way. 

If tne vessel be under sail alone, the anchors and chains 
are kept ready for use imtil a good offing is made. 

On piping down from getting under way the first lieu- 
tenant turns the deck over to the officer having the watch, 
who is at once to acquaint himself with the position of the 
ship, her condition, and all orders remaining to be exe- 
cuted. 

Before losing sight of the land, the navigator takes the 
departure, puts over the patent log and sets the course, 
when the officer of the deck will commence heaving the 
log and marking the log-book. The chafing^ gear will now 
be put on, the boats topped up and secured, and the stud- 
ding-sail gear will be rove, if not done before leaving port. 

The Officer of* tfaie Deck* An outline of the 
daily routine at sea will be found in the internal rules and 
regulations of the ship, but a few minor details may be here 
mentioned. Let it be supposed that an officer is called at 
3:50 A.M. to keep the morning watch. Ten minutes is the 
usual time allowed for him to reach the deck. Having 
received ell the orders, information, &c., he will, on the 
watch bein^ reported up, and the wheel and lookouts re- 
lieved, "reheve the watch," and have the watch on deck 
mustered. In the meanwhile he ** passes the course" to the 
man at the wheel, looks at the compass if goin^ free or 
under steam, or at the sails if "full and by," ana this he 
should frequently repeat during the watch. After the 
mustering of the watch it is well to make a rapid survey 
of the deck, to see that the yards and sheets are properly 
trimmed, weather lifts and weather braces taut ; lights 
burning brightly, lookouts properly stationed, and to give 
any cautionary orders to tne officer of the forecastle he 

299 



300 THE OFFICER OF THE DECK. 

may deem expedient, such as to have the topgallant clew- 
lines led along, and keep a bright lookout ahead. 

Except when making such inspections, or when obliged 
to satisfy himself personally of any fact, the oflScer of the 
deck should make it a rule to stay at his proper station, on 
the bridge or horse-block. He should observe this rule, 
especially when giving orders, instead of rushing about, as 
is too often the case, to assist in carrying out his own com- 
mands. 

The captain of each part of the ship should be supplied 
with a list of his men. Petty officers mav generally be 
relied upon to muster their own parts and to report ab- 
sentees, if there are no junior officers available for this 
duty. 

The very great advantage of calling the watch ten or 
fifteen minutes before eight bells, giving the men time to 
prepare for their watch, and to be mustered before the time 
for relieving, may be here reiterated. It would add to the 
health and comfort of the crew, to the safety of the ship 
when under sail, and relieve^ the mind of the officer of the 
deck of the anxiety felt during that painful intern^gnum 
when neither watch feels it incumbent to "man the main 
clew-garnets and buntlines,'' let it look never so squally to 
windward. 

The habit cannot be too earnestly recommended to the 
young watch officer of anticipating various emergencies 
and casualties, such as a man fallmg overboard, parting 
rigging, &c., &c., and determining what should be done in 
eacn event, that when it does occur, the right order may 
burst involuntarily from the lips, and the mind be fully pre- 
pared for the necessary evolution. 

The orders of the executive officer in reference to wash- 
ing clothes or scrubbing decks, called "morning orders," 
and usually written in an order book, are put in execu- 
tion immeaiately after mustering the watch, unless trim- 
ming yards, or other essential duties, or want of light pre- 
vent. If clothes are to be washed, the command is (?iven 
to " lay up the rigging fore and aft" and " sweep dovm,'- and 
the boatswain's mate is ordered to call the "watch scrub 
and wash clothes." A certain time should be allowed for 
washing — not over an hour — and the clothes should be 
neatly stopped on the lines so as to lap, each piece, by an 
inch or two, the white and blue separate, the former always 
being above or on a different set oi lines, that they may not 
be soiled by the dripping of the latter. 

At sunrise the command is given, Lay in, deck lookouts! 
Lay aloft the masthead lookout! The lights are taken in, 
forward officers called, and the master-at-arms directed to 
turn out and report up the idlers. 

The mates of the decks get their orders from the officer 
of the deck. If the main deck is to be washed, the second 



THE OFFICER OF THE DECK. 301 

part of the watch is sent below. But if under sail, an 
officer should be cautious not to allow the watch to become 
so much engaged, or the running rigging so encumbered, 
that the safls may not be readily handled, or the yards 
braced in anv sudden emergency. 

At six bells the boatswain will be directed to ''call all 
hands and pipe the hammocks up," after which get all the 
sheets home and sails taut up. 

If on a wind, proceed as loUows : 

Get a jigger on the main tack, slacking the weather lift 
and lee brace, and the sheet if necessary. Then haul taut 
the lift and brace, haul aft the sheet. Now get jiggers 
on the weather, then the lee topsail sheet, getting them 
home alike; overhauling well the clew-lines and reef- 
tackles, slacking the halliards and tending the topgallant 
sheets. Then clap on to the topsail halliards, heaving off 
the lee brace ana tending the weather one and the top- 

fallant sheets. Get the topsail up to a taut leech, then haul 
omethe topgallant sheets, pull up on the halliards — always 
attending the braces and the sheets of the sail next above, 
and then get the royal sheets close home and the sail up 
taut. Proceed similarlv on the fore and mizzen, haul the 
heads of the fore-and-aft sails chock out, and then the sheet 
or foot out-haul aft. 

See the head-sails hoisted with a taut luff, and trim aft 
the sheets. 

If free, with studding-sails set, get the lower studding- 
sail halliards up, then trim the out-haul. With the other 
studding-sails, get the tacks boom-ended, halliards chock 
up and sheets trimmed, in the order named. 

In trimming studding-sails, if the tack of the sail will 
not reach the boom end when the halliards are up, the boom 
hasprobably been rigged too far out. 

The sails being trimmed, put the tops to rights, ham- 
mock cloths and Doom cover smoothed over and stopped 
down, bright-work cleaned, chains swept out, peajackets 
put in the bags and stowed away, and rain clothes hung on 
the jackstays between the launches. 

An officer should never leave anything to be done by hip 
relief which he should have performed himself. 

At sunset the command is given, Get out the running 
lights! Station deck lookouts! and Lay down from the 
mast-head ! — the side lights are lighted and placed in posi- 
tion, in the light-boxes. Send aloft the mast-head light if 
under steam. 

Half an hour before each meal the ship's cook makes his 
report at the mast ; before breakfast and supper that "tea- 
water is ready for serving out," and at 11:30 brings the 
dinner for inspection. If nothing has occurred to interfere 
with the regular meal hours he is ordered to serve out. 

Everything affecting the health and comfort of the crew 



302 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

should receive the earnest attention of the officers. There 
are minor points of duty which no rules or regulations can 
reach, and which must be left to the thoughtfulness and 
good sense of the officers themselves. Thus a considerate 
officer will anticipate a rain-squall, and ^et washed clothes 
or scrubbed hammocks down in good time. He will not 
commence an all-hands job fifteen minutes before twelve 
o'clock, and send the men down to dinner at one bell. Boats 
and working parties will be recalled in time for their meals ; 
timely preparation will be made for rain that the men may 
not be exposed to it unnecessarily, and a dry place reserved 
for the watch below. 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

Young officers should make themselves familiar with 
the lead of the running rigging, and where it belays, and on 
first getting to sea, it is well to exercise the crew at man- 
ning the ropes, that they may learn their lead and be 
enabled to find them on the darKest night. 

To Set a Foresail, give tne command — 

Man the fore tack and sheet I 

At this command the men jump to their stations, the 
fore tack and sheet are manned, one hand being by each 
clew-garnet, and the buntlines and leechlines let go. 

Lay down on the fore yard and overhaul the rigging! 

At this command, one or two of the topmen lay down, 
and overhaul, through their blocks, the buntlines and leech- 
lines. 

If the weather is moderate, as soon as the officer of the 
deck sees that the men are at the stations, he commands — 

Clear away the rigging ! Haul aboard 1 

At this the clew-garnets are. let go, the tack hauled for- 
ward, and the sheet aft. 

rriie ^fainsail is «et in the same manner, substi- 
tuting main for fore; and to get the tack close down, it is 
advisable, if the yard is braced sharp up, to ease off the 
lee main brace,* and overhaul the weather clew-garnet, 
weather main-topsail clewline and main lift. After the 
tack is down, brace up the yard, haul taut the lift ; reeve 
and haul the bowline. 

When the yards are square, and the wind directly aft, 
the mainsail is never set, but is hauled up snugly ; with the 
wind quartering, the lee clew may be set to great advan- 
tage. To do so, Man the main sheet! Overhaul the main 
buntlines and leechlines ! When ready : 

Ease down the lee clew-garnet ! Haul apt ! 

The weather clew is kept fast. 

* Not applicable to the fore, as the brace has more of a horizontal lead. 



IfAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 303 

To set the Foresail toefore the ypvin^^ 

Man both fore sheets ! 

The rigging being let go and overhauled as before^ 
command — 

Down foresail ! As the' sail comes down, take through 
the slack of the tacks ; haul taut both lifts, haul through 
the slack of the sheets. 

To set the Courses (by the wind), command — 

Man the fore and main tacks ana sheets I 

Lay dovm on the lower yards to overhaul the rigging! 

When the gear is reported all manned — 

Haul taut I Clear away the rigging ! Haul aboabd I 

To take in a Oorurse in modeirate 
Tveathei*. If a foresail, command, Man the fore clew- 
aamets and huntlines! The clew-garnets and buntlines 
oeing manned, men stationed at the tack, sheet, and bow- 
line, conmiand — 

Haul taut ! Up foresail J 

The tack, sheet, and bowline, are let go, the clews of the 
sail are run up by the clew-garnets, the body by the bm\t- 
lines ; man the leechlines and haul the leeches to the yard. 

In a ii*esh lii^eeze, or gale of wind, it is neces- 
sary, in order to avoid shaking or flapping the sail, which 
may split it, to proceed thus : If you wish to set a course, 
the yard being braced up, everything being manned, 
conunand — 

Ease down the lee cletv-gamet ! Haul aft I 

Then when the clew is sufficiently aft to fill the sail — 

Ease down the weather cletv-gamet ! Haul aboard I 

To take it in, under similar circumstances, the men being 
stationed, command, Ease off the fore-tack and bowline ! 
Haul up to windward I Then, Ease off the sheet I Haul 
UP TO LBEWARD ! Having the buntlines well manned, run 
them up the moment the sheet is started ; the lee clew being 
the first set, and the last taken in, steadies the sail during 
the operation.* 

Setting the mainsail when bracing up, it is better to get 
the tack down before the lee brace is near the sharp-ap 
mark. 

On setting courses by the wind, before hauling aboard, 
check the lee braces, for the bunt of the sails may nip or be 
jammed between the yard and the stay, and at all events, 
the main tack will come down better. 

nropH£Lili>3 are the first sail set in getting under way, 
when cruising under sail, and the last taken m, in coming 
to anchor, except the spanker. At sea they remain con- 
stantly set, are reduced by reefing, in fresh winds, but 
never taken in except in gales of wind, or for the purpose 

* In taking in a course, blowing fresh, haal taut the lee lift before starting 
tfaatMk. 



304 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

of repairing or unbending. The mizzen topsail is an excep- 
tion, inasmuch as it is often settled down on the cap or 
furled, when sailing with the wind directly aft. and oiten 
taken in in heavy weather, when the fore and main are 
close reefed. 

rFo set a. rropsa.il. The yard being square and 
on the cap, command — 

Stand by to lay alofty sail-loosers of the fore {main or 
mizzen) top-sail! Lay aloft 1 When the men are aloft, 
Lay out and loose ! 

The top-gallant studding-sail booms need not be triced 
up. The men lay out on the yard, and loose the sail by 
casting oflf the gaskets. While doing which — 

Man the topsail sheets and halliards f Tend the braces! 

The clew lines are tended and buntlines let go, and over- 
hauled aloft, the gaskets cast off, the bunt- jigger unhooked, 
and the men on the yard holding up the san oy hand, it is 
reported ready. The sheets being well manned, the com- 
mand is given, Stand by! Let fall ! Sheet home ! Lay 
in ! Lay down from aloft ! The clews of the sail are 
hauled out to the lower yard-arms by the sheets, until the 
foot of the sail is taut, hands easing away the clewlines as 
the sheets go home. * Meanwhile : 

Hoist away the topsail I 

The yard is hoisted by the halliards, until the leeches of 
the sail are taut, keeping the topsail reef tackles, topgallant 
sheets and studding sau tacks, and the topsa^ clewlines 
and topmast studding sail halliards well overhauled. 

HTo take in a. rFopsail, as in coming to anchor. 
Man the topsail clew-jiggers and buntlines! Weather braces! 
At this conunand, the clew-jiggers and buntlines are 
manned; hands stationed by the sheets, halliards, bowlines, 
and braces; the latter for the purpose of squaring the yards 
if braced up ; have a hand on each lower yard-arm to render 
the sheets through their sheaves; command, Clear away 
the topsail sheets, Clew up ! The clews are hauled up by 
the clew-jiggers, and the body by the buntlines ; when the 
sail is up, and the weather brac^es manned, Settle away the 
topsail halliards ! Square away i The yard is now lowered 
on the cap and squared in at the same time, the buntlines 
and clew-iiggers are kept some distance above the yard. 

To Set a CloHe-H^eeied Topsail. Brace 
up the topsail vard sufficiently, and the lower yard more 
than the topsail yard. Haul taut the lee topsail brace, then 
having loosed and let fall, Man the topsail sheets ! Attend 
the gear, let go and overhaul the buntlines, Ea^e down the 
lee clewline, haul home the lee sheet ! keeping the vessel 

* In setting the light sails, the men are ordered in before sheeting; home, to 
avoid accidents dae to the motion of the yards, which have considerable play. 

In heavy weather, or whenever ther« are men on tlie lower yards, it would 
be well to observe the same rule in slieeting home the topsails. 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 305 

oflf if necessary; then, Ease down the weather clewline! 
Haul home the weather sheet! Man the halliards and 
sway the yard clear of the cap. Trim the yards, haul 
taut the weather-brace and haul the bowline.* 

To HTake in a Topsail in a Grale. Say the 
fore : Man the fore-topsail clewlines and buntlines, weather 
fore-topsail brace I The weather clewline is manned best ; 
nands oy the lee brace, sheets, and halliards ; when ready, 
keep the ship off a point, ease off a fathom of the lee sheet. 
Settle away the halliards I Brace in and clew down ! Ease 
away the weather sheet! Clew up to windward ! The 
weather clewline and both buntlines are run up ; Ease away 
the lee sheet ! Clew up to leeward 1 The weather brace 
is hauled in when the yard is clewed down. Point the yard 
to the wind, steady it well, and furl the sail. 

To take in a close-reefed topsail with the wind abaft the 
beamy haul up the lee clewline first ; brace the yard in by 
the weather brace until it is pointed to the wind, if possible, 
before laying out to furl. 

In taking it in before the wind, with the watch, haul up 
one clew at a time, hauling up both buntlines as before ; 
brace the yard sharp up and shiver the sail ; then lay out 
and furl it. 

In furling a sail in a gale, secure the yard well before 
sending the men out : and when out, render them all the 
assistancepoBsible witn the helm. 

To Talie in and Filial tlie IMizzen Top- 
sail in a Grale. Man the mizzen-topsail clewlines and 
buntlines^ lee mizzen topsail brace! Hands by the sheets 
and halhards, weather brace and bowline. When ready. 
Settle away the halliards ! Clew down ! Hauling in on 
the lee brace ; Ease away the sheets ! Clew up ! Tne yard 
is pointed to the wind, and the gear hauled close up ; Lay 
aloft all the mizzen topmen ! 

Lay out and Furl the mizzen topsail ! 

l^onble TopnailH. To set the upper topsail, 
when the clews shackle to the lower topsail yard. Loose 
the sail, tend the braces, and hoist the yard till the leeches 
are taut. 

When the upper topsail is fitted with short sheets, sheet 
home before hoisting. The upper topsail is often set first 
in getting under way. 

To take in the upper topsail, lower the yard, haul up the 
buntlines, and furl the sail. 

To set the lower topsail, sheet home, in the same manner 
as in the case of the single topsail. 

To take in the lower topsail, clew up, as in the case of a 
single topsail. If blowing fresh haul up the weather clew 
first. 

♦ In all cases of hoisting a square sail attend the sheets of the sail next 
above. 

26 



^OC) MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

To wet a nrop^a.llcLiit-ssLil. Command, Lay 
aloft and loose the fore {main or nitzzen) topgallant sail! 
Man the topgallant sheets and halliards! While the sail 
loosers are loosing the sail, the sheets and the halliards are 
manned, hands being by the clewlines and braces. Overhaul 
the royal sheets and topgallant studding sail halliards. When 
ready. Stand by ! Let fall ! Lay in I Lay down from 
ALOFT I Sheet home I While hauline home the sheets, if 
on the wind, brace up the yard sumciently to shake the 
sail ; take a turn with the weather brace, and let go the lee 
one. If before the wind, let go both braces ; and if the wind 
is quartering, the lee one. Tend the braces ! Hoist away ! 
Hoist the sail up to a taut leech. Belay the haTiLIards ! 
Trim the yard to the wind, set taut the weather brace, 
keemng the lee one a little slack. 

\l7o rPa^ke in a. rFopg-stllAnt-sAil. Lay aloft 
to furl the fore {main or mizzen) topgallant sail! Man the 
fore topgallant clewlines I Weather fore-topgallant bracBy 
When the clewlines and weather brace are manned, hands 
by the sheets, halliards and lee brace ; if in a moderate 
breeze, command. Haul taut! In fore-topgallant sail ! 
The sail is clewed up, halliards let go, buntline hauled 
up, and the yard braced in at the same time. In a fresh 
breeze, command — 

Round in the weather brace! Ease away the lee sheet 
and halliards I Clew down ! Let go the weather sheet ! 
Clew up ! If the wind is aft, or on the quarter, order. 
Let go the halliards! Clew downI Let go the sheets! 
Clew up I Squaring the yard as it comes down bv the 
braces, and starting the sheets when down. The sail being 
clewed up, steady the yard by the braces, and then com- 
mand, Lay out and furl ! 

The three topgallant sails are set and taken in in the 
same manner, giving the command. Lay aloft and loose 
the topgallant sails! and Man the topgallant clewlineSy 
&c., &c. 

In taking in a topgallant-sail in a fresh breeze, ea,se the 
lee sheet, but do not let it go until the yard is well started 
in and down. This will keep the yard from cockbilling and 
make it easier to clew down. But have the lee clew hauled 
up before the weather sheet is started. 

To Set ox* Talie Ixi the Hoyals. Proceed 
as with the topgallant-sails, in moderate weather. The 
flying jib generally goes with the royals, and the following 

are the command : *, /t - . -t . 

Aloft and loose the royals! Clear away the ftying-jtb ! 

When ready — 

Let fall, sheet home ! Hoist away the eoyals and 

flying-jib! , ,^ ^, > 

To take them in. Aloft to furl the royals ! Man the royal 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 307 

cletvltnes, flying-jib downhaul! Haul taut! In royals, 

DOWN FLYING JIB ! FURL THE ROYALS ! StOW THE FLYING- 
JIB ! 

If the royals have been kept on too long, handle them in 
taken in, precisely as described for the topgallant-sail, 
keeping fast the weather sheet until the yara is down ana 
the lee clew hauled up. As the royal has no buntline to 
control the body of the sail, lay the yard for furling so as 
to spill the sail, bein^ careful not to let it get flat aback, 
otherwise it will be blown under the foot-rope and make it 
difficult to lay out on the yard. 

When the flvine-jib is taken in under similar circimi- 
stances, let ^o the halliards, but do not start the sheet till 
the sail is about half wa;^ down, then keep easing off till 
the sail is down, otherwise it is likely to be split. Do 
not haul over the weather sheet until the sail is nearly 
stowed and the men on the boom are ready to receive the 
clew. 

To Set a Hea^d Sail. The manner of setting 
and taking in all the head sails is the same. To set the jib 
give the command, Clear away the jib! Man the halliards! 
Have a hand by the downhaul to clear it away, and, in case 
of the fore-topmast staysail or jib, send a hand out to light 
up the hanks. When ready, Let go the downhaul! Hoist 
AWAY ! When up taut, trim the sheet. 

In setting a jib^ the sheet should not be kept taut, but 
eased, to let the sail go up ; and observe, at the conclusion, 
that both the stay and the §uys are taut. 

To Take it In. man the jib downhaul I Have a 
hand at the halliards and sheets. When manned. Mind 
your weather helm ! (if blowing fresh). Let go the halliards ! 
Haul down ! By easing off the sheet as the halliards are 
let go. the pressure of tne hanks on the stay is relieved, 
and tne sail comes down easily. Lay out and stow the 
JIB ! When stowed, take in the slack of the halliards and 
sheets. 

Tlie Spanlier. being at one extremity of the 
lever, governs the vessel more or less in all the evolutions. 
It serves to bring her to the wind, or to prevent her from 
falling off ; is always set at sea, except with the wind aft 
or well on the quarter ; and in coming to anchor, is the last 
sail taken in, as it is used to bring the vessel up head to 
wind, after tne topsails are clewed up. 

In Setting- tlie Spanlier*, top the boom up by 
both topping-lifts (if two are used), after which overhaul 
the lee one. Man the spanker outhauls I Have hands bv 
the clew-rope, head-downhaul and brails, and hands aloft 
to overhaul them. Let qo the brails ! Haul out 1 Slack 
the weather vang, and tnm the sheet. 

To Take it In. Man the spanker brails I Head 



308 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

dowuhaul I Have tlio loo brails woU manned, and hands to 
take in the slack of the weather ones; and hands by the 
outhauls. Jjet go the outhanh! Brail up! At the same 
time, haul up the clew rope, haul the boom amidships and 
crotch it, or in wearing, haul it over on the weather quar- 
ter, ready for the other tack ; steady the gaff by the weather 
vang. 

To Set a Spanlter ox* Ti*vsail Blowiii«»- 
F'rewli. Clear away the spanker! When the furling lino 
is cast off, Man the foot outhaul! Clear away the brails, 
HAUL OUT ! easing away the clewrope and braUs. Having 
steadied the foot of the sail, Man the head outhaul! Clear 
away the downhaul, haul out ! easing off the weather vang. 
Then trim aft the foot outhaul. 

To Talte it In when blowing. Man the head 
downhaul and brails! Lee brails best. Clear away the 
head outhaul ! Brail up ! checking the foot outhaul if 
necessary. When the head is down, ease away the foot 
outhaul and brail up snug. The wind being now out of the 
sail, the brails may oe slacked enough to haul up the clew. 
Steady the gaff and boom amidships. 

A trysail is handled in a similar way. 

Sta.yssailH. Set between the fore and main masts, 
are the main topmast and topgallant staysails ; the first is 
stowed, when not set, under tne fore-top, and the other in 
or above the fore-top. 

There may be also mizzen topmast and topgallant stay- 
sails. 

They are set like the head-sails, the sheets leading down 
on deck, and belayed in the lee gangway. 

These sails are only used in light weather, with the wind 
free. They are termed Ufting sails, 

Stnclding- or* Steering* Sails, in light or 
moderate weather, with the wind free or aft, are used with 
great advantage, to increase the speed of a vessel. The 
weather topmast and topgallant studding-sails may be set 
with the wind one point free, or forming an angle of seven 
points with the keel. The lower studding-sail can only be 
used to advantage with the wind abaft the beam. With 
the wind aft and yards square, studdinjz sails are set on 
both sides. The topgallant studding sau is generally set 
first. 

Tlio Topgrallant Studdinsr-^^il* At sea, 
this sail is kept in the top, stowed up ana down in the top- 
mast rigging. To set it, command — 

(ret the fopqallant at Hit .sail ready for setting ! 

Haul taut the topgallant lift.* One of the quarti^n- watch 
repairs to the topsail yard, where he converts the boom 

* It is observcM] that the support tlius obtained 1b trifling. If. through neg- 
lect, the lift is not overhauled again after the studding-sail has been taken in, 
the yard itself will be endanger^ if the topgallant sail has to come in qoicklj. 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 309 

tricing-line into an *' in-and-out jigger," and toggles the 
heel of the boom to a bull's-eye, which traverses on the 
jack-stay fitted for the purpose, or there may be a quarter- 
strap. (See Rigging Ship.) 

The sail is cast loose in the top, having only a squilgee 
strap around it. Fig. 459. The halliards manned on deck, 
and the tack in the top, a hand by the sheet, and one also on 
the yard to assist to ng out the boom. 

Haul taut ! Rig out ! Hoist away ! 

When the boom is suflSciently out (which will be known 
hj the mark on it), the heel is secured, keeping it on the 
right slue for the tack. As the sail goes up, the topmen 
taike in the slack of the tack. When it is above the topsail 
yard, out squilgee, haul out the tack, run up the halliards 
and finally trim down the sheet. 

To Talie it In. Command, Stand by to take in 
the topgallant stuji sail I Man the sheet and downhaul,have 
a hand by the halliards, by the tack, and on the topsail 
yard to rig in the boom; command, Lower away! HAUii 
DOWN ! Rig in ! Let the topmen rouse the sail well abaft 
the topgallant sail, keep fast the tack while you lower the 
halliards, or the sail will fly forward of the topgallant sail, 
and render the operation more difficult. When the sail is 
in, take the jigger off the topgallant lift, if used. 

The fore and main are generally set and taken in to- 
gether. 

A topgallant studding-sail is fitted with a downhaul bent 
to the inner end of the j^ard, and leading down into the top : 
by this it mav be easily hauled down in taking in, ana 
dipped forward when necessary. 

The Topmast StiiLclcliiig"-sail« To set it. 
Get the topmast sturi'sail ready for setting I Get a burton on 
the topsail yard and haul it well taut ; the upper block of the 
burton being generally taken to the topmast cap to give a 
better angle ot support ; get the sail out, and make up ready 
for sending aloft ; overhaul down and bend on the halliards 
and tack ; have one squilgee strap around the sail, and 
another around the halbards and outer yard-arm, to keep it 
up and down in hoisting ; hook the in-and-out jjigger on the 
lower yard for rigging out the boom. Having the gear 
manned — 

Set taut! Rig out ! Hoist away ! 

When the sail is high enough above the yard to clear the 
brace, out squilgee! As it is run up to the topsail vard-arm, 
take in the slacK of the tack and light the downhaul over 
the brace-block. Haul the tack close out, hoist the sail up 
taut, in the top trim the short sheet and dip the downhaul 
and deck sheet. As soon as the boom is out, its heel is 
lashed to the fore yard, and the in-and-out jigger shifted 
for rigging in. 

In-and-out Jig-g-er. A gun-tackle purchase is 



310 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

used thus : To rig out, the outer tail-block is secured to the 
neck of the boom-iron, the inner one to the heel of the 
studding-sail boom; the fall is rove through a leading 
block, and then down on deck. In shifting it to rig in the 
boom, shift the inner block to the slings of the yard, 
and the other to the heel of the boom, fall leading as 
before. 

To tcike in the Topmast Stixd-ding"- 
Hail* Command, 3fan the topmast stnn'sail downhaul I 
or. Stand by to take in, &c. Man the downhaul, deck- 
sheet, in-and-out-jigger ; and have hands by the halliards, 
tack, and short sheet in the top. 

Lower away I haul down, rig in ! Lower away the 
halliards, and naul the sail down to the boom by the aown- 
haul ; then let go the tack and haul down on the downhaul 
and sheet togetner, rigging in the boom at the same time. 
Take the burton off the topsail yard! Make up the sail, 
hitch the halliards to the clew of the topsail; stop the 
bights of the tack, boom-brace and lower studding-sait hal- 
liards to the pacific iron ; having the tack over the fore 
brace. Stop in the gear along the fore yard, thence down 
the swifter, bights at the slings of the yard triced up by a 
tncmg line. 

The downhaul and sheets are made up with the sail. 

A fore topmast studding-sail is often carried when run- 
ning before a fresh breeze, such as would reduce a ship to 
douole-reef ed topsails if close-hauled ; in which case the 
boom should be*well supported. In large vessels there is 
a brace to the boom, but, in addition, to take the upward 
strain, the lower studding-sail halliards are used as SLJumpery 
thus : Toggle them above the boom, bring the standing 

¥art down, and set it up securely in line with the boom, 
'his acts as a martingale. 

A main topmast studding-sail is carried, in some vessels, 
with the wind abaft the beam, and has great effect in in- 
creasing the speed. It is set and taken in like the fore. 

In some vessels the topmast studding-sail tack is brought 
in along the yard, and the boom brace fitted with a short 
pendant and whip purchase, which is thought to be a proper 
method for a large vessel, having only the brace to attend 
to in trimming the yard ; but generally the brace and tack 
are rove through the sheaves of a double-block in the main 
riggings and both belayed close together. 

To net a T^o^^ver Htudding'-SAil* Com- 
mand, Oet the starboard (or port) lower stun'sail ready for 
setting ! Get it out and make it up for setting ; overhaul 
down the outer and inner halliards, and bend them on, the 
the former to the yard, and the latter to the inner head- 
earing of the sail ; overhaul in and bend on the outhaul to 
the clew; pass a stop around the sail, and secure it by a 
double squilgee, the tripping-line from it leading on deck. 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL, 311 

Haul well taut the fore lift and brace. Man the lower boom 
topping-lift, and forward guy, and have a hand by the after 
guy. Pull well up on the inner halliards. Top up the boom, 
and at the command, Rig out ! haul forward on the forward 
guy, and at the same time have everything manned for 
setting the sail. 

Haul taut ! Hoist away, haul out ! taking in the slack 
of the outhaul and inner halliards. When hjQf way up be- 
tween the deck and lower yard, haul out the squilgee, and 
as the sail falls, haul out on the outhaul, and hoist the sail 
up taut to the topmast studding^-sail boom ; then haul out 
the outhaul and pull up on the inner halliards. Reeve the 
sheet through a tnimble or block on the goose-neck of the 
lower boom, and haul it well taut. The lower boom is 
trimmed by the fore yard, so that the sail may set, as nearly 
as possible, parallel with the foresail. 

rPo 'take In, command, Stand by to take in the 
lower stun^-sail ! Man the clewline, sheets, and inner hal- 
liards, have hands by the outer halliards and outhaul, Ease 
away the outhaul! Clew up ! The outhaul being let go, 
the clew is hauled up to the yard; then, Lower atvay, Haul 
in ! Ease oflf the outer halliards, and haul in on the inner 
halliards, sheet, and clewline. When the sail is inboard 
and over the forecastle. Lower away the inner halliards ! 
The sail being down, make it up. To get the lower boom 
alongside: Man the after guy I Tend topping lift and 
forward guy! Set taut! Haul aft! get the boom in its 
place and trice up the gear. 

To Set all the Studding- t^sailn on One 
Side. Command — 

Get the starboard (or port) stun^-sails ready for setting ! 

Preparations are made as described with the addition 
of topping up the lower boom ready for rigging out. When 
the officer of the forecastle reports — 

"All ready forward, sir!" command — 

Set taut! 

Rig out ! Sway to hand ! 

At this command, the booms are rigged out together; 
the topgallant studding-sails swayed aloft and just clear of 
the topsail brace-blocks, the topmast studding-sail above 
the fore brace-block, and the inner halliards of the lower 
studding-sail pulled well up. The men then shorten in on 
the halliards, when command — 

Haul taut ! Hoist away ! Fig, 4G0. Out squilgees ! 

The tacks are hauled close out and the halliards taut up. 
Fig. 461. 

To Take thenn In. 

Stand by to take in all the starboard (or port) sfuji'-sails! 

When all is reported ready — 

Haul taut! Ease away the out-haul ! Clew up ! Lower 
away ! 



312 MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

At this, the lower studding-sail is clewed up, the topmast 
studding-sail boom-ended, and the topgallant studding-sail 
started, but their tacks kept fast. 

Haul down ! Rig in ! 

The sails and booms all come in together. 

If studding-sails are to be set on both sides, at the same 
time, have all hands called to *'make sail," and order. 
Starboard watch, starboard side; Port watch, port side! 
..Then command, Sfaiid by to set sturV-snils both sides! and 
proceed as in setting-on one side, taking care that the yards 
are square, and the lifts, burtons, and braces, well taut. 

IlATidliiigr Htii.ddiiis--Sa.ilR. In setting stud- 
ding-sails in a strong breeze, iiyou can keep the ship away 
until they are becalmed, you will get them up and well set 
when the gear would not otherwise stand. 

In bracing forward, studding-sail tacks, boom braces, 
jumper and topping-lifts require careful attention. 

In bracing in, unless the boom brace be manned, the 
chances will be in favor of the boom going anywhere but in 
a line with the yard. 

Preparatory to setting studding-sails, let the topgallant 
clewline be hauled taut, that the man who goes out on the 
topsail-yard may have something to hold on to ; and in 
hoisting the lower studding-sail, be careful that the yard is 
not brought up with a jerk against the topmast studding- 
sail boom, as by the neglect of this point, the bo<5m is often 
sprung. After the sail is set, the topping-lift should be 
slacked sufficiently to bring the outer leech taut. 

Topg-allaiit Stii.ddinor-«aiIs« In taking in 
topgallant studding-sails, ease away on the halliards and 
haul down the downhaul, keeping fast the tack until the 
yard is well inside the leech of the topgallant sail, when you 
may ease off the tack, and by hauling down on the sheet 
and downhaul, the sail comes in without difficultv. For 
should the tack be started first, the sail flies forward of the 
topgallant sail and causes much trouble. 

Topmast Stiiddingr-Hails. In hauling down, 
ease away the tack just before the outer arm of the yard 
touches tne boom end : and if the tack jambs, which is not 
unf requent, rig in the boom at once. The leverage is great, 
and boom-irons are frequently broken in this way. 

In dipping the main-topmast studding-sail before the 
sail, the wind will be just enough on the opposite quarter to 
glance oflf the topsail and blow the inner leech aft. If the 
course can be altered, the sail may readily be handled, 
otherwise the short way is to haul aown, stop the bowline 
in on the main yard, and set the studding-sail before all. 

l-jo^vei- Stiiddiiig--sails. Whenever the lower 
studding-sail has been carried with the yards much for- 
ward, get a good pull of the after-guy before starting any- 
thing, else the lower boom will fly forward when the 
outhaul is let go. v 



MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 313 

Should the lower boom get under the bows, and the 
topmast studding-sail boom be in, put the lower halliards 
with a bowline knot round the lower boom, and haul them 
out with the lower outhaul ; then, with these and the top- 
ping-lift from the fore yard, it may be got up. If not, 
secure the heel, disconnect the goose-neck, and whip the 
spar up heel foremost. 

Of course, if the ship can be kept away, and the fore- 
yard braced in, all will be easier. 

The operation of taking in a lower studding-sail may be 
CTeatly facilitated by giving the ship a sufficiency of weather 
nelm to "touch" the inner leech. Luffing under such cir- 
cumstances might be attended with loss oi booms. 

When the iib is drawing (excepting possibly in a ship 
with great drift from the head booms to the foremast), the 
lower studding-sail cannot be doing any good service. 

Sqixai^e SailK,, &e. In loosing a sail, whether it 
be blowing fresh or not, the yard-arm and outer gaskets 
should be cast oflf firsty for otherwise the weight of the 
bunt would jamb them, and render cutting necessary to get 
them clear. 

In taking in a topsail, the weather sheet is started first, 
to prevent the sail from flapping, of which there would be 
danger if it were taken in the opposite way. This rule 
appues equally to courses, as the beliy of the sail thus blows 
up against the stays, and is prevented from splitting. Re- 
meinber that the lee lower lift should be hauled well taut 
before starting the tack, lest the sudden upward spring of 
the weather yard-arm should endanger the lee leecn of the 
topsail, and instead of letting go, ease the bowline off hand- 
somely with the tack. 

In setting either courses or topsails, in blowing weather, 
the rule seems to be invariable in reference to sheeting 
home to leeward first — the reason for which is to prevent 
the sails from flapping ; and if the wind is quartering, the 
yard should be well braced in before the sails are set. 

In hoisting sails, from a royal to a close-reefed topsail^ 
the lee brace ought invariably to be let go, and the weather 
one tended. As the latter is eased away, and the sail 
hoisted^ the yard will cant of itself, till the leech is taut, 
which 18 the indication of the sail being up. If everything 
is clear, there will be no necessity for hauling in the lee 
brace while hoisting. 

In taking in a royal or topgallant sail, the lee sheet is 
started first and clewed up to spill the sail ; for when blow- 
ing fresh, if the contrary practice was adopted the yard 
would probably fly fore-and-aft, part the brace and risK the 
mast, which is of far more consequence than the sail. The 
weather sh^et must be eased off after the yard is clewed 
down, which can be done better by hauling in on the 
weather brace at the same time. Lay the yard and keep 



3U MAKING AND TAKING IN SAIL. 

the sail well spilled with the helm until the gaskets are 
passed. 

If before the wind, keep both sheets fast until the yaiti 
is down ; then clew up ana brace by. 

The parrels of these yards are generally slack, and the 

Jards should be bound when possible, against the rigging, 
y bracing in. 

A royal carried too long before, or a studding-sail carried 
too long near the wind, cannot do the least good. If the 
"trimmer " is consulted while carrying a press of lofty sail 
before the wind, the ship will be found to be excessively out 
of trim by the head. iTear the wind, the topgallant stud- 
ding-sail is fore-and-aft, bellying to leeward, and taking the 
vrind out of the topgallant sail. 

In conclusion, tne following general principle of handling 
sails may be stated : 

In taking in a sail of any kind, endeavor to spill it ; the 
more wind it holds the harder it will be to manage. 

Letting ^o a lee sheet spills any sail, but in resorting to 
this method, in a fresh breeze, the sail may be split, and 
the larger the sail the more dangerous it is to allow of its 
shaking. 

To relieve a ship quickly in case of danger, the lee sheet 
must of course be let go, even at the expense of the sail ; but 
where it is not a question of danger, and the object is to 
obtain prompt and complete control of a sail, there is a power- 
ful agent available for the purpose of becalming canvas, 
and thus securing its easy management. This agent is the 
hehn, which is often more useful than any clewlines or 
buntlines, and more efficacious than any number of extra 
hands. 

With the wind /ori^^ard of the heam^ for instance, taking 
in any square sail from a course to a royal is rendered 
much easier by a few spokes of lee helm. Similarly with 
the wind abaft the beamy a topmast or lower stun'-sail is 
handled with comparative ease if becalmed by a like amount 
of tveather helm. 

In all cases of making or taking in sail, remember the 
importance of looking out for the gear tended, as well as for 
that which is mannea. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

WORKING TO WINDWARD. 

emninrO— TACKING — missing stats — wearing — box-hauling — WBABXNe 

8H0BT BOUND — CLUB-HAULING, ETC. 



STEERING. 

In general a ship^ trimming by the head, carries a taut 
■weather helm. If, on the contrary, she is too much by the 
stem, she will carry a lee or slack helm. 

When by the windy a tremulous motion in the cloths of 
the mainsail will always indicate that the ship is then at 
the desired point of "full and by" — for when sailing thus 
obliquely to the breeze, the dog- vane does not show the true 
direction of the wind. 

When steering a course, much will depend upon the 
helmsman anticipating, or checking the ship in her inclina- 
tion to yaw to starboard or to port ; nor must he trust too 
much to the compass-card, but alternately watch the card, 
and the motion of the vessel's head passing the clouds, the 
sea, or any other obiects which may present themselves to 
view, more fixed than the compass itself. In blowing 
weather, the feel of the helm and the force of the wind are 
nice criterions to judge whether the vessel be falling off or 
coming to. As the vessel comes to against the helm, it will 
appear heavier, and the wind drawing forward will seem 
stronger. On the contrary, as she goes off, and gives way 
to the power of the helm, it eases in the hand, while at the 
same time the wind lessens in its force as it draws more 
abaft. To an attentive and nice observer, these circum- 
stances, though seemingly trifling in themselves, indicate 
the motion of the vessel sooner than the compass. The 
stars or the breaking of the waves, at night, may also assist 
to prevent yawing tne vessel about. 

Use as little helm — technically, small helm, as possible. 
This rule should be impressed upon beginners. 

315 



310 WORKING TO WINDWARD. 

The leech of the mainsail is always best to steer by 
when blowing fresh ; and when the wind is very light, the 
main royal. It frequently occurs with an old sea on, in 
light airs, that the sails all flap to the masts with every roll, 
and render it extremely diflScult to tell when the ship is 
near the wind. If, under these circumstances, the officer 
of the deck will occasionally walk to the lee side, and cast 
his eye up on the fore part, or front of the light sails, he can 
more easily tell when the ship is near the wind, as the dif- 
ference sometimes amounts to more than a point in the 
course which the ship might make. 

Oonniiig' is the art of directing the helmsman to 
steer the ship on her proper course by compass or by the 
wind ; the person who performs this duty is generally the 
quartermaster or pilot. By means of dial plates and an- 
nunciators, worked either automatically or by electricity, 
the angle of the rudder, at any moment, may be seen, and 
any change can be communicated to the man at the wheel 
by the officer on the bridge. The following are some of the 
terms used in conning ship : When steering by compass or 
landmarks, and it is desirable that the vessel's bows should 
go to the left, or to port, the order is given. Starboard f 
Whereupon the helmsman turns the spokes of the wheel 
over to port, or in the same direction the ship's head is to 
go, and this according to the usual method of arranging the 
steering gear, has the effect of sending the tiller to star- 
board, ana consequently of presenting the port side of the 
rudder to the action of the water. 

Hard a-starhoard! means to heave the wheel over, so 
that the tiller will go to the extreme limit. When the 
vessel's head p|oints in the right direction, the order is 
given. Steady ! if slightly to the right of her course, needing 
to go very little to the left, the order is given, Steady a-star- 
board — that is, steady as she goes, but a little to starboard 
with the helm, if anything. In the same way to send the 
ship's head to starboard, order : Port, Hard a-jport. Steady 
a-port. The terms wheel and helm are used inaiscrimi-' 
nately. 

Meet her! When the ship's head flies to starboard or 
port in obedience to the helm, then, as she approaches her 
course the wheel is hove, spoke by spoke, the opposite way, 
to check her gradually that her head may not pass the de- 
sired point. 

Should the ship be standing along on a bowline, and the 
quartermaster i)erceive a cloth or two of the main-topsail to 
be lifting, he cries out, No higher ! by which he means that 
the ship is not only too high, or too near the wind, but that 
she should go off a little. Whereupon the helmsman gives 
her a spoke or so, of the weather wheel. On the contrary. 



WORKING TO WINDWARD. 317 

should the quartermaster observe that the vessel was not 
quite near enough, he would say, Nothing off! meaning to 
let her come to the wind, when the helmsman must ease 
the wheel and permit her to come up. When the ship is 
a Rood full and by, he sajs, Very ivell thus! Again, he 
orders, Luff ! Let her luff I when the helmsman eases the 
wheel and lets her come up into the wind : if she does not 
come up enough the order is given. Hard down ! To pre- 
vent her from going around on the other tack, the quarter- 
master exclaims, No higher ! and to stand on again. Keep 
her a good full and by ! or simply Full and by ! meaning 
close by the wind with the sails full. 

To Keep the ship awav, the order is, Let her go off! 
which jnSiY be followed oy, Hard up! when off nearly 
enough. Meet her! and when heading the riff ht. way. Steady 
so! To haul her up to the wind again. Let her come to! 
Bring her by the wiim! Keep her full and by! When any 
of these orders are given when sailing by the wind, or 
steering a course, you may see a bad helmsman heave his 
wheel over inconsiderately, giving the ship a rank sheer. 
This should be corrected by ordering him to give her a 
small helm. There are other expressions, such as, Nothing 
to starboard or port. ^'Nothing to the N'd, &c., of your 
course. ^^ Mind your weather wheel ! Keep her a clean full ! 
right the helm ! or put it amidships ; Shift the helm, or 
change it from one side to the other, &c. When sailing 
with the wind aft, the terms starboard and port are used, 
and the same should be observed with the wind quartering 
to prevent mistakes. 

As a general rule, in the service, when the helm is 
a-starboard, the turns of the starboard wheel rope will be 
found to have accumulated around the forward half of the 
barrel of the wheel — for a port helm the turns will be found 
aft. A midship helm is indicated by the midship spoke of 
the wheel which is made differently from the rest that it 
may be detected at night by the touch. 

In contriving any new steering gear it is quite an im- 
portant item that the working of the wheel does not differ 
irom that to which seamen are accustomed ; that is, to 
heave the wheel in the direction the ship^s head is to go — 
otherwise, at some critical juncture, confusion may ensue, 
and probably serious disaster. 

The perfection of equipping^ a ship with spars, rigging 
and sails, consists in so disposing them that the efforts of 
the forward and after sails to turn the ship will be so 
exactly balanced as not to require any continued assistance 
from the helm in either direction. Of the two evils, how- 
ever, seamen have more patience with a ship disposed to 
approach the wind than with one needing the continued 
action of the helm to keep her from falling off. 



318 WOBKINO TO WINDWABD. 



TACKING. 



When a yessel is headed off from her course, the yards 
are braced up sharp, * sheets trimmed af t, and by keeping 
her as near as possible to the wind, with the sails all fml or 
drawings she is then *^ close-hauled ; " and the tack she is on 
is designated by the side of the vessel on which the wind 
blows ; for instance — if the yards are braced up by the port 
braces, having the wind forward of the starboard beam, she 
is then ^'close-hauled on the starboard tack,^^ or ''has her 
starboard tacks aboard" 

Your port of destination, or the point for which you wish 
to steer, being in the direction from which the wind blows, 
the nearest you can steer to that course, is when the vessel 
is close-hauled. In this case she will, if a square-rifi^ged 
vessel, lie within from five and a half to six points of the 
wind (some vessels working nearer to the wind than 
others). And if, after standing on one tack a certain 
length of time, you " go about y'^ ajid stand on the other, 
and so on, you are approaching the object continually, 
in the proportion of about one-third of the distance 
sailed. This is termed "working,'' " beating ,'' or "turn- 
ing to windward.'' 

Tacking is the most usual method of going from one ta^k 
to the other, in moderate weather and ivith a good working 
breeze. It nas this advantage over all others, that you lose 
nothing to leeward when it is properly performed ; for ves- 
sels win frequently, if well managed, luff up head to wind, 
and go about, without for a moment losing their headway, 
but, on the contrary, gain several times their length directly 
to windward, while in stays. 

In working to windward, the wind frequently " veers and 
hauls " three or four points, heading the vessel off or allow- 
ing her to come up ; this is particularly the case in the 
vicinity of land. Tne proper moment to tack in such cases, 
is when the wind is headmg her off, for on the other tack 
you will evidently gain more to windward. By watching 
attentively, and taking advantage of such slants of winoT 
keeping the vessel a good full, and by the wind, you will 
gain much more on your course, than if you stood a cer- 
tain number of miles or hours on each tack. 

We will now proceed to " tack ship " under courses, top- 
sails, topgallant sails, jib, and spanker ; giving as nearly as 
possible the treatment for different vessels, and the neces- 
sary orders. 

Ready about ! Station for stays ! 

Keep her a good full for stays, see the men at their sta- 
tions, viz : a hand by the jib-sheet, hands by all the bow- 
lines, lifts, tacks, and sheets ; hands in the chains to over- 
haul the lee main sheet ; the clew-garnets manned ; and a 



WORKING TO WINDWARD. 319 

few aloft to overhaul the lifts, and to attend to the out- 
riggers; a good hehnsman at the wheel; a quarter-master 
at the conn; a few hands at the spanker sheet and lee 
topping-lift, and all the rest of the force at the weather 
main and lee cross- jack braces, lee main tack and weather 
main sheet. The men being at their stations, proceed as 
follows : 

Ready! Ready! and to the man at the wheel, Ease 
down the helm ! Fig. 462, No 1. 

Haul the spanker boom amidships. The helm being 
down, order — 

Helm's a-lbb ! Ease off the fore and jib-sheets. 

Overhaul the weather lifts I She is now coming up rapidly 
to the wind, and as soon as the sails shake, the wind being 
out of the lee clew of the mainsail — 

Rise tacks and sheets ! 

The fore and main tacks and sheets are let go and the 
clews of the sails hauled up hj the clew-garnets, high 
enough to clear the hammock rails ; at the same time. 
Shorten in the lee main tack ! and weather sheet. Haul taut 
the lee spanker boom topping-lift, and overhaul the weather 
one; * and as soon as the wind is directly ahead, or a little 
on the weather bow — 

Haul taut ! Mainsail haul I Fig. 462, No. 2. 

The lee braces and the bowlines are let go, and the yards 
swung around briskly by the weather oraces ; hauling 
aboard the main tack, and hauling aft the sheet. To hasten 
the operation, the order is sometimes given, Haul forward 
the lee main tack and main to' bowline/ Brace the yards 
sharp up, trim them by the wind, and haul taut the weather 
braces and lifts ^ she has now the sails on the foremast 
aback, which, with the jib, are paying her ofE rapidly. 

Man the head braces I 

Man also the fore tack, sheet and head bowlines ; and as 
soon as the after sails take, or are full — 

Haul well taut ! Let go and haul ! To the man at the 
wheel, Right the helm ! Brace around the head yards 
briskly ; boarding the fore tack and hauling aft the sheet, 
as the yards are swung. And, as with the main, the order 
is frequently given. Haul forward the fore tack and head 
bo'lines ! Brace up sharp, trim the vards. Ficf. 462, No. 3. 

Haul taut the lifts and weather braces ! Steady out the 
bowlines! The lower lifts and the braces are hauled taut, 
and the weather leeches of the sails hauled out by the bow- 
lines. Keep her by the wind. 

When you swing the after yards, the wind being ahead, 
shift over the jib sheet, when it will take the right way, 
and trim aft. 

In vessels which are dull in stays and go oflE slowly after 

* Not applicable to ships having bat one topping-lift. 



320 WORKING TO WINDWARD. 

coming up head to wind, and particularly in a light breeze, 
it is advisable to keep the fore tack fast, to pay her off, 
when you rise the main tack ; in which case the order will 
be, Rise main tack and sheet ! 

When the mainsail is not set, to haul the after yards, 
order — 

Main-topsail haul I 

In determining the moment to swing the after yards, 
you must be governed by the strength of the wind, and the 
qualities of the vessel. The general rule, and a safe one, is 
to do so when the wind is directly ahead. But with a good 
working breeze, and the vessel coming up briskly, it is best 
to haul them wnen the wind is about one point on the bow, 
before coming head to wind : for then the wind on the 
weather leeches of the sails forces them around smartly, 
and affords vou time to brace up, trim the yards, and ^t 
the main tack down, before it becomes necessary to swing 
tlie head yards. 

When the after yards take, and while bracing around the 
head yards, vessels frequently are falling off so rapidly, that 
before they can gather headway, they bring the wind abeam, 
and sometimes abaft the beam. In which case, as soon as 
the head yards take — 

Avast bracing! Flow the head sheets! putting the 
helm a-lee, if she has headway. If the helm has been shifted 
for sternboard, shift it to check her falling off. 

As she comes up to the wind, Brace up ! Gather aft ! 
Brace up sharp, trim aft the head sheets, and meet her with 
the helm. 

Some vessels, particularly those that carry a weather 
helm, requiring very little after sail when close-hauled with 
a stiff breeze, will not fall off after the after-yards take, and 
frequently will fly up into the wind while you are bracing 
around the head-yards ; in which case, be careful not to 
brace round the head-yards, until she is well around ; and if 
she flies up into the wind, let go the main sheet, and, if 
necessary, brail up the spanker, and haul in the lee cross- 
jack braces. 

Should you haul the head-yards too spon, the ship may 
come to again, in which case, if the above method fails, 
Rise fore tack and sheet, clear away the head hotlines! brace 
ABOX THE HEAD YARDS I and box her off again. 

When the helm is put a-lee for stays, it should be kept so 
until she loses entirely her headway; tnen. Right the helm! 
and if she gathers sternboard, Shift the helm! Fig. 463, 

No. 2. 

If you perceive that the vessel comes up to the wind 
slowly, and you have any doubt of her staying, haul down 
the jib, haul the spanker boom well over to windward, over- 
haul well the foresheet, and as you rise tacks and sheets, 
check the lee fore-topsail brace, observing to brace it up 



WORKING TO WINDWARD. 321 

again as soon as it is aback, and to hoist the jib or haul aft 
the sheet, as soon as it will take the right way. This will 
in most cases, insure the evolution, though it tends to deaden 
the *^ head-reach,'' and should not be otherwise resorted to, 
except in working to windward in a narrow channel ; when, 
having stood boldly on to either shore, particularly the 
weather one, you are fearful of head-reaching too much in 
stays. 

TO TRIM YARDS. 

TVTien clo»e hAiiled. First, brace the lower yard 
up sharp, belay the lee brace, and haul taut the weather one ; 
then tnm the top-sail yard, if for a stiff breeze, with the 
weather yard arm about a half point abaft the lower yard, 
and the top-gallant and the royal yards in a little more than 
the topsail yard. 

In a light breeze with a smooth sea, when it is desirable 
To gain as much to windward as possible, the upper yards 
may be braced over the lower, and all got as nearly fore 
and aft as they will go, and always, except in very heavy 
weather, the sails should be taut up, and sheets close home 
'»r flat aft. Should the breeze freshen brace in the upper 
yards. 

AVhen tHe "wind is a^bea^m^ if the yards be so 
braced that the angles between them and the wind may be 
a point and three quarters orreafer than the angles formed 
by the yards and the line of the keel, that trim will produce 
the greatest headway. 

The angle between the wind and yard should always be 
greater than between yard and keel, till the wind gets aft 
when they are equal. 

As the dog-vane is deceptive, the practical way to as- 
certain if the yards are laid well, is to luflf the ship to by the 
compass a point, a point and a half, or two points, as the case 
may be. when if the yards are properly braced the sails will 
shake, thus giving the number of points free. Probably the 
most accurate method of ascertaining the direction of the wind 
is to observe the ripples on the surface of the sea, remember- 
ing the wind is at right angles to them. In squally weather 
this is unquestionably the best means of telling the direc- 
tion of the coming squall as well as measuring its intensity. 

It is necessary that all sails should be trimmed to stand 
as flat as possible. The more a sail is made to approach to 
a flat surface, either by or before the wind, the better. 

MISSING STAYS. 

A vessel in tacking may come to a stand before the after- 
yards are swung. 
' Assume the ship to be, on the port tack, dead in the water 



322 WORKING TO WINDWARD. 

after the order "rise tacks and sheets." To return to the 
same tack: 

Flatten in the head-sheets I by hauling them in amid- 
ships. 

Ease off the spanker sheet I Should this be insuffi- 
cient : 

Port head braces I Clear away the head bowlines ! Brace 
ABOZ THE HEAD YARDS ! leaving the helm hard a^tarboard 
for stemboard. 

As she goes off with stemboard to starboard, draw jib I 
and Brace around the head yards ! As she comes to the 
wind again board the fore and main tacks, haul aft the 
sheets, steady out the bowlines, and as she gathers head- 
way right the helm, and stand on till with enough way on 
for another trial. 

In Ii^ohn. But it is more common for a vessel to 
come up properly, and then, when the after yards have 
been swung, to he dead in the water, or ^' in irons " as it is 
termed. 

You must now do one of two things : either box the ship 
oflf to the old tack or wear around on the new. 

Suppose the vessel to have been on th^ port tack, her 
helm is a-starboard ; her after-yards braced around by the 

Sort braces; her head-yards sharp up by the starboard 
races : 
Leave the helm a-starboard for stemboard, haul up the 
mainsail, brail up the spanker, Man the port head^ star- 
board, main and port crossiack braces ! Clear away the 
head bowlines! Haul taut I Square away the after- 
yards, BRACE ABOX^THE HEAD YARDS I Then, 

1st. To bring her back to the old (port) tack. Fig. 464. 

As she falls off to starboard, brace up the after-yards by 
the starboard braces. When they take, man the starboard 
head braces, and let go and haul as in tacking. Set the 
mainsail and spanker when she has fallen oflf enough, right 
the helm and stand on for another trial. Fig. 4«)4r, No. 3. 

2d. To bring her around on the new tack (by box haul- 
ing), Fig. 408. As she falls off to starboard man the port 
after-braces and keep the after-sails lifting; when she 
gathers headway shift the helm (No. 3), squaring the head- 
yards to give her headway, and allow her to come to the 
wind. When the wind gets on the starboard quarter, the 
after-yards being sharp up on the starboard tack, set the 
spanker and haul aboard the main tack; as she comes to 
meet her with the helm and head yards. (No. 4. ) Fig. 468. 

If you could be quick enough in squaring the after yards 
and the ship did not tend to fall off from the wind when in 
irons, squaring the after yards briskly and shifting the 
helm for sternboard might force her around on the new 
tack as in Fig. 465, without having to lose as much groimd 



WORKING TO WINDWARD. 323 

843 in Fig. 468. But. the tendency to fall off tp leeward is 
generally too pronounced to allow of this manoeuvre in 
steamers under sail. 



CLAWING OFF A LEE SHORE. 

In clawing off a lee shore, all the sail possible must be 
carried, tf mowing" hard in squalls, the ship must be luffed 
through them. If blowing very hard, the topsails should be 
f urlea, and whole or reefed courses kept on her as long as 
possible, as she will hold a better wind. 



CLUB-HAULING. 

Fig. 466, Plate 109. In working off a lee shore, against a 
fresh breeze and head sea, wlien you cannot risk missing 
stays, and have not room to wear, you must then resort to 
this evolution. 

Get the lee anchor off the bows, and ready for letting 

fo ; the cable ranged, bitted, and well stoppered ; bend a 
awser to the ring of the anchor, lead it in at the lee 
quarter, and secure it well ; have hands stationed at the 
anchor ready for letting go ; a carpenter, with an axe, ready 
to cut away the hawser, and the armorer ready to unshackle 
the chain. 

Station the men for stays, and proceed as in tacking, 
until she will come up to the wind no further; and the 
moment she loses her headway, let go the anchor, first see- 
ing that is buoyed, and brace around the after yards. As 
the anchor fetches her up, she will swing head to wind, 
bringing the head sails aback. Man the head braces ! Veer 
away the chain! the hawser from the lee quarter springing 
her around to the wind on the new tack. As soon as the 
after sails take, Cut away the hawser! Let go and haul ! 
swinging around the head yards. Fig. 4:6() (3). Bring her 
by the wind and right the helm ; trim the yards and haul 
the bowlines. 

You have expended, by this evolution, an anchor, part of 
a cable, and hawser ; but if resorted to with judgment, in 
an extreme case, you may have saved your vessel. 

The advantage of letting go the lee anchor, in preference 
to the weather one, is, that when it fetches her up, it will 
bring the wind a little on the bow from which the cable 
leads, and in casting, as you unshackle, the cable will run 
out clear of the stem. 

A ship may perhaps be placed in the same situation as to 
the land, with the wind moderate, and the swell sufficient 
to make it doubtful whether she will tack or not ; in such a 



'U\ WOEKIN'* TO WIXI»WARD. 

^\\MHX\on a k*^li^^ iTji^rht 1^ siiffiHtfnt i«» in^^ure the tacking 

C;iut>-h£ralinir Mteaiiiei*»<. Club-hauling. <mi 
many occasions, might be made most useful to steamers, 
when reijuire^l to turn in a narrow channel, or in blowing 
weather on a lee shore, where, owing to their great length, 
they cannot otherwise be brought rr»un<L In such a case, 
when the steamer comes head to wind, her anchor might be 
*»aved, with care and attention, as she would then have her 
full prop€;lling power in the right direction, namely, head to 
wina and right off from danger. 

WEARING. 

Fig 4^7. Plat*' 110. Wearing, or veering, is another method 
of going about from one tack to the other. This is only 
resorted to in a good working ship in heavy weather, with 
a sea on the weather bow ; or under easy sail, in light 
airs: when, in either case, the vessel has not sufBcient 
heaaway for tacking. It is exactly the reverse of tacking, 
for you run the vessel off from her course, or the wind, 
until she comes around again on the other tack, having 
performed a sweep of some twenty points ; in doing which, 
she must lose considerably to leeward ; therefore the loss 
should be made as little as possible. 

T'<> W'eai* Whip in a Lig-lit Bi^eeze, under 
courses, topsails, topgallant sails, jib, and spanker, give the 
order — 

Stations for wearimj ship ! 

Htation tne men as m tacking. 

Main clew-garnets and huntlines! Spanker brails! 
Weather main and lee crossjack braces! 

The men being at their stations as directed, order, Haul 
taut I Up mainsail and spanker ! Put the helm up ! Clear 
fiimy the bo' lines! arid as she falls off, Brace in the after 
YARDS ! Keep the mizzen-topsail lifting, and the main-top- 
sail full, the former to present no opposition to her falling 
off briskly, and the latter to keep up ner headway, without 
which wearing is, in a very light oreeze, a tedious operation 
— Overhaul the weather lifts! Fig. 407 (2). 

She falls off, bringing the wind abaft the beam, and 
you have braced in the main yard until it is square ; con- 
tinue bracing the crossjack yard to keep the sail lifting, 
until it is braced up sharp on the other tack. 

She continues falling off, and you have now the wind 
<lireotly aft. Man the weather head braces! Rise forb 
TACK and sheet I Clear away the head boHines! lay the 
HEAD YARDS SQUARE I Shift over the head sheets! Fig-. 

4«;r (3). 

She has now the wind on the other quarter. Haul out 



riflj- 4oa 



Plate 109 



:q'i«.4o;) 





E'ig. 4(i4 




E'ig. 400 



4;^ 




S^iff. 465 





WORKING TO WINDWARD. 3-25 

the spanker, and brace up sharp the after yards. Man Ike 
main fack and sheet! and when manned, Clear away the 
rigging, haul aboard! Fig. 407 (4). 

The after yards being braced sharp up, with the mainsail 
and spanker, bring her to the wind. The head yards being 
square, and the jio-sheet flowing, present no opposition to 
her cominc^ to. As she comes up, brace up the head yards, 
Fig. 467 ^5), keeping the sails full, board the fore tack, haul 
aft the sneet, and meet her, as she comes to, with the jib 
and helm. When by the wind, ri^ht the helm, trim the 
yards, Haul taut the lifts and weather braces ! Steady out 
the bowlines ! 

To ^W^eair Ship in a Fresh Bi*eeze. The 
only difference in the evolution is, that you may, with a 
good breeze, having headway on that keeps her under the 
complete manag;ement of the helm, keep tne main-topsail, 
as well as the mizzen, lifting as she eoes off, which hastens 
the movement ; and bracing the after yards sharp up on 
the other tacky before you touch tne head yards. When 
before the wind, brace the head yards square, and brace 
them up as she comes to. As soon as the wind gets on the 
new weather quarter, haul out the spanker and board the 
main tack smartly, or the watch will be tardy in reaching 
the head braces to brace up, and will have a heavier haul in 
consequence. 



TO WEAR IN A GALE 

UNDER A CLOSE-REEFED MAIN TOPSAIL, FORE, MAIN, AND 

MIZZEN STORM STAYSAILS. 

Stations for wearing ship ! Clap a stout lashing around 
the bunt of the foresail and yard, and have a hand in the 
slings in readiness to overhaul the rigging. Hook the 
weather storm staysail sheets, stretch along tne fore tack — 
Man the main arm mizzen staysail downhauls! and have 
bands by the halliards and sheets. Man the weather main, 
and lee crossjack braces ! 

In a gale, with a heavy sea, vessels lying to will come 
up and fall off four or five points. Watch for a smooth 
time, and when she is falling off put the helm up — Haul 
DOWN THE MIZZEN STAYSAIL ! oraciug in the after yards as 
she falls off, keeping the main-topsaiffuU, and the crossjack 
yard pointed to the wind. Attend the lifts, as in wearing 
under all sail. As the wind draws aft, ease off the main 
staysail sheet ; and when of no further use in forcing her 
around, haul it down, shift over the sail, and gather aft the 
sheet. 

If the vessel in this situation will go off no further, as is 
sometimes the case, man the weather fore tack, overhaul 



326 WORKING TO WINDWARD. 

the gear, ease down the clew garnet, and haul aboard the 
weather clew of the foresail ; which will increase her head- 
way, and with her helm still a-weather, will serve to pay 
her off. A foresail in this state is '^ goose-winged" 

When before the wind, haul up the foresail. Right the 
helm ! and square the yards fore and aft. TaJce in the slack 
of the fore staysail sheet. Man the main and mizzen stay- 
sail halliards and the main braces I 

Watch for a smooth time, then ease down the helm, 
bracing up the after yards ; Hoist the main and mizzbn 
STAYSAILS ! and brace up the head yards as she comes to ; 
haul taut the lifts, weather braces, and main top-bowline. 

As soon as the staysails are hauled down, shift them over 
to the other side of the deck, and take in the slack of the 
sheets to be in readiness for hoisting. 

To "Wear imdei:* Bare Foles. Man the 
weather fore rigging, or place tarpaulins outside the 
weather fore shrouds, put the helm a-weather and work the 
yards as usual. Should there be any doubt of the ship 
wearing under the circumstances, take the precaution to 
send down the yards on the mizzen, also the mizzen topmast 
and topgallant masts ; get a span on the mizzen mast, bend 
a hawser to it and securely belay the end inboard. Now, if 
she does not pay off, cut away the mizzen mast as a last re- 
sort, veer away the hawser and use it as a drag. 



BOX-HAULING. 

Fig. 468, Plate 110. This evolution may be performed 
in working out of a narrow passage ; when, having ap- 
proached the weather shore so near as to have no room for 
nead-reaching, you are not willing to lose ground by the 
ordinary metnod of wearing. 

Ready about! Station the men as for stays. Man the 
main cleiv-gamets and buntlines, and spanker brails I Put 
the helm down ! Light up the head sheets and check the lee 
head braces! to deaden her headway. As the sails lift. 
Rise tacks and sheets ! Up mainsail and spanker ! Man 
the weather head, and main and lee crossjack braces. 

She comes head to wind, and as soon as she loses her 
headway. Clear away all the bowlines ! Haul taut ! Square 

AWAY THE AFTER YARDS ! BrACE ABOX THE HEAD YARDS ! 

Haul flat aft the head sheets ! Fig. 4G8 (2). The helm 
is right for stemboard, she is going rapidly astern, and at 
the same time falling off, forming with her keel the segment 
of a circle, or " wearing short round on her heelJ' 

As the after sails lift, brace them in to keep them lifting, 
until they are braced up sharp on the other tack ; and brace 
square the head yards. As soon as the sails on the foremast 
give her headway. Shift the helm 1 Fig. 468 (3). The spanker 



Plate liO 




WORKING TO WINDWARD. 327 

boom having been shifted over on the other quarter, Spanker 
outhaul ! Main tack and sheet ! When the wind is aft, shift 
over the head sheets, and as soon as the spanker will take, 
Clear away the brails ! Haul out! Clear away the rigging ! 
Haul aboard ! Board the main tack and haul aft the 
sheet. 

The after yards, bein^ braced sharp up with the spanker, 
head yards square, jib sheet flowing, ana hehn alee, she will 
come to the wind rapidly. Brace up the head yards as she 
comes to, and meet her with the helm and jib; trim the 
yards and haul the bowlines. 

If to gain to windward in this evolution, use the helm 
and head sheets as in tacldng ; but if to avoid danger, iamb 
the helm hard down at once, flow the head and fore sheets 
and then proceed to back her around. 



TO WEAR SHORT ROUND. (Fig. 469.) 

Some officers make a distinction between box-hauling 
and wearing short round, as follows : 

In any sudden emergency, haul up the mainsail and 
spanker, man the braces as above, and, without going into 
the preliminary of luffing up into the wind, as in box-haul- 
ing, put the helm hard up, square the after yards, and brace 
abox the head yards. Fig. 469 (1). The moment she loses 
her headway, shift the heEn for sternboard (2). After which, 
proceed as in box-hauling (3) and (4). 

There is a decided difference m the commencement of 
the evolutions. Either of them may be termed box-hauling 
— ^a term derived from the circumstance of bracing the head 
yards abox — and both have the effect of wearing the vessel 
short round. By the former, you lose less ground than by 
the latter, for a vessel, with good headway on, will ran^e 
ahead some distance after the sails are all thrown flat aback. 



HALF-BOARDS. 

Beating up a river with a strong windward tide, fore- 
and-aft vessels may be luffed up into the wind with every- 
thing shaking, ana then, as they begin to lose their way, 
permitted to fall off on the same tack, the tide in the mean- 
time sweeping them up the stream very considerably. They 
may be thus enabled to weather a point of land, a vessel at 
anchor, or other obstacle, when otherwise they would have 
been compelled to make a board or two to clear it. 

In a tideway the half -board is of great use, but it may 
also be practised by ships at sea, sometimes, with great 
advantage, Thus, Ready about ! Stations for stays ! Put 
the helm doum I Flow the head sheets ! The ship now flies 



328 WORKING TO WINDWARD. 

to (for it can only be practised in a good working breeze), 
with everything shaking; when she has shot up into the 
wind a good distance, and commences to lose her way — yo 
higher! Flatten in forward! and let her go off to a good 
full and by again. 

When a ship is box-hauled, she may be said to make two 
half -boards ; first, when she is luffed up into the wind, and 
again, when she is backed up into the wind stern foremost, 
by which she rather gains to windward. 

To I3a>elc a Ship -A.roii.iicl ofV a Lee 
Shore, Fig. 470, Plate 110. This evolution can be prac- 
tised to very great advantage in moderate weather, and is 
particularly applicable when, beating in a river or channel, 
the ship nusses stays and you have no room to wear. It 
may be remarked here, that this, as well as all other evolu- 
tions requiring the ship to be hacked a^tern^ should be 
adopted m moderate weather only, as there is danger, in a 
very fresh breeze and a rough sea, of injuring the pintles 
ana gudgeons of the rudder, and straining the rudder-head. 
Having stood well over on one shore ^position No. 2, Fig. 
470), Heady about! Luff to, rise tacks and sheets, and 
when you judge proper. Mainsail haul ! If she continues 
to go around, proceed as in tacking of course ; but should 
she come to a stand-still, and refuse stays, Brail up the 
spanker! Man the head braces! and Let go and haul! 
as usual. You have now the wind about a point on the 
weather bow, everything hard aback and the helm a-lee 
(No. 3). With this arrangement of canvas she will soon 

father sternboard and pay off rapidly at the same time, 
ringing the wind abeam, with everything aback, thus sail- 
ing astern. But the helm and the head sails cause her stern 
to luff into the wind, and the after leeches of the topsails 
will soon commence lifting.* The wind now gets aft, and 
the stemway, which has been decreasing, will cease, when 
the helm must be shifted. She now commences to forge 
ahead, the after leeches of the mainsail, main and mizzen 
topsails being full. As soon as it will take the right way, 
haul out the spanker and bring the ship by the wind on the 
new tack. 

With a slow- working ship, or in a light breeze, you can- 
not back around stern to wind so easily, but, bringing the 
wind on the quarter, a vessel will stand so and commence 
coming to the wrong way. This the judgment of the officer 
will anticipate and prevent bv laving the head yards square 
(No. 4), which will give her headway : and the helm being 
shifted, will bring her around, assisted hj the after leaches 
of the after sails and spanker, when it will take (No. 5). In 

♦ The sails, being haid aback, have the effect of heeling the ship and bury- 
ing the lee quarter, thus causing her stem to luff more rapidly to the wind, than 
if the after yards were square, as in box-hauling. 



Plate III 



:Fi«. 471 



> 3 





:E:i«. 472 



.-.i» 




'v 



Fia. 473 




Fig. 475 





Fig. 476 




Fig. 477 



Fig. 478 





• WORKING TO WINDWARD. 329 

light weather the mainsail may be left down. This is good 
exercise for the class in charge of the deck during the prac- 
tice cruise.* 



REMARKS ON TACKING. 

This eYolution, though the most common in the whole 
practice of seamanship, nevertheless inYolves points of the 
nicest judgment and skill to effect its proper performance. 
In the first place, care must be taken that the ship be by 
the wind, not rap full ; nor jambed up to such a pitch as to 
have no headway at all ; but simply, so that all the sails 
may draw without trembling, and when the least touch of 
lee nelm will cause them to shake. Ac'ain, do not put the 
helm down suddenly, but gradually, spoke by spoke, which 
gives the vessel au her velocity in coining to the wind, 
increasing her distance to windward, and keeping her under 
command after the after yards are swung. If, on the con- 
trary, the vessel be suddenly brought to the wind by the 
helm being put down all at once, the ship will most cer- 
tainly lose her way, and consequently have stemboard 
before the head yards are touched. This often leads to 
missing stays. And here arises another point, viz., the 
order, "helm's a-lee," should not be given until the jib 
lifts, for so long as the sail is full, it is manifestly of service 
to the ship in staying ; and when it shakes it is of no use, 
and then the sheet may be let go. If, on the contrary, the 
sheet be eased off beforehand, the sail begins immediately 
to " flap," and so it will continue until it fills on the other 
tack, or has altogether prevented the vessel from coming 
head to wind. The same may be said of the fore-sheet ; 
and hence it is that officers often run the lee clew of the 
fore-sail well up at the order, " Rise main tack and sheet," 
which should be given when the lee leech of the mainsail 
lifts. The fore tack, however, should not be eased until 
after " mainsail haul," for otherwise the entire strain and 
pressure of the foresail (and that aback too), is thus brought 
upon the bowline. 

With the spanker, the sheet must be hauled aft gradu- 
ally, as the lun of the sail lifts, until the boom is amidships. 
It IS a common error to haul the sheet fiat aft at once, thus 
makine a back sail of it. 

If the mainsail be hauled before the wind comes ahead, 
the main yard will fiy around of itself ; but if it be not 
hauled until the wind comes ahead, or on the other bow, it 
will occasion a very heavy and tedious haul. Instead, 

* When beating through the narrow entrance of Narraganset Iwy, on the 
night of the 26th of September, 1863, in a fresh whole topsail breeze, the U. S. 
practice ship Macedonian missed stays twice, and was saved from going on the 
rocks by the performance of this evolution. 



330 WORKING TO WINDWARD. 

therefore, of watching^ the lifting of the spanker or the 
movements of the dog-vane, observe, rather, when the 
weather leech of the main topsail is well aba<^k, as the indi- 
cation when to haul the after yards ; and right .the helm 
when the wind fills the leech on the other tacK. The head 
yards are then hauled as soon after as possible, observing, 
first, however, to brace and trim all sharp up aft. 

In doubtful cases the windward flap of the spanker will 
admonish you to haul the main yard ; and the pennant at 
the main will more truly indicate the direction of the wind 
than the vanes. 

In tacking under double-reefed topsails, the practice of 
bracing to the head yards, while me ship ha>s headway y 
should never be resorted to, as tending to destroy not only 
the effect of the rudder, which is of most consequence, but 
to check the velocity altogether. Under these circmn- 
stances, as soon as tne vessel comes up head to sea, and 
loses her way, put the helm amidshipSy and as she gathers 
stemboard shift it gradually. 

In their zeal to shift over the head sheets, forecastle-men 
sometimes make a back-sail of the jibs, causing the ship to 
refuse stays. 

When about to make a good haul of the yards, a few 
hands should run away with the slack of the brace, the 
^eater number standing by to clap on as soon as the slack 
IS throuc^h. 

Should a lee top-gallant or royal brace jamb in stays, 
start the sheets at once. 

When there is much sea on the bow, or when there is a 
swell with little wind, the ship will require coaxing. Take 
opportunities when she is inclining to come to, to naul the 
head sails down ; ease the helm down, haul over the boom, 
and check the head bowlines and lee head braces. The 
main yard should not be hauled, nor head sails reset, nor 
fore tack started until the wind is decidedly on what was 
the lee bow. The later the haul of the main yard, the 
heavier will be the work ; and as allowing it to bring up 
square for even a short time would probably cause the 
ship to miss stays, care should be taken to insure a good 
haul. 

Should a squall strike the ship in stays, up mainsail and 
spanker, in royals and top-gallant sails, and slack the 
weather-head braces. If the squall is very heavy, get the 
vessel before the wind, and clew down ; otherwise let go 
and haul. 

REMARKS ON WEARING. 

In ordinary cases, let the weather braces be started in 
before putting the helm up, and keep the main topsail 
leeches lifting ; an exception to this occurs in very light 



JTiQ. 479 



.[VV 



Plate 112 

.1, 



JTitf. 4HO 



\ 








iTiaj. -^i 







K 



y 
V 




B'JB. 4«.S 




E^ig. 48a 




O 



7 



■,/'. 







HMk. 4h4 



X 



\ 



v^ 





Fia:. +K5 






P^is;. 480 



1" I 





;:m 




\h 



8^ 




WORKING TO WINDWARD. 331 

weather, when it is essential that the vessel should have 
headway to help her go off; this will bring the ship around 
(provided she had good headway at the offset) in a very 
short space. Observe, -however, to put the helm up grad- 
ually, and to brace the after yards entirely round, by the 
time the ship gets before the wind, letting go the lee head 
braces when the wind gets well abaft, as the forward yards 
will thus fly nearly square, and save some little pulling and 
hauling. When the wind draws on the other beam, meet 
her with the helm, jib, and lee head braces as she comes to. 

If a small vessel will wear readily, in place of taking in, 
or lowering a fore-and-aft mainsail altogether, it is better to 
drop the peak only. 

In regard to keeping full the main topsail, while wearing^ 
much dei>ends upon the situation of the mainmast, which, 
owing to the position of the engine, may step unusually far 
aft, and the main topsail, by tnat means, become a luffing 
sail. 

As boats may be made to steer by trimming, so a ship 
can be made to pay off by bringing the crew aft. 



SAILING IN LINE. 

When performing any evolution in the line, if sail will 
insure it, do not hesitate to make a sufficiency, even if it 
should be taken in immediately afterwards. Missing stays, 
or taking up much time and space in wearing, throws other 
ships into aanger and disorder. 

You may have been carrying enough sail to keep your 
station, but, it does not follow that you have enough to 
carry you round when the si^al for an evolution is made. 
If your leader is dull, but dome his best and in his station, 
of course you must. not encroach on him ; but you must be 
handy with your canvas, and sharp in freshening your way 
with it, just before your own turn comes to go about. 

When about to leave the main yard square in stays, 
make a late haul, else the brace will go. 

The rule for going about in succession in close order in 
the line is, to put the helm down when your next ahead is 
four points on the weather bow ; in open order, five points. 

In wearing, shiver your after-yards, when your leader 
is dead to leeward. 

As ships when sailing in line are not at liberty to disturb 
the order of sailing, it should be borne in mind that those 
emergencies requiring a vessel to be hove to, veered or 
luffed around on the other tack, must be provided for in 
some other manner. 

This applies to steaming as well as sailing. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

WIND BAFFLING. 

OOMIHO TO AOAINfiT THE HELM — TAKEN ABACK— CHAFKLLIRG — TBDDCIKO 
TABDB AKB BEGULATINO SAILS FOR CHA1TGB8 OF WIND— A CALM— 
OOUNTBR-B&ACINO THE TABDB, ETC. 

COMING TO AGAINST THE HELM. 

A VESSEL should always cany her hehn as nearly as po8« 
sible amidships, as she is then more completely under its 
guidance. A vessel that carries a strong weather helm, 
when by the wind, is liable, by the carelessness of the 
helmsman, to fly up, and in some cases, too far to be recov- 
ered without bracing the yards. Suppose, for instance, you 
are under all sail, by the wind, on tne starboard tack — she 
comes to against the helm, proceed to recover her on the 
same tack. 

TO BOX OFF. (Fig. 471.) 

The moment you find her coming to, Put the helm up ! 
Flatten in the head sheets! Ease off the main and span/cer 
sheet ! In most cases this is sufficient if the vessel has head- 
way on, and she will fall off ; then you may right the helm 
and Draw the head sheets! 

But if she still comes to against the helm, Main clew- 
garnets and buntlines ! Spanker brails ! Up mainsail and 
SPANKER ! Man the weather head braces ! Rise pore tack 
AND SHEET ! Clear away the head bowlines ! Brace abox 
THE HEAD YARDS ! If the wind is not already on the port 
bow this will effect your object, by boxing her off; and 
when the after sails fill, let go and haul as in tacking. 



TO RECOVER ON THE SAME TACK BY WEARING. 

If the head yards were not braced abox in time, and the 
wind is now on the port bow, clear away all the bowlines, 
and square the yards fore and aft. Fig. 472. She will soon 
gather sternboard and fall off to starboard, from the effect 
of the helm, which is right for sternboard. As the sails fiU, 
brace in the after yards by the port braces to keep them 
shaking, keeping the head yards square; as she gathers 

333 



WIND BAFFLING. 333 

headway, shift the helm, and proceed as in box-hauling, 
which will have the desired effect . Fig. 472 (4). 



TO CHAPEL SHIP. 

To OliApel Ship (by the T^^ixid on Sta.!-- 
l>oa,i*d n7a,ok)« But if, instead of coining to, you are 
taken aback with a light breeze, to recover her on the same 
tack, proceed as follows : Put the helm to port, if she has 
headway on, haul up the mainsail and spanker, and square 
the after yards ; the moment she gets sternboard, shift the 
helm (putting it to starboard), and she will fall off briskly 
to starDoard. When the after sails fill and she gathers 
headwav, put the helm again to port, and when the wind is 
astern, Brace up the after yards by the port braces : when 
the spanker will take, haul it out, and bring her by the 
wind. This is termed, " chapelling " a ship, by recovering 
her on the same tack without bracing the head yards. Fig. 
473. 

Sailing in squadron, if your ship does not go off by put- 
ting up the helm and flattening in the head sheets, proceed 
at once to tack, and carry sail and tack again when she has 
gained sufficient headway to return to your station. By 
this you will gain your station sooner than by the method 
given in the preceding paragraph, besides avoiding the 
probability of compelling other vessels, astern or to leeward 
of you, to leave their stations. 

"Both in chapelling ship and in ^'recovering on the same 
tack by wearing," we start with all the sails aback and the 
wind on the lee bow. It amounts to the same thin^ whether 
she came to against the helm or was taken aback by a shift 
of wind. 

In both cases we lay the after yards square ; in chapel- 
ling, the head yards are left untouched ; in wearing, the 
head yards are laid s<juare. 

Recovery by wearing is, then, preferable to chapelling, 
for the head yards, when square, will fill and give headway 
sooner than if left braced up, and will also allow the ship to 
come to more rapidly when she is brought to the wind in 
coinpleting the manoeuvre. 

To Oha^pel Sliip withoxit Toiiehinsr a 
Bi^Ace. Fig. 474. This may be accomplished in fight 
weather without touching a rope, excepting, may be, the 
spanker brails. A light breeze takes you flat aback ; order 
the helm down (with reference to the way the yards are 
braced), and as soon as she loses way, Hard up ! and brail 
up the spanker. The ship will now gather sternboard, and 
back round with her stern to the wind. She will soon bring 
the wind right aft and come to a stand, when right helm. 



334 WIND BAFFLINC. 

She will now gradually gather way, when the after leeches 
of the sails, assisted by the helm and spanker, will bring 
her to on the old tack. 



TAKEN ABACK TO GO ON THE OTHER TACK. 

The vessel, being on the starboard tack, is taken 
aback, or has come to against the helm and brought the 
wind on the port bow. When not sailing in squadron, and 
no other circumstance renders it necessary to recover on 
the same tack, go around on the port tack, thus : 

If she has headway, put the nelm a-port, brace around 
the after yards, and proceed as in tacking. 

If she has no headway, put the helm a-starboard for 
stemboard, up mainsail and spanker, square the after yaixis. 
As she pays off to starboard, brace up the after.yards by 
the starboard braces, and when they fill, " Let go and haul,^* 
as in tacking. Set the mainsail and spanker, trim yards, 
haul taut the lifts, and steady out the bowlines. 



BRACING IN. 

Tlie ^W^ind. lira^ws A.ft. You have directions, 
as officer of the deck, to make the best of your way on a 
certain course, which is directljr to windward. You are 
close-hauled, under topgallant sails, on the port tack. The 
ship comes up gradually to her course, and the wind con- 
tinues to haul until it is directly aft. 

Keep her full and by, and she will come up as the wind 
hauls until she is on her course. Then give directions to 
the helmsman, '' Steady so T^ 

Finding that the wind draws aft, give the order, Man the 
weather main and lee crossjack braces! Clear away the 
bowlines ! Brace in a little the main topsail, mizzen top- 
sail and upper yards, and then brace in the fore topsail and 
upper yards, and ease off a little of the fore main, spanker, 
and jib sheets. Aloft to loose the royals ! Clear away the 
flying jib I Get the topgallant studding-sails ready for set- 
ting ! When ready, Let fall ! Sheet home ! Rig out 
AND HOIST AWAY ! If vou Carry staysails, you may also set 
them at this time ; also the topmast stun'sail when it will 
draw. 

After trimming the after yards, it is customary to order 
the officer of the lorecastle to Trim the head yards by the 
main ! 

Tlie AVIulcI, still Di^a^wing- A^ft^ is no^v 
-A.l>eaiix. Brace in the after vards as much as the wind 



REEFING. 335 

will allow, keeping the sails full. Then brace in the head 
yards, taking in the slack of the topgallant studding-sail 
tacks. Ease off the fore, main^ spanker, and head sheets^ 
and set the topmast studding-sail, if not already set. 

A vessel is " going large " when the direction of the wind 
makes a greater angle than six points f67° 30') with the 
course ; and when the wind is abeam or a little aoaf t, form- 
ing more than a ri^ht angle with the course, then all the 
saus feel the full lorce of the wind, and the velocity of 
the vessel ought to have gained its maximum. 

The ^Vv ixid. is no^^v on the C^ixairter. 
Brace the after yards in nearly square, and then the head 
yards, taking in the slack of the studding-sail tacks. Man 
the weather main clew-garnet and spanker brails I Haul up 
the weather clew of the mainsail, brail up the spanker, and 
set the lower studding-sail. 

The AVind still r>ra^ws Aft. Square the 
after yards and then the forward ones ; get the lower lifts 
down to the square mark, and haul down the jib and 
flying-jib. Man the lee main clew-garnet, buntlines and 
leecmines, and haul the mainsail up snug. Haul down the 
staysails. * 

The T^^incl is novi^ I>ii*ectly ^^ft. Stand 
by to set all the starboard studding-sails! When ready, 
hoist the topmast studding-sail up to the lower yard. Man 
all the halliards, lower boom topping-lift, forward-guy, in- 
and-out jiggers, tacks, outhauls ; tend the sheets, down- 
hauls, and clewlines. Haul taut ! Rig out ! Sway to 
HAND ! Then, Hoist away ! \ 

In sailing with the wind directly aft, many of the sails 
are becalmed bv those abaft them ; the sails on the mizzen- 
mast keeping the wind from those on the main, which again 
becalm those on the foremast. The mainmast acting more 
directly upon the centre of the vessel, should feel the full 
force of tne wind, for which reason you may furl the mizzen 
topgallant sail, clew down the mizzen topsail, and haul up 
its reef -tackles and buntlines. This is termed scandalizing 
the mizzen. 

With the wind aft, if the sea is not perfectly smooth, a 
vessel will roll more than if the wind were on either side. 
Care should be taken to keep the yards steady, by setting 
well taut the lifts and burtons. 

It is a general rule, in trimming the yards for a shift of 
wind, when the wind draws aft, to brace in the after yards 

* Bracing in with stun'sails set, be very careful to clap on the stun'sail hal- 
liards, lifts and burtons, and top up as the yards come in. Also keep a strain on 
the after-prny, boom-brace, and topmast stun' sail tack. 

f With stun'sails both sides, passaree the foresail, by means of a rope on each 
ride, secured to the clew of the foresail, and rove through a bull's-eye on the 
lower boom. 



330 WIND BAFFLING. 

first ; and when it hauls ahead, the head yards should be 
braced up first. 

When the yards are square in port, the lifts should be 
marked by the captains of the tops and mast-men, so that 
they may, b^ these marks, always be squared at sea when 
before the wind, or in coming to anchor ; for studding-sails 
will never set properly on both sides unless the yards are 
square by the lifts ; and in coining to anchor, after the 
yards are clewed down and braced square, a ship presents 
a miserable appearance with the yards topped up m every 
direction. 

BRACING UP. 

The AV^ind. Hauls Forward.. Having the 
wind aft, and all the sails set to the best advantage, the 
wind hauls forward on the starboard side, until she is close- 
hauled ; proceed to shorten and regulate the sails, and trim 
the yards, as the wind hauls. 

The wind is now on the starboard quarter, the port 
studding-sails, from the eddy wind out of the topsails, top- 
gallant sails, and royals, are lifting. Stand by to dip the port 
studding-sails ! Having men on tne lower, topsail, and top- 

fallant yards ; while you lower on the halliards, they haul 
own on the inner leeches of the studding-sails, and aip the 
yards forward ; then, Hoist away ! and now, the studding- 
sail yards being forward of the sails, the eda^ wind has no 
bad effect upon them. Hoist the mizzen topsail, set the miz- 
zen topgallant sail and royal and the fiying jib. 

Dipping lee topgallant studding-sails is not recom- 
mended. 

When bracing forward, the oflScer of the deck usually 
trims the fore yard himself, directing the oflScer of the fore- 
castle to Trim the upper yards ! 

The AVind ntill Hauls Forward. It be- 
comes necessanr to brace up a little by the port braces. 
Stand hy to take in all the port studding-sails! Having 
everything manned. Haul taut ! Clew up ! Lower away ! 
Haul down ! Rig in ! The booms being in, and alongside, 
studding-sails in, the men making them up to stow away. 
Man the port braces, forward guv and fore tack ! Attend 
the starboard braces, studding-sail tacks, outhaul, and after 
guy, and let go the lee lower lifts. Brace up ! Haul forward 
the fore tack I Trim the upper yards, and lower boom by 
the lore yard. Man the mam sheet and spanker outhaul ! 
Let go the main buntlines and leechlines, and have them 
well overhauled. Ease down the lee clew-garnet, Haul aft ! 
Clear away the brails ! Haul out I ♦ Trim aft the jib sheet ! 

* Or, set the spanker (.as it is taken in) with the tceaiher clew of thi 
mainsail. 



WIND BAFFLING. 337 

or if the jib had been hauled down, Man the jib halliards ! 
Clear away the downhaul ! Hoist away ! Haul taut the 
weather lifts and braces! Haul out the studding-sail 
tacks f 

The ^Wind. HauIs ^bea^ni* Stand by to take 
in the lower studding-sail ! When ready, Haul taut! Clew 
UP ! Lower away ! Haul in ! Get the lower boom alongside, 
brace up a little the yards, overhauling the lee lower lifts. 
Man the main tack! Ease down the weather clew-garnet. 
Haul aboard I Trim aft the jib sheet, fore, mam and 
spanker sheets. 

The wind still hauls, being now forward of the beam ; 
brace the yards sharper up, attending the studding-sail 
tacks, and overhauling well tne lee lifts ; naul close down the 
fore and main tacks, and flat aft the sheets ; haul aft the 
spanker sheet: then haul taut the weather braces, and 
weather lower lifts. 

The wind still hauling the studding-sails lift ; Stand by 
to take in the studding-sails, royals and staysails! When 
ready. In royals ! Lower away, haul down, Kig in ! Make 
up and stow away the studding-sails, trice up the studding- 
sail gear, and get the burtons off the yards. Trim the 
yards and sails, and haul the bowlines fore and aft. You 
are now as you were at the commencement, but on a 
different tack. Weather permitting, leave the royals set. 



CALM. 

The yards are braced up on either tack, and the wind has 
died away until it is perfectly calm. 

Haul up the courses, brail up the spanker, haul down the 
jib, and counter-brace the yards, either bv bracing around 
the head yards, or the after ones. In this position she is 
ready for any wind that may spring up. If there is any 
swell on, furl the light sails to save tnem from chafe. 

Suppose, for instance, the head yards are braced up by 
the starboard, and the after yards by the port braces, helm 
amidships. If the breeze strikes her : 

On the starboard bow: Port the helm, hoist the jib, 

starboard sheet aft ; when the 
after yards fill, brace around 
the head yards, shift over 
head sheets. Fig. 475. 
On the starboard beam : Hoist the jib, port sheet aft ; 

brace around the head yards 
at once. Fig. 476. 
On the starboard quarter : Brace in the after yards, trim 

the head yards by the main, 
make sail. Fig. 477. 



338 WIND BAFFLING. 

On the port bow: Starboard the helm for stemboard, 
(Sans on fore not aiMdc.) hoist the jib, port shoet aft, 

square the after ycurds. When 
the fore topsail fills, right the 
helm and orace up the after 
yards. Shift over the head 
sheets. Fig. 478. 

On the port beam: Hoist the jib, starboard sheet aft, 

brace around the after yards 
at once. Fig. 479. 

On the port quarter: Trim the after yards first, then 

the head yards by the main, 
make sail. Fig. 480. 

If the breeze strikes her ahead, then — 

To pay off to port: Port the helm for stemboard, 

hoist the jib, starboard sheet 
aft. When she has fallen off 
sufllciently, shift over jib 
sheet. Let go and haul I Fig. 

481. 
To pay off to starboard : Starboard the helm for stem- 
board, hoist the jib, port sheet 
fiat aft, brace around briskly 
the head yards, square the 
after yards. As she goes off. 
brace up the after yards, ana 
at the proper time, let go and 
HAUL I shift over the jib sheet. 
Fig. 482. 
So you have your vessel, by either process, immediately 
under command. As soon as she gathers headway, bring 
her to her course, or by; the wind, using the spanker 
to bring her to, and setting thp courses to suit circum- 
stances. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

TWO OR MORE VESSELS COMMUNICATING AT SEA-HEAV- 
INQ TO-FILLING AWAY-SQUALLS-MAN 
OVERBOARD-SOUNDING. 

In the previous chapter, we counter-braced the yards in 
a calm to prepare for a breeze, but yards are frequently 
braced in tnis manner, with a breeze, for the purpose of 
heaving to ; in any case where you may wish to remain sta- 
tionary. 

The most common practice in vessels sailing alone, is 
after hauling up the mainsail, to brace square the main 
yard — that is, yards on the main mast — having the fore and 
cross-jack yards braced full, foresail, spanker, and jib, set. 
Though the sails on the main mast are aback, she will range 
ahead slowlv. 

To stop her way still more, brace the cross-jack yards 
square, haul up the foresail and i)ut the helm a-lee ; she 
will rarely range ahead under this arrangement of the 
sails, but will fall off and come to, which you may 
regulate by easing off, or hauling aft, the spanker and jio 
sheets. 

Or you may brace abox the head yards, and keep the 
after ones full. The after sails will keep her by the wind, 
while the head sails will deaden her headway. 

It must depend entirely upon circumstances which 
method is resorted to. 

Two vessels communicating, the weather one braces 
aback her main yard, the lee one her head yards ; then, on 
any sudden emergency, as a squall, the weather one throws 
all aback and drops astern, while the lee one shivers her 
after yards, fills her fore topsail, and falls off. Fig. 485, 
Plate 112. 

If there are three vessels, the centre and weather ones 
back their main yards, and the lee one as before ; then, in 
case of necessity, the weather one fills her after yards and 
shoots ahead, the centre one backs astern, and tne lee one 
proceeds as before. Fi^. 480. 

Sailing in squadron m " order of sailing," those vessels 
which have the advantage in speed over others, are obliged 
frequently, besides reducing sail, to back the mizzen top- 
sail, for the purpose of keeping in their stations. This is 

880 



340 VESSELS COMMUNICATING AT SEA, ETC. 

frequently done in preference to furling royals and topgal- 
lant sails. A fast-sailing vessel will sometimes keep ner 
station for hours, with her mizzen topsail aback. 



TO HEAVE TO, 

HAVING THE WIND AFT, OR ON THE QUABTER. 

After hauling up the courses, commence as in bring^g 
to the wind, brace the mizzen topsail sharp up, put the helm 
down, and when the spanker will take the ngnt way, haul 
it out. Keep the main topsail square, and meet her, as she 
comes to, with the helm, and by oracing up the head yards, 
and hauling aft the head sheets. Fig. 483, Plate 112. 



UNDER SIMILAR CIRCUMSTANCES, 

TO HEAVE TO WITH THE FORE TOPSAIL TO THE HAST. 

After hauling up the courses, brace up the main and 
mizzen topsails, when you put the helm down ; keeping the 
head yards square, and hauling flat aft the jib-sheet. It 
may be necessary to meet her with the helm, and ease the 
spanker sheet, before she loses her headway, to prevent h#*r 
coming around or going about. Fig. 484, Plate 112. 

If a vessel has a rapid headwav when the necessity for 
heaving to occurs, settle down tne topgallant sails and 
royals, or clew them up ^ for these sails, when thus thrown 
aback, receive the full impulse of the wind, increased by 
the headway of the vessel, and the mast thus pressed has 
not a sufficient support from its stay. 

To Fill A^w^y^ after lying to with the main top- 
sail to the mast : Right the helm! haul aft the head sheets! 
and board the fore tack. As she falls off, brace up the after 

{rards, set the mainsail, and trim to the course. If from 
ying to with the fore topsail to the mast : Right the helm! 
shiver the after sails and haul aft the jib-sheet. As she falls 
off, brace around the head yards. Meet her with the helm, 
and trim to the course. 

In the foregoing cases, vessels are said to be '^ Lying to 
with the main topsail to the mast;" *' Fore topsail to the 
mast y " " After yards aback ; " or, " Standing on with the 
mizzen topsail aback:' 

Ships running with the wind aft may decrease their 
speed oy '' bracing by," thus spilling the wind out of their 
sails. 



VESSELS COMMUNICATING AT SEA, ETC. 341 



SQUALLS. 

When a modem vessel, close-hauled, is to be handled 
during a squall, the weight of evidence is in favor of her 
luffing and reducing sail with air possible dispatch. 

The tendency of the vessel is to luff of herself, as the re- 
sistance under the lee bow is greater than that under the 
opposite bow. in the ratio of the ship's inclination. More- 
over, if the snip puts her helm up immediately, sail cannot 
be shortened till the wind is abaft the beam, to reach which 
she must pass a point where the whole force of the squall 
will be exerted upon her. 

A long modem ship is slow in paying off, and would 
han^ at this dangerous point even longer than a short old- 
fashioned vessel. 

An argument a^gainst luffing is the danger of getting 
taken aback. But tne luffing should be done with a steady 
helm, being quick to meet her when she trembles. 

This recalls the point that, when close-hauled, the after 
yards should always be in sufficiently to have their sails 
touch, while, at the same time, the head yards stand full. 

The vessel being imder reduced canvas, and luffing to 
the squall, should it then come so heavy as to endanger her 
spars, she may go off by letting fly the lee topsail sheets, 
and clewinfi^ up tne mizzen topsail. 

A vessel running free when struck by a squall, should 
keep away, reducing sail as necessary. 

Attention is called to the value of trysails in squally or 
heavy weather. 

These fore-and-aft sails can be carried when courses 
have to be hauled up. When set, they assist in giving the 
ship that headway without which her rudder is of no use. 



BY THE WIND UNDER ALL SAIL, 

TO REDUCE SAIL TO A SQUALL. 

Take in the royals, flying-jib, mainsail, and spanker. 
Take in topgallant sails, clew down the topsails, haul out 
the reef -tackles, haul up the buntlines, and belay the topsail 
clewlines. Set fore topmast staysail and haul down the jib. 
Receive the squall under this sail. Have a hand by the fore 
sheet. 

If the squall comes so heavy as to endanger your spars, 
let fly the lee topsail sheets ; clew up mizzen topsail, up 
helm, ease off fore sheet to relieve the pressure under the 
lee bow, and run before the wind. Clew up fore and main 
topsails, and haul up foresail. 



342 VESSELS COMMUNICATING AT SEA, ETC. 

Haul by the wind and make sail after the squall has 
passed. 

If by the wind under topsails and foresail you are struck 
by a squall, clew down tne topsails, luffing to touch Uis 
leeches. The helm must be carefully attended. 



STRUCK BY A SQUALL, GOING LARGE. 

Sailing with the wind on the starboard quarter, under 
royals, flying-jib, staysails, and all starboard studding-sails, 
you are struck by a heavy squall. 

The first and most important thing to be done is, to ^et 
your vessel before the wind, which destroys greatly its 
force, and becalms many of the sails ; and the next is, to 
reduce sail as expeditiously as possible. 

Hard up! Let go the main and spanker sheet, and 
OUTHAUL 1 Clew up the royals and topgallant sails, and haul 
down the topgallant studding-sails and flying-jib, clew down 
the mizzen topsail, haul up tne mainsail and spanker, tilien 
take in the lower and topmast studding-sailB, and haul 
down the staysails, rig the booms in, and ts^e the burtons 
oflf the yards. When before the wind, right the helm, clew 
down the topsails, haul out the reef-tackles, and up the 
buntlines, haul down the jib and hoist the fore topmast 
staysail. In the meantime, furl the topgallant sails and 
royals, and stow the light sails ; and you may now run be- 
fore the squall until it moderates, or bring by the wind and 
reef, before keeping on your course. 

The lower and topmast studding-sails assist in paying 
her ofF, and should be kept on if possible, imtil she is before 
the wind, for a vessel in a squall is apt to 'fly up into the 
wind, unless means are taken promptly to prevent it by the 
helm and sails. 

In taking in the spanker quickly, when going large, haul 
down the head before starting the foot outhaul. This makes 
the sail much easier to handle. 



REMARKS ON SQUALLS. 

In most cases an officer who keeps a vig^ant watch can 
see the approach of a squall and anticipate it by reducing 
sail and be ready to brace yards and meet it ; for rarely do 
squalls occur without something to mark their approach- 
either the appearance of the clouds and horizon or the com- 
motion on tne water, the latter cannot be mistaken and 
invariably marks the advance of a sudden and violent 
squall. 

No part of the horizon should escape his observation 
during the watch even in the finest weather with a steady 



VESSELS COMMUNICATING AT SEA, ETC. 343 

breeze. It will encourage a habit that must turn to good 
account, and never be a useless one ; he may see by this, 
the approach of a squall from a point directly opposite to 
the breeze, which appears to be a steady one, ana prepare 
himself by reducing sail in time. 

Too much cannot be said in censure of an officer in 
charge of the deck, intrusted with the safety of a public 
vessel, and the lives of hundreds of persons, who, perform- 
ing his duty negligently, allows a squall to strike him with- 
out seeing its approach, and consequently unprepared to 
meet its effects ; oy allowing other matters to occupy his 
thoughts and attention during his watch, he is thrown 
entirely oflf his balance at any unusual occurrence, creates, 
by his manner and conduct, confusion among the men, and 
losing their confidence, at the same time loses their respect, 
and proper deference to his orders. 

Never trust a squall which cannot he seen through, for 
when a heavy squall strikes the ship, you can seldom reduce 
sail without losing it. 

MAN OVERBOARD. 

"With tlie T^lnd. A^toeam oi* forTvard. of 
tlie Beam. 

The moment the cry of "man overboard" is heard, 
order : 

Hard down! 

Let go the life-buoy ! 

As she comes to, issue the following orders distinctly 
and in a manner that will cause instant obedience : 

Silence fore and aft ! 

Clear away the lee life boat! 

Main clew garnets and buntlines ! 

Weather main and lee crossjack braces ! 

Clear away the after bowlines ! 

Up mainsail ! Brace aback ! 

The moment the lee braces and bowlines are let go, the 
yards (from being already in the wind) will fly around of 
themselves : then keep the head yards full to steady her, 
while the arter ones stop her headway. 

While this is being d!one, the boat is ready for lowering, 
with a crew and oflScer in her. Lower away! and direct 
them which way to pull. 

In smooth water, and when the boat has but a short dis- 
tance to go, remain hove to and await the return of vour 
boat, making all preparations for hoisting. With a fresh 
breeze and heavy sea, bear up after the departure of the 
life boat, run down to leewara of her and heave to on the 
same tack as before, in readiness for hoisting. 

In all cases of sudden heaving to, light well up the head 
sheets. 



344 VESSELS COMMUNICATING AT SEA, ETC. 

^V^ith the T\^iiid Al>aft the Bestm. 

Assume the ship to have the wind on the starboard 
quarter, with the starboard studding-sails set, the principle 
being the same, however, under any disposition of canyas 
with the wind abaft the beam. 

Luff to with the head yards to the mast, using the follow- 
ing orders : 

Hard down 1 

Let go the life buoy ! 

Clear awat the lee life boat ! 

Lee main, weather crossjack braces I 

Brace up ! 

Let fly the stunsail tacks and sheets! 

Clew up the lower stunsail ! 

Fore and main clew garnets and huntlinesi 

Up courses ! 

By this arrangement of canvas the ship is hove to with 
the head yards to the mast, and may be held steady till the 
return of the boat. Let the officer of the forecastle haul 
down the stunsails and get things to rights forward. The 
booms may be left out. 

In this case the boat pulls off the weather beanL 

A^ind att^ a.iid Stixddiiigr*^^^!^ both 
sides. 

Bound to on either tack (the particular one determined 
in the mind of the officer when taking charge of the deck], 
brace up the after yards and luff to with the head yards 
square. 

Give the following orders, if to come to on the starboard 
tack : 

Hard a-port ! 

Let go the life buoy ! 

Clear away the port life boat ! 

Man the port main, starboard crossjack braces, spanker 
outhaul! 

Brace up I Haul out ! 

Let fly the starboard studding sail tacks! Clew up the 

STARBOARD LOWER STUDDING SAIL 1 

Take in the lee stunsails as fast as possible, then the 
weather ones. Up courses and reduce sail as necessary. 
The boat pulls off the weather beam. 

MAN OVERBOARD. UNDER STEAM. 

Let go the life-buoy I 

Clear away the starboard (or port) life-boat. 
Signal to the engine room to back at once if the engines 
will stand it. Otherwise stop and back. 
Hard a port, {or hard a-starboard). 
Put the helm the way that will the soonest give the life- 



VESSELS COMMUNICATING AT SEA, ETC. 345 

boat a lee, and at the same time bring the vessel nearly 
head to the sea. 

Get the boat away as quickly as possible. Should fore 
and aft sail be set, let fly the head sheets. 

Straighten up after the boat is away. 

If the screw current, or back wash, has reached the 
point where the boat is to be lowered, caution the men in the 
boat, stop the engines, and if the boat is not fitted to detach 
both falls together, be sure to let go the forward-fall firs+. 

There will be occasions, such as when running before 
the wind and sea, that by the time the boat can be lowered 
the vessel will be some distance directly to leeWard of the 
man, thus giving the crew of the life-boat a hard and possi- 
bly long pull to windward. In which case manoeuvre the 
vessel in such a way as to bring her to windward of the 
man before- lowering the boat. Should there be the slight- 
est doubt, lower the boat as soon as possible, lowering a 
second boat later on if found desirable. 

If the conditions be too bad to lower a boat, let go the 
life-buoy, and make every effort to get something to the 
man for him to cling to. Then manoeuvre so as to get to 
windward of him, when he may be rescued by the throwing 
of lines. If necessary to attempt lowering a boat under the 
latter conditions, first use oil freely. Remember the binna- 
cle lamps are always handy. 

In many cases of '*man overboard" from small vessels, 
such as torpedo boats, it would be advisable to let a strong 
swinuner, with a line around him, go to the rescue of the 
man in the water, first putting the vessel in the most fav- 
orable position. 

It is held by some that with twin screws there is great 
danger of the man being struck by the screw nearest to him 
if the helm is put hard over at once. The speed of the 
vessel, and the point where the man falls over, as well as 
the way the hehn is put, will govern this case to a great 
extent. Putting the helm one way will throw the stern 
towards the man, while the opposite will throw it away 
from him. 

As previously stated, the method of procedure in any 
event snould already have been decided upon by the officer 
of the deck. 

In low free-board vessels in heavy weather, the men 
should be specially cautioned against the danger of being 
washed overboard. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

The best authorities agree that a smart working ship, 
which is sure in stays, should go about on losing a man 
overboard with the wind abeam or forward of the beam; 



346 VESSELS COMMUNICATING AT SEA, ETC. 

leaving the main yard square on the other tack and lower- 
ing the boat in stays. 

In such a ship, when on a wind, order: Ready about! 
Let go the life buoy! Clear away the weather life 
boat! 

Proceed as in tacking. At the order : Rise main tack 
AND SHEET ! haul up the mainsail ; keep fast the fore tack 
to pay her around. Make a late '^maintopsail haul" or the 
main brace may carry away ; leave the main-yard square. 
Shift the helm for stemboard, and when ready^ Biss fork 
TACK ! and Let go and haul ! Do your utmost to get the boat 
lowered before the ship gathers stemboard. If this proves 
impossible, you may save trouble by waiting till the stern- 
board ceases before lowering. 

The great merit of this plan is that the ship when around 
drifts right toward the man and the boat. 

If the boat is in distress, or her crew exhausted, the ship 
will be in position to afford prompt assistance. 

Unfortunately this practice is limited to vessels that can 
be relied upon to tack, and therefore cannot be adopted by 
the average modern steamer cruising under sail. 

Particular attention may now be directed to other mat- 
ters connected with this important manoeuvre. 

The Uf e-buoy look-out should watch for the appearance 
of the man before dropping the buoy. A cool hand will 
drop the buoj^ within a tew feet of the man — another will 
either not let it go at all or drop it before the man reaches 
the stem. The buoy dropped, the look-out should keep the 
man in sight until the persons specially detailed for this 
purpose reach their stations in the mizzen rigging, and can 
get the bearing from the look-out. 

It is not entirely advisable for the life-buoy look-out to 
leave his station himself and go into the rigging — as he may 
be required to let go the other life-buoy — in case of an acci- 
dent to the life boat when lowering. 

In coming to the wind in a fresh breeze, clew up the 
royals and settle the topgallant halliards. 

In bracing around, letting fly gear, &c. , do not forget to 
warn men on the yards to look out for themselves. 

Be smart in hauling up the mainsail ; if you allow the 
main-yard to fly square before the mainsail (or at least one 
of its clews) is out of the way, it will defy the efforts of the 
whole watcn to haul it up. 

There is generally more mischief done in lowering the 
boat too soon than by waiting for the proper moment. 
Lower when the ship has slight headway, and at all events 
before she gathers stemboard. 

If sailing in squadron, make the preconcerted "acci- 
dent " signal as soon as possible, and at night run up your 
position lights without delay. 

In giving your orders, substitute the words, Starboard 



Service Life Bu<^. 

To fact p. Si7. 



VESSELS COMMUNICATINQ AT SEA, ETCv 347 

and PORT, for lee and weather, whenever practicable, 
especially in manning the boat and gear. The cry of man 
overboard brings all hands on deck, and if greeted with 
unmistakable orders they know what to do and where to 
go. This precaution is of special value on a dark nighty or 
when the ship is nearlv before the wind. 

Every ship should have men told off for the following 
purposes : 

To tend the life-boat falls. 

To keep the man in sight. 

To hoist and tend signals of **Pull to port;** Pull to 
starboard ; " " You go well j " and to display lights or fire 
rockets showing ship's position. 

A Very signal fired in the direction of the man will often 
reveal his position in the water, if not too distant. 

Success in saving the man depends on the coolness of 
the officer of the deck and of the look-out at the life-buoy, 
and upon the normal condition of the boats. 

The officer of the deck should — 

First. Keep cool himself and preserve order. 

Second. Let go the buoy and keep the man in sight. 

Third. Put the helm down. 

Fourth. Heave to. 

Fifth. Lower the life-boat. 

Sixth. Get matters to rights and prepare for hoisting the . 
boat. 

The service life-buoy Fig. A is annular in shape. The 
air chamber is made of sheet copper, and divided into water- 
tight compartments. It will sustain the weight of one man 
in a sitting posture, and that of three men in the water 
when assisted by their own efforts. 

Bands around the air chamber support two torches, 
pivoted so as to stand always upright. These torches con- 
tain phosphide of calcium, which emits a bright flame when 
coming in contact with the water. 

The buoy is attached to the stern by a chain slip. A 
handle inboard disconnects the slip when pulled upon, and 
drops the buoy. 

Circular life-buoys made of cork should be distributed 
about the upper deck, for in the long modern ships a buoy 
thrown out from the gangway often falls closer to the man 
than one thrown from aft. 

The man sticks his head up through the buoy and sits on 
the life chain, or rests his arms on it. 

A few exercises in picking up buoys and lowering life- 
boats under various circumstances at sea will accustom both 
the officer of the deck and the watch to that kind of work. 

It would be well, also, when the crew are sent in bathing, 
to drop the life-buoys and allow the men to form some idea 
of the manner in which they are to be used, and of their 
sustaining power. 



348 VKS8EU3 COMMUNICATING AT SEA, BTC. 



SOUNDING. 

In a light breeze, with the wind free and all sail set, 
soundings mav be taken without reducing sail, thus : Luff 
the ship up ; if the lower stun'sail is set haul up the clewline, 
and keep the sails lifting, without allowing them to catch 
aback, which can readily be done by a proper management 
of the helm : she will lose her headway sufficiently for the 
purpose, ana still be under control of the helm. The sound- 
ings being taken, keep her off to her course, and haul out 
the lower stun'sail. 

The operation of obtaining soundings, particularly when 
going large, affords a fine opportunity for the display of 
skill and judgment in handling a ship. Celerity and cer- 
tainty are generally aimed at, out very frequently is the 
latter needlessly sacrificed to the former. Full preparation 
should be made first with the lead and line. The sails and 
helm must then be managed so as. to bring the ship as nearly 
stationary as possible without endangering the spars. As 
soon as the headway ceases, or nearly so, get a fair up and 
dovm casty and fill away. 

The common error is to get a cast with too much way on. 
Instead of saving, this only wastes time, for if the sound- 
ings are necessary at all, they should be determined cor- 
rectly. 

On a wind, haul up the mainsail and back the main top- 
sail. In addition to tnis, the mizzen topsail may be thrown 
aback if found necessary to deaden the ship's way. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

REEFINQ-TURNING OUT REEFS. 

XS.eefltigr SLiicl HoiHting*. When it becomes 
necessary to reduce sail by reefing topsails, if all hands are 
to be employed, direct the boatswain to call : 

Reef topsails ! The men beine on deck :, 

Man the topsail clewlines and buntlines, weather topsail 
braces ! Hands by the lee braces, bowlines, and halliards ! 

A few hands take through the slack of the reef -tackles.* 
When ready — 

Clear away the bowlines, round in the weather brakes ! 
Settle away the topsail halliards ! Clew down ! Brace the 
topsail yards in so that the lee topmast rigging may not 
prevent them from being clewed down to the cap ; haul up 
the buntlines, and the slack of the reef -tackles while the 
yard comes down ; and when it is down on the cap, steady 
the yard by the lee braces, and haul taut the halliards. (The 
latter precaution is too commonly neglected.) 

Haul out the reef tackles I 

Haul up the buntlines ! 
. Aloft topmen ! Trice up ! Lay out ! Take one reef ! 
Light out to windward. Pass the weather earing, rousing 
the reef -cringle well up ; then haul out to leeward ; hauling 
the reef -band well taut ; pass the lee earing and tie the 
points or toggle the beckets. 

While the men are reefing, luff the ship up and spill the 
sail, that they may gather it up readily. 

Lay in ! 

Stand by the booms ! 

Down booms ! Lay down from aloft ! Man the topsail 
halliards ! Let go and overhaul the rigging ! Clear away 
the buntlines, clewlines, and reef-tackles, and have them 
lighted up. Tend the braces! Let go tne lee ones, and 
stand by to slack the weather ones. Set taut ! Hoist away 
the topsails ! When up to a taut leech. Belay the topsail 
halliards ! Trim the yards, Steady out the bowlines I and 
pipe down. 

Frequently topgallant sails are set when about to reef 

* If the reef-tacklefl reeve through a sheave in a treble quarter-block under 
the topsail yard, they act as downhaul tackles when hauled upon, and should be 
manned. But ayoid endan^ring the yard-arms by putting undue stnun upon 
•och leef-tackles while clewing down. 

849 



350 REEFING. 

topsails. If you intend to set them again after the topsail 
is reefed, clew the sail up, and after the topsail is reef ea and 
hoisted, sheet home ana hoist the topgallajit sail over the 
single reef. 

If the wind still increases, and it becomes necessary tp 
reduce sail still further, clew ud and furl the topgallant 
sails^ then take a second and a mird reef, j>roceeding as in 
the nrst, having each successive reef -band immediately be- 
low the preceding one. 

And to reduce sail still further, by taking the last or close 
reef, pass the earings abaft and over the yard, bring the 
reef -band under the yard, and covering the other reefs. It 
will be necessary in this reef to haul the reef -tackles close 
up, to do which you will be obliged to start a little of the 
topsail sheets, or to brace in a little of the lower yards. 

After taking the third reef in the topsails, it is advisable 
to get preventer braces on the weather topsail yard-arms, 
particularly if the braces are much worn. 

After hoisting a close-reefed topsail, haul taut the reef- 
tackles, so that they may bear a strain to relieve the reef 
earing, and be particular that the yard is hoisted clear of 
the lower cap. Send the men down from aloft, haul home 
the sheets, trim the yards, and haul the bowlines. 

The mizzen topsail is generally furled when the fore and 
main are close reefed. 

To Reef Topsails before the ^W^ind, 
you may, by putting the helm either way, and bringing the 
wind abeam, clew tne yards down as the sails lift, and Keep 
her in this position until they are reefed ; or if you wish to 
continue on your course, wind blowing very fresh, hrcu^e by, 
spilling the wind out of the sails. 

To K.eef a Coixrse. Having the reef -pendants 
hooked to their cringles, on the leeches of the sail, nook the 
clew-jiffger to the thimble in the upper end of the pendant ; 
Man the clew-garnets, buntlines and leechlines! and haul 
the sail up as in a fresh breeze. Haul well taut both lifts. 
Haul out the reef-tackles ! slacking the clew-garnets, if 
necessary, to get them well up. Lay aloft lower yard- 
men 1 Man the boom tricing-hnes ! Trice up, lay out and 
REEF ! Proceed in reefing as in taking the first reef in a top- 
sail, being careful to secure every reef point to the jact- 
stay. Lay in ! Down booms ! Lay down from aloft I Let 
go and overhaul the reef -tackles, and set the sail. 

Xl^eef Eax-ingr^ — Ji^eei" Jl-^oints and 
Beclcets. In reefing, as soon as the men are on the 
yard, the sail is picked up with both hands, the men facing 
to leeward and hauling out to windward. The weather 
earing being passed. Haul out to leeward! passing the lee 
earing in the same manner as the weather one. Baul the 
reef -band well taut, and turn the folds {dog's ears) of both 
leeches in between the sail and the yard. 



REEFING. ^^1 

To pass a hull earing for the first or second reef of a 
• topsail, Fig. 487, Plate 113. The end passes from aft for- 
ward through the reef-cringle ; haul the cringle well up on 
top of the yard, then take one round turn of the earine 
around the yard and outer parts without passing through 
the cringle, after which take three turns round the yard and 
through the cringle, hitching the ends to the lift close down 
to its eye-bolt. 

The first turn is taken outside the cringle to jam the 
thwartship parts and keep the cringle from sagging down. 

For description of a bull earing, see Earings, under 
Sails, Chapter X. 

To pass an ordinary earing for a topsail. For the first 
reef, if so fitted, as in Fig. 488, Plate 113, take the earing up 
from the sail and pass it on the forward side and over the 
yard around the inboard cleat, through the cringle, then 
take one turn around the yard outside the cringle, to jam 
the outer turns. Then reeve the biqht of the earing through 
the cringle from aft forward, and pass the end from tne 
cringle under the yard up over and through the bight, then 
back over the yard and through the cringle from under- 
neath the yard. Slue the cringle well up, pass sufficient 
turns to secure, expend the end round the yard, finally 
taking a half -hitch around the lift close down. 

The second and third reef earin^s are passed in the same 
way, usin^ the outer cleats, and with additional outer turns 
if reguirea. 

First and second reef earings are now generally bull 
earings, as described above. 

The fourth or close reef earing is passed similar to other 
(ordinary) earings, with the exception of taking the first 
turns on the after instead of the forward side of the yard. 
Fig. 489, Plate 113. 

If the close reef were fitted with beckets, it would be 
taken like the others, and the first turns of the earing taken 
forward, as usual. 

Reef earings of a course. The course being hauled up. 
the first reef earing is then passed from fortvard aft around 
the lift bolt, back over tho top of the yard and through the 
cringle. Take the inner turns through the cringle and 
around the yard, the same as for a topsail, hitching the end 
around the brace-block bolt. Fig. 4i)0, Plate 113. 

The second reef earing is passed in the same way. 

The use of outer turns of a reef earing is merely to keep 
the head of the sail on a stretch, the inner turns taking the 
whole strain of the leech when the sail is hoisted and bow- 
line hauled. 

Reef points of a topsail. The reef earings being secured, 
pass the after reef points up from under the yard and clear 
of the topgallant sheets {i. e., between the topgallant sheets 
and the yard), pull the sail well up forward, and join the 



'>ori REEFING. 

forward and af terparts of each point with a square knot on 
top of the yard. Be particular that the reef points are all 
tied. 

Reef points of a course are taken with a round turn 
around the jackstay, and each pair square knotted forward 
of the jackstay. 

Reef beckets have their tails passed through the reefing 
jackstay on the sail, and toggled to their own parts, as soon 
as both earings are passed. 

To Slia^lce or Txti^ii a. Heef oixt of a. 
Topsail. Give the commands: Make sail! or. Stand 
Inj to shake out the r-eefs! Man the topsail reef tackles and 
hnntlines ! Weather topsail braces ! Settle a little of the top- 
sail halliards! Haul taut the reef-tackles and btintlines! 
to take the strain off the leeches of the sail and reef -earing. 
Haul in the slack of the weather topsail braces. Send aloft 
the sail loosers. Cast off the reef points or beckets from the 
slings, as they lay out, and have the earings ready to ease 
away ; when the reef -points are all clear, i^SB away ! Lay 
IN ! Lay down from aloft ! Let go and overhaul the rig- 
ging! Reef -tackles, buntlines, clewlines, topgallant stud- 
ding-sail tacks, and topgallant sheets are overhauled. Man 
the topsail halliards! Tend the braces! Hoist away the 
topsails ! Trim the yards, and if on a wind, haul the bow- 
lines. 

To Tixrn a n^eel" out of a Oouii^se, pro- 
ceed as in a topsail, easing oflF the tack and sheet to reheve 
the strain on the leeches of the sail, while you are hauling 
taut the reef -tackles ; when done, haul aboard the tack, ana 
aft the sheet. 



GENERAL REMARKS ON REEFING. 

In clewing down to reef, luflf the ship to, with a steady 
helm, and meet her when she shakes. Clear away the bow- 
lines, settle a little of the halliards, and then round in the 
weather braces. By adopting this precaution, the sails are 
more easily spilled, and by hauling on the weather braces, 
they serve not only to keep the yard in, but to bring it down 
also, which would not be the case were the halliards kept 
fast until afterwards. But have the topsail yard braced 
well in before settling the halliards away roundly , or else 
the lee topmast rigging will be endangered. 

Much aepends upon the manner in which the sails are 
laid for reenng ; for this reason it is deemed best by experi- 
enced seamen to keep the courses, which should be set, full, 
and to brace the upper yards in, sufficient to make the top- 
sails lay '* alive; or in other words, so that the weather 
leech will cut, as it were, the wind in two, leaving the can- 
vas hanging loose. 



REEFING. 353 

If sailing with the squadron in moderate breezes, run the 
yards in nearly square, or the men will lose time in getting 
on the weather yard-arm. 

Bracing in a topsail yard for reefing, in a fresh breeze, 
requires great force, and not unfrequently the brace, from 
being much worn, becomes stranded ; as soon as you dis- 
cover it, put on a good stopper above the strand, man the 
weather clewline and clew tne sail up, bend the lee bowline 
to the extremity of the lee yard-arm, and get a preventer- 
brace on the weather one; then, by these, brace in the yard 
and clew it down ; and while you are reevine new braces 
or splicing old ones, steady the yard by the bowlines and 
preventer-brace. 

When short-handed or working with the watch, clew the 
yards down, and get all ready for reefing before starting the 
men up ; but with all hands, the topmen may be sent aloft 
at once, and ordered out as soon as the yards are on the cap, 
the braces steadied taut, and gear hauled un. 

In hoisting sails after reefing, be careful (particularly if 
it be blowing fresh) not to " swig" them up too taut, as the 
reef -bands are apt to be slewed under the yard in conse- 
quence, and the sail must be reefed afresh. 

In a seaway, and the vessel pitching, do not haul the 
braces too taut ; it endangers the yard and the rigging ; the 
lee braces should be kept slack to allow the yard a little 
play, but be particular tnat though the brace is slack, it is 
securely belayed to its pin. 

When double or treble reefing on a wind with courses 
set, bear in mind that the outer arms of the topsail yards 
are unsupported, and are unequal to the strain that may be 
brought to bear on them, by overmanning the reef -tackle. 
When the yard is laid, the duty of the reef-tackle is to give 
the earing men plenty of slack leech between itself and 
yard; and if it cannot effect this without much strain- 
ing (and this can easily be judged of by observing the taut- 
ness of the leeches helotv the reef-tackles on each side), 
raise the clews at once with the clewlines, sufliciently for 
the purpose. 

Particular attention should be given to the fore topsail 
in this respect. The fore yard being braced sharper up than 
the main, unless the lee topsail sheet is checked a little, the 
sail cannot be as well hauled up for reefing as the main 
topsail. Bracing in the fore yard is less advisable than 
checking the lee sheet, as the yards should be kept sharper 
up forward than aft. 

Pull the buntlines well up so as to girt the sail in for the 
bunt points. 

Nothing is gained by permitting the men to get out on 
the yard for reefing, in a strong breeze, until the yard is 
laid and the sail ready for them. Yard-arms have been 
wrung off in the endeavor to make the reef -tackle do all the 



394 REBFINQ. 

duty of other gear, and the earing men's lives saved only by 
a seeming chance. 

In reefing at night, in the line, observe if your next 
ahead and astern have more or less sail than topsails. If 
you have been sparing them courses, you will be run into ; 
and if they have been sparing them to you, you will run 
into your leader, unless you are alert. 

A few fathoms of the main brace, checked by one hand, 
will often just regulate the pace and keep the ship in sta- 
tion ; and, if let go at the instant, arrest danger. * 

After every evolution (especially at ni^t), make the 
petty oflScers report their ropes, and also inunediately after 
relieving the watch. 

Preventer-brace pendants, made long enough to reach 
from the yard-arm to the slings, are not only quickly at- 
tached to the whips, but the risk sometimes incurred in 
sending men on the yards cp*eatly diminished. Preventer 
topsail braces have more driit, and a more downward pull 
than the standing ones ; and, therefore, should never be so 
taut, or be haulea upon, until the lifts are well up. 

The general rule for topsail lift jiggers, is to put them on 
when the second reefs are taken. And it is good to make 
a habit of putting the spare parrels and preventer-braces on 
when the tnird reefs are taken. 

When topgallant yards are sent down on account of 
weather, unreeve the topgallant sheets, and reeve them 
through the bowline bridle of the topsails, up before all, and 
hitch them to the lugs of the tie blocks. The;^ will act like 
the leechlines of courses when taking in topsails. 

H/eefing- a Spanliei*. Brail up as in blowing 
fresh, but do not haulup the clewrope. Lower the throat 
and peak halliards (or tackles clapped on to the pendants, 
if so fitted), steadying the gaflf bv the vangs. Pass a reef 
earing through the cringle in the leech and around the foot 
of the sail ; if taken around the boom, the foot of the sail 
cannot be brailed up. Bring down the forward reef cringle 
and pass a tack-lashing through it. Reef the sail on tne 
foot. The outhaul may be shifted to the reef cringle, but 
this is not always done. When ready, sway up the gaff till 
the luff is taut, easing the vangs and steadving aft tne out- 
haul. Then haul out the head and get a nnal pull on the 
foot outhaul ; easingoff the spanker sheet as necessary. 

To Il.ee f a Ti*;^sail. Proceed as above, shifting 
the sheet block from the clew to the reef cringle. 

The old balance reef in a spanker, from tne close reef 
cringle diagonally toward the jaws, is rarely used. 

* This refers to sailing in line. Hardly too mach can be said of the many 
and great adyantages of squadron sailing ; the constant rivalry excited among 
the several ships, making it one of the very highest sdiools of seamanship. 



REEFING. 355 

A spanker or trysail is frequently set ** reefed," by keep- 
ing fast the head downhaul, and hauling out the foot only. 
A few turns of the furling line at the head will assist in 
keeping it in. 

The storm mizzen is a substitute for the spanker set in 
this way. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE WEATHER -LAW OF STOBMa 

The ^Weather. A change of weather comes 
almost always with a change of wind, and the extent of 
this change of weather depends on the fact of the new 
wind being warmer or colder, damper or drier, than that 
which has been blowing. Any conclusions drawn from 
its movements must be checked by observations of tem- 
perature, moisture of the air, present direction and force 
of wind, and state of the sky, before any correct opinion 
can be formed as to what may be expected. In general, 
whenever the level of the mercury continues steady, settled 
weather may be expected; but when it is imsteady, a 
change must be looked for, and perhaps a gale. 

A sudden rise of the barometer is very nearly as bad a 
sign as a sudden fall, because it shows that atmospherical 
equilibrium is unsteadv. In an ordinary ^ale, the wind 
often blows hardest wnen the barometer is ]ust beginning ' 
to rise, directly after having been very low. 

Besides these rules for the instruments, there is a rule 
about the way in which the wind changes, which is very 
important. It is well known to every sailor, and is con- 
tained in the following couplet : 

When the wind shifts against the sun, 
Trust it not, for back it will run. 
The wind usually shifts with the sun, i. c, from left to 
right, in the northern hemisphere. A change in this direc- 
tion is called veering. 

Thus, an east wind shifts to west through southeast, 
south, southwest : and a west wind shifts to east through 
northwest, north, and northeast. 

If the wind shifts the opposite way, viz., from west to 
southwest, south, and southeast, the change is called hack' 
ingy and it seldom occurs unless when the weather is un- 
settled. 

However, slight changes of wind do not follow this rule 
exactly ; for instance, the wind often shifts from southwest 
to south and back again. 

In the southern hemisphere, the motion with the sun is, 
of course, from right to left, and therefore the above rules 
will necessarily be reversed. 

356 



THE WEATHER. 367 

No reading from a mercurial barometer that is not hang- 
ing vertically should ever be relied upon. 

nri&e ^iiei*oid Barometex*. In this instru- 
ment the atmospheric pressure is measured by its effect in 
altering the shape of a small hermetically-sealed metallic 
box, from which nearly all the air has been withdrawn, and 
which is kept from collapsing by a spring. 

When the pressure rises above tne amount which was 
recorded when the instrument was made, the top is forced 
inwards, and vice versa ; when the pressure falls oelow that 
amount, the top is forced outwards by the spring. 

These motions are transferred by a system of levers and 
springs to a hand moving over a graduated dial. 

The instrument is very sensitive, showing minute changes 
that are concealed by the "pumping" of the quicksilver, 
even in the best mercurial barometers, when the motion of 
the ship is violent. Nevertheless, the working of the 
aneroid should be used onlv for purposes of comparison and 
in conjunction with a gooa mercurial barometer. 

!?rote on tlie Use of the Uarometei*. 
'^ In all parts of the world, towards the higher latitudes, 
the quicksilver ranges, or rises and falls, nearlv three 
inches, namely, between about thirty inches and. eight- 
tenths (30.8), and less than twenty-eight inches (28.0) on 
extraoroinary occasions ; but the usual range is from about 
30.5 inches, to about 29 inches. Near the une, or in equa- 
torial places, the range is but a few tenths, except in storms, 
when it sometimes falls to 27 inches." 

In the northern hemisphere, the effect of the veering of the 
wind on the barometer is according to the following Taw : 

With east, S.E., south winds, barometer falls. 

With S.W. winds, barometer ceases to fall and begins to 
rise. 

With west, N. W., north winds, barometer rises. 

With N.E. winds, barometer ceases to rise and begins to 
fall. 

In the southern hemisphere the law is as follows : 

With east, N.E., north winds, barometer falls. 

With N.W. winds, barometer ceases to fall and begins 
to rise. 

With west, S.W., south winds, barometer rises. 

With 8.E. wind, barometer ceases to rise and begins to 
fall. 

To appreciate correctly the indications of the barometer, 
we musx nave, as above stated, at the time of observation. 
the temperature indicated by a dry and a wet bulb ther* 
mometer, and the thermometer attached to the barometer 
should be read with every reading of the latter. 

The wet bulb thermometer has a piece of linen tied 
around the bulb, wetted enough to keej) it damp by a wick 
dipping into a cup of water. It will give a lower reading 



358 THE WEATHER. 

than an ordinary thermometer, in proportion to the dry- 
ness of the air and quickness of drying. In very damp 
weather, with or before rain, &c., the dry and wet bulb 
thermometers will be nearly alike. The dner the weather, 
the more evaporation can take place, from the moisture 
surrounding tne wet bulb, hence the lower the temperature 
shown by that bulb under such circumstances, and conse- 
quently the greater difference between the reading of such 
an instrument and that of a dry bulb thermometer. A com- 
parison between the two affords, therefore, at all times, a 
means of ascertaining the relative drvness or moisture of 
the air. About six degrees difference between the wet and 
di^ bulb readings is considered healthy in a temperate 
cmnate. 

Pouring water over the wet bulb instead of merely 
moistening it imparts to the mercury the temperature of 
the water, which may be higher than that of the air. 

If a barometer has been about its ordinary height, say 
near thirty inches at the sea level, and is steady -or rising, 
while the thermometer falls and dampness becomes less, 
northwesterly, northerly, or northeasterly wind, or less 
wind, may be expected. 

On the contrary, if a fall takes place with a rising ther- 
mometer and increased dampness, wind with rain (or snow) 
may be expected from the southeastward, southward, or 
southwestward. 

But a wet northeasterly wind may cause the barometer 
to rise, on account of the direction of the coming wind 
alone, thus deceiving persons who, from the rising of the 
barometer only, expect fine weather. 

Indications of approaching changes are shown less by 
the height of the mercury than by its falling or rising. 

A rapid rise indicates unsettled weather. 

A slow rise with dryness, fair weather. 

A rapid and considerable fall is a sign of stormy weather 
and rain. 

Alternate rising and sinking shows very unsettled 
weather. 

The greatest depressions are with ^ales from the south- 
east to southwest ; the greatest elevations with winds from 
northwest, northward, or northeast. 

. But the barometer may rise with a dry southerly and fall 
with a wet northerly wind. 

Although the mercury falls lowest before high winds, it 
frequently sinks considerably before heavy rain. The oa- 
rometer falls, but not always, on the approach of thimder 
and lightning, or when the atmosphere is highly charged 
with electricity. Before and during the earher or middle 
part of severe and settled weather, the mercury commonly 
stands hic^h, and is stationary. 

The tiaes are affected by atmospheric pressure, so much 



THE WEATHER. 



859 



that a rise of one inch in the barometer will have a corres- 
ponding fall in the tides of nine to sixteen inches, or say 
one f oc^ for each inch. 

"Vessels sometimes enter docks, or even harbors, where 
thev have scarcely a foot of water more than their draught ; 
and as docking, as well as launching large ships, requires a 
close calculation of height of water, the state of the barome- 
ter becomes of additional inaportance on such occasions.!' 

Complete descriptions of the mercurial and aneroid baro- 
meters will be found in Bowditch's Navigator. 

I^ogrgring' the AVeatliei*. The ship's log must 
contain, amoBg other things, an accurate record of the 
weather. 

To facilitate this, certain abbreviations are used in the 
columns, as follows : 

The Beaufort Scale is commonly used by seamen for recording the force of 
wind. To obtain accurate results in recording force and direction, the 
speed and course of a steamer must be considered. 



FORCE OF WIND. 



BEAUFORT'S SCALE. 

0. — Calm. Full-rigged ship, all sail set, little or no head- 
way 

1. — Light Aik. Just sufficient to give steerage way. . . . 

2. — Light Breeze. Speed of 1 or 2 knots/' full ana by. " 

3. — Gentle Breeze. Speed of 3 or 4 knots, ** full and by. " 

4. — Moderate Breeze. Speed of 5 or 6 knots, ' ' full and by. " 

6. — Fresh Breeze. All plain sail, "full and by." 

6. — Strong Breeze. Topgallantsails over single-reefed 
topsails 

7. — Moderate Gale. Double-reefed topsails 

8. — Fresh Gale. Treble-reefed topsails (or reefed upper 
topsails and courses.) 

9. — Strong Gale. Close-reefed topsails and courses (or 

lower topsails and courses.) 

10. — Whole Gale. Close-reefed main topsail ami reefed 
foresail (lower main topsail and reefed foresail). . . 

11. — Storm. Storm staysails 

12. — Hurricane. Under bare poles 



VELOCITY. 


Statute 


Nautical 


Miles 


MiLBH 


Per Hour. 


Per Hour. 


0to3 


0to2.6 


8 


6.9 


13 


11.3 


18 


15.6 


23 


20.0 


28 


24.3 


34 


29.5 


40 


34.7 


48 


41.6 


56 


48.6 


65 


56.4 


70 


65.1 


90 or 


78. 1 or 


more. 


more. 



Note. — The above scheme varies slightly from the instructions at present 
(1898) contained in the log, but future editions will conform to it. Attention' is 
specially called to the nomenclature of the winds, which is given agreeably to 
to the present international usage, as sanctioned by the best authorities. 

The Beaufort Scale as given above is easily memorized, if a mental note is 
made of t"be fact that "breezes" run from 2 to 6, and "gales" from 7 to 10; 
and that the series "moderate," "fresh," "strong," is first applied to breezes 
and immediately afterwards to gales; also that 5 and 6 can be fixed in the 
mind by the alliterations "five — fresh," and "six — strong." 



860 



THE WEATHER. 



WEATHER SYMBOLS. 



h. — Clear blue sky. 

c. — Cloudy weather. 

d. — Drizzling, or light rain. 

/. — Fog, or loggv weather. 

g, — Gloomy, or dark, stormy-looking 

weather. 
h. — Hail. 
/. — Lightning. 
m. — Misty weather. 
o. — Overcast. 

p. — Passing showers of rain. 
q. — Squally weather, 
r. — Rainy weather, or continuous rain. 
ft. — Snow, snowy weather. 
/. — Thunder. 
u. — Ugly appearance.s, or threatening 

weather. 
r. — Visibility of distant ol)jeets. 
w. — Wet, or heavy dew. 
z. — Hazy. 

To indicate greater inten.sity, under- 
line the letter thus: r, heavy rain; /•, 
very heavy rain, etc. ~ "~ 



SEA SYMBOLS. 



B. — Broken or irregular sea. 

C. — Chopping, short, or cross sea. 

G. — Ground swell. 

H. — Heavy sea. 

L. — Ix>ng rolling sea. 

J/. — Moderate sea or swell. 

R. — liough sea. 

S. — Smooth sea. 

T.— Tide-rips. 

Observations on the character of 
deep-sea waves are valuable, if care- 
fully made. The most important poin ts 
to observe are : 1. The apparent peri- 
odic time, or interval, in seconds, be- 
tween the crests of successive waves as 
they pass. 2. The true direction fro»u 
which thev come, and the ship's trut* 
course and speed at the time. 8. The 
estimated heights of several waves, from 
hollow to crest. 4. The depth of the 
sea where the observations were made, 
or at lea.st the exact position of the ship, 
so that the de])th may be obtained. 



ABBREVIATED CLOUD DEFINITIONS 



5. 



6. 



1. OiRRVS (Cr.). — Isolated, feathery clouds, of fine fibrous texture; **Mare»" 

tails." 

2. Cirro-Stratus (Ci.-S.). — Fine whitish veil, giving a whitish appearance to 

the sky; often produces halos; "Cirrus Haze." 

3. CiRRO-CuMULUs (Ci.-Cr.). — Small, fleecy white balls and wisps, without 

shades, arranged in groups, and often in lines; *' Mackerel Sky." 

4. Alto-Cumulus (A.-Ci.). — Larger white or grayish balls, with shaded por- 
tions, in flocks or rows, often so close that edges meet. 

Alto-Stratlts (A. -S.).— Thick veil of gray or bluish color, brilliant near 
sun or moon. May produce corome. 

Strato-Cumulus (S.-Cu.). — A succession o£ pdIIs of dark clouds which fre- 
quently cover the whole sky. The characteristic cloud of storm areas«, 
especially of the fore part of those areas. 

7. Nimbus (N.). — Rain cloud. A thick layer of dark clouds, without shape. 

from which continuous rain is falling. Cirro-Stratus or Alto-Stratus is 
seen through the breaks. Low-flying fragments are known as "scud." 

8. Cumulus (Cu.). — Thick clouds whose summits are domes with protuber- 

ances, but whose bases are flat. " Woolpack " clouds. 
I>. Cumulo-Nimbus (Cu.-N.). — Thunder -shower clouds. Mountainous cloud:: 
surrounded at top by veil or false cirrus, and below by nimbus-like 
masses of cloud. 
10. Stratus (S.). — Horizontal sheet of lifted fog. 



The scale for recording amount of cloud varies from 0, clear blue sky, to 10, 
oTercast. 



Law of Storms. Fig. A 





Cy^one. Anticyclone. 

Northern Hemisphere. 





Cy^one. Anticyclone. 

Southern Hemisphere. 



THE LAW OF STORMS. 361 



THE LAW OF STORMS. 

The changing phases of the weather, and storms in par- 
ticular, are now known to be subject to natural laws, and 
therefore capable of scientific study. They are due to an 
endless procession of atmospheric areas, for the most part 
circular or oval, in which the barometric pressure is rela- 
tively high or low as compared with the more quiescent 
surrounding regions, and called respectively ''Highs" and 
''Lows." 

Hig'liH a^ncl Loww. A High is an area of high 
barometer, on all sides of which the winds blow spirally 
outwards ; and a Low is an area of low barometer, in which 
they blow spirally inwards. See Fig. (A). North of the 
equator the spiral motion is righthanded in a High and left- 
handed in a Low, while south of the equator the directions 
are reversed. This rule is absolute. 

Highs are also called anti-cyclones, and Lows, cyclones 
(broad sense). The anti-cyclonic weather characteristics of 
a High are dry, clear, and cool atmosphere, deep blue sky. 
high clouds; while the Low, or cyclonic, circulation is ac- 
companied with the reverse conditions of warmth, moisture, 
rain or snow, overcast sky, thick atmosphere, and lov.- 
clouds. 

The Low, when its winds are intense, has different 
names in different parts of the world, such as typhoon in tht^ 
Pacific, and cyclone or hurricane in the Atlantic ocean. It 
is the "revolving storm " of the older writers, and its lead- 
ing characteristics are similar in all oceans, allowance be- 
ing made for the contrary rotation in south latitudes. Anti- 
cyclones, or Highs, on the other hand, are not often violent 
except in proximity to a comparatively deep Low, or where 
the High is very pronounced, as in certain anti-cyclonic 
winter gales in the northern temperate zone. These latter 
show themselves as the so-called "'straight-line gales." 
when the High covers a large area and the whole system 
has a slow motion of translation. 

Hxxri'icanes, C^^'elone^ oi* ''l\yi>li<><>ns< 
are progressive, revolving gales, which may be described 
as great whirlwinds turning around and moving forward at 
the same time. Their diameters vary from 50 to 1,000 miles, 
within which limits currents of air move with a velocitv of 
from 80 to 130 miles an hour around a central calm space of 
low atmospheric pressure; at the same* time the whole storm 
area moves forward on a track, either straight or curved, at 
the rate of from 1 to 40 miles an hour. This velocity of 
translation, however, not only varies in different localities, 
but in storms passing over the same locality and even in one 
and the same storm during different stages of its existence. 



3^!^ THB LAW OF STORMS. 

R/evolving" >£otioiiL of tlie Stoi?in« In 

each hemisphere the gyration of these storms takes place 
invariably in one direction, and that direction contrary to 
the apparent course of the sun. Hence in north latitudes 
the storms revolve from right to lefty in south latitudes 
from left to right, 

I^oi*>vai»cl iVIotion. of the Storm. Within 
the tropics these storms ccmmence to the eastward, travel 
for some distance towards the westward, inclining a point 
or two toward the pole of that hemisphere which they are 
crossing, curving away from the equator. When they 
reach the 2oth degree of latitude, they generally curve still 
more until thev move to the northeast in the northern hemi- 
sphere, and to the southeast in the southern hemisphere. 

C^cloneM. The circulation of the atmosphere in a 
cyclone may be compared to that of water in a circular 
bowl from which the central plug has been drawn, except 
that in a cyclone the outflow at the centre is upward instead 
of downward. 

The outflow from a High and the inflow in a Low are in 
obedience to the law which causes all fluids to seek their 
level, the winds always blowing from a place of higher 
pressure toward one of lower pressure, roughly speaking. 
On the outer rim of a hurricane the winds may be irregular 
in direction ; often they have a decided slant inwards toward 
the storm centre. On nearing the centre this incurvature 
is usually two points from a tangent, and disappears alto- 
gether at the edge of the vortex. For this reason the eight- 
point rule," hereafter described, is not accurate, being two 
points in error over most of the storm area. 

At the vortex, in the centre of the storm, where the 
barometer is lowest, there is a small area where a treacher- 
ous calm prevails, frequently interrupted by sudden bursts 
of wind from any direction, with irregular spouting seas of 
the most dangerous character. It has been called the "eye 
of the storm," because it usually presents a clear sky, being 
in fact a large aperture in the centre of the cloud disc around 
which the indrawn air whirls upward, condensing the mois- 
ture with which it is laden into heavy clouds ana rain. 

This ascending column preserves its spiral motion, but 
enlarges as it rises. The surface wind, which blows spirally 
inward until near the centre, where it becomes circular, 
carries few or no clouds with it; the next upper current 
carries the scud and low nimbus in almost an exact circle 
around the centre ; the next higher current bears the hig^ 
cumulus clouds on an outward spiral, and so on- until the 
highest cirrus is reached, which radiates directly outward 
from the centre. This uppermost cloud disc is projected to 
great distances in front of the storm area, and thereby 
turnishes one of the earliest indications of an approaching 



IS. Fig. B 




THE LAW OP STORMS. 363i 

hurricane, as light, feathery plumes of cirrus clouds, or as 
a thin veil. These differeni currents prevail according to 
a fixed and invariable system, and constitute one of the 
most valuable symptoms in determining that the approach- 
ing Low has the intensity of a hurricane. The angle of 
divergence between the successive currents is almost exactly 
two points of the compass; this on the edge of a huricane 
in our hemisphere, with the surface wind from north, the 
lower clouds will come from N.N.E., until the wind shifts 
in a squall, when for a time the two will have the same 
direction. In the rear of a hurricane the surface wind often 
blows more directly inward towards the centre than in other 
portions of the storm area. 

"Violence of Cii-culax* Stoi^ms. The most 
violent hurricanes are those of the West Indies and Mau- 
ritius, and scarcely inferior are the autumn cyclones in the 
Bay of Bengal ; while next to them comes the typhoons of 
the China Seas. The spring cyclones on the coasts of India 
are secondary in violence. "Those of the South Pacific 
(December to March) are at times exceedingly violent, but 
generally short-lived. Their violence is sometimes felt 
only over a small portion of the storm disc. On the west 
coast of Mexico and in the Arabian Sea violent cyclones 
rarely occur. In the North Atlantic, cyclonic circulations 
show every degree of strength from the most terrific West 
India hurricane, in which the winds rise to more than one 
hundred miles an hour, to the slight barometric depressions 
of higher latitudes, with moderate or fresh breezes at their 
centre. 

When a tropical hurricane moves into the temperate 
zone, it expands in area and usually diminishes in violence. 
But severe cyclones are frequent among those storms which 
move into the Atlantic from the mainland between Florida 
and Newfoundland. The diameter of the cloud ring in the 
tropics will average 500 miles, and the area of stormy winds 
300 miles or less. 

A^^est India, Hurricane SeaKon. Since 
1H84 there has been a yearly average of seven tropical 
cyclones in the North Atlantic. Most of them in August, 
September and October; but June, July and November can 
not be disregarded as the following table shows, which 
gives the total nmnber occurring in the thirteen years from 
1885 to 1897, inclusive : 

June 6 

July 4 

August 16 

September 26 

October 26 

November 10 



364 THE LAW OP STORMS. 

These figures show that in recent years, at least, October 
is one of the most fruitful hurricane months, and that 
November has more than double as many as July. 

I*atli« ol*Stoi»iiXH« The tendency of storm tracks 
is to follow the general circulatory system. Their depart- 
ures from the normal are mostly due to anti-cyclones, whose 
laws of progression are little understood ; while sometimes 
one Low will influence another, and occasionally two will 
coalesce to form a single depression. An anti-cyclone 
always operates as a barrier to a Low and may cause it to 
halt or even recede, and again to recurve and recross its own 
track. Such irregularities are numerous enough to justify 
careful watching lest they become a serious embarrassment 
to the mariner. Cases of this kind are most frequent when 
the storm is not intense, and the neighboring anti-cyclone 
or High is very marked. Examples of irregular curvature 
in storm tracks can be found on almost any of the Atlantic 
Pilot Charts, on which the tracks are carefully plotted from 
day to day. 

Speaking generally, the cyclones of the North Atlantic 
originate in three diflPerent regions. Nearly five-sixths are 
of continental origin, reaching the ocean from the interior 
of the continent north of Hatteras generally; less than onr- 
sixth move north-eastward out of the Gulf region, an<l 
enter the ocean not far to the north or south of Hatteras : 
while the remaining few arise somewhere in the tropics. 
The latter occur north of the loth parallel of latitude, somr 
originating in the Caribbean Sea and West Indies. otht»r> 
coming from farther eastward, and moving westward in 
the trade wind belt until thev reach the islands, where thev 
begin a gradual curvature more and more towards the 
north until they reach the Gulf Stream, whose ])ath they 
roughly follow. Others again, though coming from the 
waters east of the Caribbean Sea, continue their north- 
westward motion far into the Gulf of Mexico before curving 
to north, and later to north-eastward. In this they are 
imitated by some of the Caribbean hurricanes, while others 
of the latter group take a northerly, or north-easterly track, 
almost from the beginning. The tracks shown in Figure B 
are typical, and are designed to show every prominent kind 
of track generally found in this part of the world. Most of 
them describe a kind of parabolic arc, with the vertex some- 
where between latitude 20° N., and JV^"" N., depending, as 
some authorities think, cm the season, highest in August 
and lowest in June and November. According to this 
theory, which may not yet be fully established, the latitude 
of the vertex in July and September lies between 27"" and 

But while the latitude of the vertices is thus fairly well 
fixed, their hmgitude varies ^n^atly, being anywhere from 



Law of Storms. Fig. C 



In High Lcrtitudes^ 
ft/KiVo*"* TnnJi, 

tonibmiBpifAur. 













SnioMHapKlHir. 



In Law LdhtixlcKi 










THE LAW OF STORMS. 365 

52"" to 100° W. It may be said, however, that the majority 
of West India hurricanes reach the vertex of their path in 
or near the Gulf Stream, off the Florida coast, and then 
move north-eastward. 

In the northern branch of their path the tropical hurri- 
canes of the Atlantic show more uniformity, as they almost 
invariably run with or parallel to the Gulf Stream, as is also 
the case with the more numerous storms which reach the 
ocean from the continent. 

While many factors, some of them little understood, 
determine the velocity with which West India hurricanes 
advance, the average velocity along the track is well known. 
In low latitudes it is about 17 miles an hour; in middle lati- 
tudes, 5 to 10 miles; in the higher latitudes, 20 to 30 miles, 
The term ''middle latitudes" here me^ns that small arc of 
the storm track which lies just north and south of the vertex 
of its parabolic path. See Figure C. 

Typhoons. Typhoons occur from May to Novem- 
ber, but are frequent only from July to October, between 
the coast of Asia and longitude 145° E., and from latitude 
10° to 40° N., with a progressive velocity of 7 to 24 miles an 
hour, slowest in low latitudes. 

Orig-in andratliH ol'Typliooiis. Roughly 
speaking, all the typhoons that reach the Asiatic coast and 
neighboring islands originate east of the Philippines in the 
square included within the parallels 10° and 25° north lati- 
tude, and the meridians of 125° and 145° east longitude. If 
any originate further east, they do not reach the coasts of 
China or Japan. 

Taking different paths, according to the portion of the 
square indicated in which they originate, these typhoons 
are divided by eminent authority into three classes — Japan- 
ese, Chinese and Cochin-Chinese. The first class includes 
all cyclones originating in the northeast portion of the square 
and a part of those generated nearer the Philippine Islands. 
These storms generally move in a W.N.W. direction, but 
recurve near the Philippines or Formosa and enter the 
northeast branch of their (roughly) parabolic track, usually 
reaching the south coast of Japan. Typhoons are especially 
liable to follow this path in May, June and October. 

The Chinese class of typhoons are those of the middle 
season — July, August and September. Those reaching the 
coast of China in the Formosa Channel between Hongkong 
and Fuchau apparently originate east or northeast of Luzon, 
but not further east than 128° to 130° east longitude, take a 
northwest direction, cross either Formosa or the north of 
Luzon, or one of the. two intermediate channels, enter the 
Formosa Channel and reach the Chinese coast, but seldom 
recurve and enter the China Sea. Some of these cyclones 
reach the coast southwest of Hongkong, and belong to 



^88 THE LAW OP STORMS. 

the Cochin-Chinese class. Another set of typhoons which 
appear on the coast of China are those that reach the 
coast near the mouth of the Yanj^ze Kiang. These origin- 
ate further to the northeast of Luzon when the season is 
well advanced, or between the middle of July and tiie mid- 
dle of September, and really belong to the Japanese class of 
typhoons, but fail from some cause to recurve east of For- 
mosa. 

The third class (Cochin-Chinese) of typhoons include all 
originating near the Philippine Islands which move to the 
westward or northwestward, according to the place of 
origin, toward the Tong King Gulf, and do not recurve to- 
wards Japan when entering the China Sea. These may be 
expected early in the season, in May, *or even June. At the 
end of the typhoon season also, October and November, the 
cyclones that occur are divided between the first and third 
classes. 

Iiidiea.tioiiH* Authorities seem to be divided as to 
whether typhoons are or are not always preceded by an anti- 
cyclone, or area of high atmospheric pressure. In the east- 
ern seas, especially in low latitudes, the earliest signs of 
the approach of a typhoon are cirrus cloudSy which resem- 
ble fine hairs or small, white tufts of wool, traveling from 
the eastward and backing toward the north. Clear and 
dry, but hot, weather prevails with calms and very light 
variable winds. The cirrus clouds may make their appear- 
ance when the centre is within 1,500 miles, and when it is 
600 miles distant they may present the appearance of radiat- 
ing from the same point, or arc, in the horizon, which point 
represents precisely the centre of the typhoon. An increas- 
ing sea swell comes also from the direction of this point, if 
no land intervenes, but with intercepting land the swell is 
not so noticeable, or it may be deflected into a cross sea. 
Hence the cirrus clouds are the surest indication at this time 
of the bearing of the centre. A freshening S.W. monsoon, 
a falling barometer and heavy cross swells in the China Sea, 
are said to be certain indications of the approach of a 
typhoon. Halos around the sun or moon, brilliant colored 
sunrises and sunsets, with grand twilight rays spanning 
the sky, are good indications also of approaching typhoons. 

TJYimi»ta.ka.l>le Sig-iiH. Barometer falling slow- 
ly, then rapidly; increasing swell from direction of centre: 
atmosphere of oppressive dampness ; sky black and omin- 
ous, and wind squally. On . the nearer approach of the 
centre the squalls increase in intensity, the wind shifts 
rapidly in direction, and the rain begins to fall. The ship 
is now probably on the outer limit of the typhoon proper. 



THE LAW OF STORMS. dQt 



TROPICAL CYCLONES IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC. 

It should be remembered that in the southern hemi- 
sphere the wind blows spirally round the centre of low 
barometer in the same direction as the hands of a watch. 
Here it is the warm, moist northerly wind that betokens, 
in the higher latitudes, the approaching cyclonic storm; 
and the cool, clearing southerly wind that denotes its depart- 
ure. The storm centre, or area of lowest barometer, lies to 
the left of the point from which the wind blows by an angle 
to which it is diflScult to ascribe a more definite value than 
to say that it is greater than eight points, the diflSculty be- 
ing due to the large and irregular shifts of the wind, es- 
pecially near the storm track in advance of the centre. 

From March to September, the southern winter, the S.E. 
trades prevail without interruption over the South Pacific 
Ocean from Australia to the west coast of South America. 
From September to March, the southern sunmier, the condi- 
tions are essentially different ; the northwest monsoon, due 
to the low barometric pressure over Australia, blows to the 
east of northern Australia and New Guinea as far as the 
New Hebrides; further east, between the tropic of Capri- 
corn and 10° South latitude, and thus within the belt con- 
taining all the more important islands south of the equator, 
the S.E. trades are liable to be interrupted by hurricanes, 
not a year passing without the occurrence of one or more 
cyclonic storms of great violence. 

Cyclonic storms in the South Pacific are of the same 
general character as those in other regions, exhibiting the 
same circulatory system of indrawing winds, the same pro- 
gressive motion of the storm centre, or region of lowest 
barometer, and, in tropical latitudes, the same central 
regions of calm; At times their force is irresistible. They 
are always accompanied by rain, and at times by tidal 
waves which overwhelm the adjacent coasts. 

StoT*iii Ti'aclcH. The accompanying chart shows 
the tracks of the fifty -five South Pacific hurricanes, of whicli 
sufficient observations have been obtained to plot the path 
with some degree of accuracy.* 

Observations indicate that the hurricane season in the 
South Pacific is from December to March, with a tendency 
to prolong itself into April, March being the month of 
^eatest frequency. No record exists of hurricanes within 
nine degrees of the equator. 

INDICATIONS OF A STORM AT SEA. 

A knowle^^ of the weather is of great importance to 
the mariner. This is especially true in a sailing vtassel;^ 



'308 THE LAW OF STORMS. 

where good judgment in forecasting changes, or in taking 
advantage of conditions already existing, will accomplish 
a safe and quick passage under conditions that might other- 
wise put the ship in danger, or subject her to a long and 
tedious voyage. 

While charts and books of sailing directions are invalua- 
ble aids, every successful navigator must watch the various 
elements of the weather in order to meet constantly chang- 
ing circumstances and make the best of them. Most promi- 
nent among the many indices of coming changes are the 
behavior of the barometer and thermometer, shifts of wind, 
and the kind of clouds and their motion ; while of particular 
significance, at times, are the state and direction of the sea, 
the transparency of the atmosphere, as well as the appear- 
ance of the sky at dawn and sunset. All of these, together 
with the presence or absence of lightning, thunder squallsy 
halos, ram, snow, fog, mist, haze, dew, dryness or moist- 
ure of the air, etc., must be taken into consideration if a 
correct understanding of the weather is desired. Skill in 
this field can come only with application and watchfulness, 
but merits all the attention that can be given it. 

Many weather symptoms will occur to a careful observer 
which are more or less bound up with his personal equa- 
tion, as expressed in the term, **The feel of the weather. ** 
Indeed, for the purposes of this chapter, we need consider 
only the principal signs that precede the approach of a 
storm. 

Eai'liesst IndiesttionM. The first sign is often 
given by a slight rise of the barometer, sometimes as much 
as one-tenth of an inch in an hour, accompanied with an 
exceptionally clear atmosphere and cool pleasant weather: 
Again there may be a long, low ocean swell from the direc- 
tion of the distant storm which can not be accounted for in 
any other way. Such a swell has been noticed 1,300 miles 
in advance of a West India hurricane. Another early 
symptom is furnished by a cirrus veil or by light, feathery, 
(urrus clouds radiating from a point on the horizon, where 
a whitish arc gives the bearing of the storm centre. These 
first and highest clouds appear several hundred miles in 
advance of the centre; when faint and opalescent in tint, 
fading gradually behind a slowly thickening haze or cloud 
veil, the storm is a old one, of large area; if snowy white, 
projected against a clear blue sky, the cyclone is young but 
intense, and of small area. A restless oscillation of the 
barometer is another early indication of a cyclone. 

lJiimiHt£ika.l:>le Sig-ns. A clearly perceptible 
fall of the barometer sets in as the outer rim of the storm 
area advances, so as to include the observer within its in- 
fluence; halos appear about the sun or moon; the oce^ 
^well increases; the weather grows warmer, and the air 



THE LAW OF STOKMS. 36^ 

moist; the winds are still light, and variable in direction; 
the sky at dawn and sunset shows extraordinary coloring, 
such as deep red, violet, or coppery tints ; the clouds grow 
darker and more solid looking, often showing as a moun- 
tainous bank on the distant horizon; while passing rain 
.squalls set in, which may occur with irregular and sudden 
shifts of wind. 

The height of the barometer does not furnish a reliable 
index of the violence of the coming storm, which is due to 
relative, and not absolute, atmospheric pressure changes. 

It should be remembered that within the tropics there is 
ample time to note all these symptoms as they gradually 
intensify with the slow approach of the hurricane, and that 
in higher latitudes the time is much shorter before the 
storm reaches its height. The signs above given are not so 
accentuated as regards sky and clouds in the temperate 
zone as in the tropics. 

The Barometei-. A very rapid fall of the 
barometer is evidence of a violent storm of small diameter, 
und a gradual fall would indicate the contrary, — a rule 
which has been put in rhyme thus : 

*'Long foretold, long last; 
Quickly coming, soon past." 

A rapid oscillation of the barometer indicates unsettled 
weather, and frequently marks the approach of a storm. . 

The barometer falls as long as the storm centre is ap- 
proaching, and rises when the centre recedes: the rate at 
which it falls indicating the distance of the storm centre. 
At the first rise of the barometer heavy shifts of wind may 
be expected in a typical cyclone, or as the rhyme runs: 

•'First rise after low 
Indicates a stronger blow. " 

Having become convinced that the ship is on the outer 
edge of a cyclone, it will next become necessary to determ- 
ine more accurately the bearing of the storm centre and its 
path. This will determine one's nosition in the storm disc; 



AVOIDING THE STORM CENTRE. 

It seems needless to state that no vessel, not even the 
staunchest steamer, should willfully be driven into the 
centre of a hurricane, where winds of 100 miles, and more, 
an hour may be encountered, with seas of such terrific vio- 
lence that any ordinary vessel can hardly hope to escape 
unhurt. On the other hand, it is not always possible to 
run out of a storm, owing to lack of sea room, or to the 
fact that the storm centre has rapidly recurved in an ir- 
regular manner, as before mentioned. 
\ neA^ing* To. Believing that a storm is approach- 



370 THE LAW OF STORMS. 

ing, the first manoeuvre is to heave- to and watch your wind, 
barometer, and clouds carefully. This is done preferably 
on the starboad tack, in the northern hemisphere, unless 
you have already observed that the wind is shifting to the 
left, in which case heave-to on the port tack. 

T>a.Tigrei*oiis a^nd Pfavlgfal^le Semicir- 
cles. Owing to the circular nature of all cyclones and 
their additional motion of translation, they may be con- 
sidered as consisting of a right and left semicircle. 

The track or path is the line along which the centre of 
the storm travels. 

The riqht semicircle is that half of the area of the storm 
to the right of the track looking in the direction the storm 
is moving. 

The left semicircle is the half of the Ftorm on the left of 
the track. 

The dangerous semicircle, so called because in it there is 
danger of the storm recurving towards the vessel, is the 
right semicircle in the northern hemisphere; and the left 
in the southern hemisphere. The other semijC5ircle is termed 
the naingable semicircle, 

A look at the figure E, ship at 6, will show that when a 
storm overtakes a ship so as to have shifts of wind to the 
right, she is to the right of the storm track, and if the shifts 
of wind are to the left, ship at a, she is in the left semi- 
circle. This rule holds for both hemispheres. There are 
three reasons why the dangerous semicircle deserves to be 
so called : It is the side toward which the track is liable to 
recurve, and so bring the vessel nearer the storm centre 
(Fig. B) ; on this side both winds and currents tend to carry 
a ship towards the front of the centre; and thirdly, the 
winds in this semicircle are stronger, while those of the 
other are weaker, by an amount which depends on the 
velocity of the centre along the storm track. 

Should the squalls freshen without any material shift of 
wind, and the barometer continue to fall, the ship is in 
front of the storm centre, on or near its track, wim one ex- 
ception to be mentioned below. 

Bearing" of the Stoi^iii Centime and Its 
Patli. Face the wind and note the direction from which 
the lower clouds are coming; the storm centre lies eight 
points or more to the right of the wind. Two or more such 
bearings taken at intervals of two hours or so enable one to 
plot the approximate track of the Storm. While this is 
being done the ship should be kept as stationary as possible. 

Rulesi ofMancenvrelng'. Having been hove- 
to long enough to determine which semicircle of the storm 
the ship is in, and what the probable path of the storm 
centre is, the next step is to decide whether (1) to remain 
hove to ; (2) to run with or towards the storm, parallel to 



Law of 8tormi. Fig. E 



P 




THE LAW OF STORMS. 871 

its supposed track; or (3) to run outward, to one side at 
the other, away from the centre. The state of wind and 
sea, the seaworthiness of the ship, and the proximity of 
land are all factors which may modify the action to be 
taken at any time during the continuance of the storm. 
Only one rule is absolute, viz : // obliged to lie-to, do so on 
the coming-up tack. The reason for this is two-fold : first, 
it avoids being taken aback, an occurrence which might 
prove fatal where shifts of wind are sudden and heavy in a 
rough sea; and second, it keeps the ship's head to the old 
sea which is naturally slower in drawing aft than the wind. 
This rule, like the one for determining the semicircle, is 
common to all cyclonic storms in either the northern or the 
southern hemisphere. 

To understand the reasons for the other rules, see figure 
E, which represents a cyclone in the northern hemisphere. 
The short arrows show the direction of the winds, incurv- 
ing two points on all sides of the storm; the path of the 
storm centre is toward N.N.E., in the direction of the long 
arrow. 

Then the ship at a has the wind at E.N.E. ; she is to the 
left of the track, or in the left semicircle. The ship at 6 has 
the wind at E.S.E., and is in the dangerous semicircle. As 
the cyclone advances, these ships, if lying-to, take the suc- 
cessive positions ai, a2, etc., and 6i, b2, etc., respective- 
ly. The wind of ship a shifts to the left as shown by the 
arrows; so in lying-to on the starboard tack, her wind will 
draw ahead and she may be struck aback, for the shifts are 
sometimes sudden and very heavy. Since the sea changes 
less rapidly than the wind, the old sea will draw aft as the 
ship falls oflF. Even if not struck aback it is always dan- 
gerous to get stern-on to a heavy sea unless driving fast be- 
fore it. Evidently ship a should be laid-to on the port tack. 
It is also clear that she should be kept under scant canvas 
on the port tack lest she make too much headway and run 
into the centre. However, stress of weather usually regu- 
lates that. With plenty of sea room the ship at a may be able 
to run out of the severe 'part of the storm along the faint 
dotted line drawn from that position. Still, at that assumed 
position, or rather with the wind at E.N.E., as shown, the 
ship a, if on our coast north of Hatteras, has grave doubts 
as to the semicircle she is in ; she will probably lie-to on 
the starboard tack for a' time to watch the barometer and 
the shifting of the wind. If her barometer falls decidedly, 
and the wind holds steady and increases, she will think 
herself directly in the track of the storm — a very danger- 
ous situation — ^and will bear up, doubtless, while she can, 
and run off along the dotted line. If, however, the wind 
** backs" (shifts to the left), while at o, she will decide that 



372 THE LAW OF STORMS. 

she is in the left semicircle and will run, or else lie-to on 
the port tack under storm sail. 

Assuming again that the storm track is along the large 
arrow, the other ship 6, being laid-to in the right semi- 
circle, will have shifts of wind to the right, and being laid- 
to on the starboard tack, her wind in that semicircle will 
gradually draw aft. As she comes up to the gradually 
shifting wind she will come head-on to the old sea. Plainly, 
then 6 is on the proper tack. But sailing ships are not 
always laid-to in storms. For example: Both a and 6 may 
be able to run to the southward after the centre has passed. 
It is sometimes the case that ships take advantage of the 
character of cyclonic winds to make a quick passage. 

Reverting to the case of ship 6, she may, finding herself 
nearly in front of the centre, and fearing that the storm 
track may recurve towards her, decide to run for safety 
across the front, into the other semicircles, along the dotted 
line. This is sometimes done. Another advantage occa- 
sionally taken of the known rotary movement of the wind 
is, when in a gale at sea, to anchor the ship, or lay ber to, 
under a weather shore, the commander feeling sure that 
the wind in shifting will have the effect to afford him a 
continuous lee under the land. 

In Fi^ont of the Storm Centre. If the 
ship is on or very near the track of the advancing storm 
centre, the squalls will freshen without any decided shift 
of wind. Here, as in all other cases, the lower clouds will 
give the approximate bearing of the centre, by the eight-, 
point rule; if the barometer falls decidedly (say half an 
inch), and the wind remains steady in direction, the ship 
should run with the wind aft on the starboard quarter and 
keep the compass course thus taken. An exception to this 
rule is made where a ship finds herself in a '* Belt of Intensi- 
fied Trade Winds." 

Belt orintensiiied Trade "W^inds. When, 
a hurricane is moving along the equatorial limits of a trade- 
wind region there is a belt of intensified trades to windward 
of its track, and outside of the true storm area. In this case 
the assumption might be made, judging by the character of 
the weather, the steadiness of the wind, and its increase in 
force, that the vessel is on the track in advance of the 
storm. Not until the barometer has fallen six-tenths of an 
inch below the normal should this be assumed. By attempt- 
ing too early to cross the track, running free as. soon as the 
wind begins to freshen, a vessel is liable to plunge directly 
into the vortex. 

On the other hand, it should be noted that in this por- 
tion of its path the motion of the centre is slow, some- 
times less than 10 mile» per hour, and it is possible for a 
swift vessel, by skillful seamanship and careful observa- 



THE LAW OP STORMS. 37Ji 

tion, to outstrip the hurricane (indicated by a slow rise of 
the barometer), and to cross its track in comparative safety ; 
but it should always be remembered that within the region 
of tropical hurricanes, and during the season of their oc- 
currence, to continue to carry on with a fair wind, which 
increases in strength while the barometer falls, can only be 
attempted with great risk. 



SUMMARY OF RULES. 

NORTHERN HEMISPHERE. 

To recapitulate the rules of action by which a ship should 
be governed in a cyclone may be summarized under five 
heads : 

Rule 1. — If the squalls freshen without any shift of 
wind, you are on or near the storm track : heave-to on the 
starboard tack and watch for some indications of a shift, 
observing the low clouds particularly; if the barometer 
falls decidedly (say half an inch) without any shift, and if 
wind and sea permit, run off with the wind on the star- 
board quarter and keep your compass course. 

Rule 2. — If the wind shifts to the right, you are to the 
right of the storm track, in the dangerous semicircle : put 
the ship on the starboard tack and make as much headway 
as possible until obliged to lie-to (starboard tack). 

Rule 3. — If the wind shifts to the left, you are to the left 
of the storm track, in the navigable semicircle: bring the 
wind on the starboard quarter and keep your compass 
course ; if obliged to lie-to, do so on the port tack, and make 
as little headway as possible. 

Rule 4. — In scudding, keep the wind well on the star- 
board quarter, in order to run out of the storm. 

Rule 5. — If you decide to lie-to, always do so on tht» 
coming-up tack. 

N. B. — While cyclones in any one hemisphere are much 
the same the world over, local peculiarities and occasional 
irregularities are such as to justify tbe caution against 
following any thumb rule made to fit every case. 

southern hemlsphere. 

The first manoeuvre of heaving-to, in order to watch the 
wind, should be on the port tack. Facing the wind, the bear- 
ing of the storm centre will be ten or more points to the 
left, or about eight points to the left of the direction from 
which the lower clouds are coming. 

If no decided shifts of wind take place, you are on, or 
near, the path of the centre; in which case, as the squalls 



374 



THB LAW OF STORMS. 



freshen and the barometer continues to fall, you should put 
the ship before the wind and keep the course so taken. 

The rules for finding what semicircle you are in are the 
same in both hemispheres. Shifts of wind to the left show 
that you are in the left semicircle. Shifts of wind to the 
right show that you are in the right semicircle. But in 
the southern hemisphere the left is the more dangerous 
semicircle. 

Finding the ship to be in the left semicircle, carry sail 
as long as possible on the port tack. If obliged to lie-to, do 
so on the same tack, making as much headway as you can, 
because you are heading away from the storm centre. 

In the right semicircle, run with wind on the port 
quarter; note the course and keep it. If obliged to lie-to, 
ao so on the starboard tack, and make as little headway as 
possible, because you are heading toward the storm centre. 

In lying-to, always use the coming-up tack ; this rule is 
absolute. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

IN A GALE -SCUDDING -LYING TO -RUDDER GONE- OUT- 
TING AWAY MASTS -USE OF OIL. 

Let the wind be supposed to be increasing gradually, 
the topsails to be single reefed, and the topgaUant sails 
furled. 

To Take In the Jily^ sltiA Set the Foi-e 
Topmast Staysail. Man the iib dotunhaul I Top* 
mast staysail halliards ! Clear away the downhaul ! Hoist 
AWAY ! Clear away the halliards ! Haul down ! 

The jib sheet should be eased off as the sail comes 
down, in setting the staysail, first haul aft the sheet, and 
then ease it off as the sail goes up. To take in and stow a 
jib when blowing hard, it is always better to run the ship 
off if possible. 

As the wind freshens, take a second reef in the topsails, 
and a single reef in the courses. 

The wind increasing, to take a third reef in the topsails 
proceed as with the second reef, observing not to brace the 
topsail or lower yards too sharp up. Qet preventer-braces 
andparrels on. See Chapter XaI> 

To Haul up and Filial the !M!aiiisail. 

Man the main clew-garnets and buntlines! the weather 
clew-garnet, both buntlines and leechlines are manned. 
Before starting anything, haul taut the lee main lift, and 
ease off a fathom or two of the main sheet. Ease away the 
main tack and bowline ! Haul up to windwabd ! 

The lee buntline is hauled up as far as it will go. 

When the weather clew is up, Ease away the main sheet! 
Haul up to leeward ! Rim up all .the gear, send the men 
aloft and furl the sail, keeping the ship as near the wind as 
possible, and not sending the men on the yard until it is 
secured and sail hauled close up. * 

To Send I>o^v^n Pl^oyal "Yards. The oflBcer 
of the deck commands, Oet the royal yards ready for coming 
down I At this order, the royal yardmen lay aloft and un- 
bend royal gear, stop the yard rope out to leeward, bend the 
trippine-line to the snorter to windward, and send it down 
to windward and abaft everything; the topmen on deck 

* If tbe maiii yard is weak, get a jumper on the weather jrard-arm, before 
starting the main tack. 

875 



376 IN A GAUB. 

take off the royal halliards and lead along the yard rope. 
Man the yard ropes and tripping-lines! Tend (he braces! 
when manned, Stand fry— Sway ! The yard is swayed up 
and down, and yard-arms unrigged as it comes down ; the 
men in the top pulling up on the lee lift and letting go the 
weather one when the order is given to sway. 

The yards being on deck, are secured in the gangways 
or on the booms. 

Sendingr Down Topg-allant ^STards- Cht 
the topgallant yards ready for coming down ! 

The topgallant yardmen lay aloft, unreeve topgallant 
studding-sail halliards, unbend topgallant gear, &c., &;c., as 
with the royal yards. Send down the yards to windward 
and abaft. 

Leave the short yard ropes aloft, and send down the 
yards with the long ones. 

Next close reef the topsails, as described in the previous 
chapter. When reefed, sway the yards clear of the cap and 
trim them. 

Note. In hauling out the reef-tackles, preparatory to 
close-reefing, haul up on the clewlines when easing off 
the sheets, particularly in cold weather, when they may not 
render readily ; otherwise, the leech may be torn out of the 
sail. 

When it becomes necessary to take the second reef in 
the foresail, haul it iip as described in taking in the main- 
sail, and reef as before. The sail being reefed, set it as 
already explained. 

To set tore-storm stavsail, and haul down fore topmast 
staysail, proceed as in taking in jib and setting fore topmast 
staysail. 

The mizzen topsail will be taken in probably when the 
close reef is taken in the fore and main. 

The main trysail may be set next, reefed if necessary. 
If additional after-sail is required, the spanker may be 
reefed and set before taking in the mizzen topsail. 

To take in the close-reefed fore topsail, proceed as de- 
scribed in Chapter XXI. 

Finally, haul up and furl the fore sail. 

The ship is now " lying to" under close-reefed main top- 
sail, fore storm staysail, and probably single reefed trysail. 

For gear manned and precautions observed in taking in 
sail, blowy weather, see Cnapter XXI. 



PREPARATIONS FOR A GALE. 

Get up and hook pendant-tackles, and preventer braces 
(if not already on) ; yards pointed to the wind, and secured 
and hoisted clear of the caps ; anchors, boats, and guns, well 
secured ; life-lines fore-and-aft all the decks ; spare spars 



IN A GALE. 377 

and yards on deck well lashed, as also everythine movable 
on deck and below. Have hatches ready for oattening 
down ; spare axes at hand ; pumps clear ; storm staysails 
and ^ear overhauled and ready ; relieving tackles ready for 
hooking ; spare tiller at hand ; also compasses. 

If expecting a hurricane, get the flying-jib boom in : 
send down top-gallant masts ; studding sails out of tops ; all 
shot below out of racks ; pass a hawser round the laniards 
of lower rigging • cook provisions in advance ; furl all 
square sails : set tne fore storm-staysail and have the others 
ready ; marl the sails down to the yards with the studding- 
sail gear, in addition to the gaskets. 

Note. — It is reconmienaed to send down top-gallant 
masts in a heavy gale, when the vessel has mucn top- 
hamper, as it eases her considerably. When sending them 
down at sea, under whole topsails , it is better to lower the 
topsail yards at once, and send the masts down forward, 
than to attempt sending them down abaft. In the case of 
sending them down with the close-reefed main topsail set, 
fore and mizzen furled, send the main down abaft the top- 
sail yard. 

TO SCOD. 

In a preceding paragraph, an arrangement of sail has 
been given for lying to in a gale, but snould the wind be 
favorable, and the sea not running too high, as it will not 
unless the gale has been of long continuance, a vessel may 
scud before it, under such sail as the force of the wind will 
allow. In sailing with the wind aft, it is greatly disarmed 
of its force, and a vessel may carry safely some sail, when, 
if on the wind, she would be reduced to bare poles. 

The best sails for scudding (or running) under, are, a 
close-reefed main topsail, and single or double-reefed fore- 
sail ; and a gale is rarely of such violence that this sail can- 
not be carried safely. The former, by its height, will not 
be becalmed by the waves, while the latter may be neces- 
sary, in case of being brought by the lee, to pay her off to 
her course. The fore topmast staysail should always be set 
in scudding, or the fore storm staysail sheets hauled flat aft. 

Vessels sometimes steer wildly in scudding, in conse- 

?[uence of being out of trim, of their bad qualities, or the 
orce of -the sea on either quarter, in which cases, or by the 
negligence of the helmsman, she may, in yawing, bring her 
sails aback. She is then ''brought by the lee" or ''has 
broached toJ* The proper manner of recovering her is as 
follows : 

Brong-lit \>y the Lee. Suppose, in scudding, 
with the wind a little on the port quarter, under the sail 
as above, you are brought by the lee, and have everything 
aback. 



378 IN A QALB. 

The wind is now on th3 starboard beam, Put the helm 
hard to starboard! until headway ceases, when shift it. 
Man the port braces fore and aft. Rise fore tack and 
sheet! Clear away the head bo' lines! Brace full the 
HEAD YARDS I and shiver the after ones. Attend the lifts, 
as in former evolutions. She will pay off imder this arrange- 
ment, the helm itself partly effecting it before she loses 
headway. 

When before the wind, right the helm and trim the yards 
for the course. Haul taut the lifts, &c. 

Bi^oa.cliing' to. In case of having broached tOy and 
brought the wind on, or forward of, the port beam, meet 
her with the helm and lee braces, by putting the helm hard 
a-port, and hauling in the starboard head braces. 



REMARKS ON SCUDDING. 

In scudding, the tiller ropes are constantly doing double 
duty ; and though the relieving tackles are hooked, you 
cannot steer the ship with that nicety that you can with the 
wheel. Should the tiller ropes unfortunately be carried 
away, the risk of broaching tne ship to is then considerably 
augmented. 

Sometimes, unavoidably, in scudding, you are obliged to 
carry your fore topsail and foresail ; when that happens, it 
may arise from some accident received to the spars or rin- 
ging on the main mast, in which case it is generally 
considered advisable by good seamen to make the fore top- 
sail and foresail rather rising sails, by easing off the sheets 
until they have that tendency. Oi course, when all things 
are right on the mainmast, the main topsail and foresail are 
the best sails for scudding under, while the ship will carry 
them. It is generally considered best that the foresail 
should rather raise the bow than have the contrary effect, 
more particularly in sharp vessels. 

There is a pomt beyond which no vessel can scud with- 
out the greatest possible danger. Of course much will de- 
Eend on the size and height of the vessel out of the water, 
ut there is scarcely ever heard a dissenting voice as to 
flush vessels being by far the most dangerous while scud- 
ding in heavy weather. You should bring your ship to the 
wind while it can be effected without the greatest risk to 
ship and lives. If night is coming on, and the weather has 
every appearance of an increasing gale, with a falling ba- 
rometer, and circumstances will admit, it would be advisable 
to lay the ship by the wind ; and as every gale may be sup- 
posed to partake of the nature of a cyclone, taking care to 
select, if optional, that tack which is indicated by the con- 
clusions of the previous chapter. 



IN A GALE. 379 



TO BRING BY THE WIND AFTER SCUDDING. 

We will, for example, bring to on the port tack. 

Have the storm staysails ready, sheets hooked and moused, 
secure everything about the decks and below. Send every- ^ 
body on deck, ftit on and batten down the hatches. Man * 
the fore clew-gamets and buntlines, starboard fore and 
main and port cross-jack braces. Watch for a smooth time. 
Haul up the foresail, put the helm to starboard, brace up the 
after yards, and haul out the storm mizzen and hoist the 
mizzen staysail or set the main trysail. As she comes to 
set the fore trysail and meet her by the helm, the head 
braces, and by hoisting the fore storm staysail. Then haul 
taut the lifts. It mayT)e necessary to furl the main topsail, 
and she may lie to better without the fore storm staysail. 
After she has recovered from the first shock of the sea, and 
has lost her headway, she will, with the helm a-lee, and 
under a proper arrangement of the sails, lie to, cominc: up 
and falling off two or three points, and drifting bodily to 
leeward. 

When a vessel labors much in a seaway, either Iving to 
or standinfi^ on her course, the sails should never be noisted 
up, or the oraces hauled, as taut as in a smooth sea ; for the 
play of the masts will either carry away the braces and 
sheets or spring the yards. And if the pitching is hard and 
quick, you should see that the helm is eased, allowing it to 
go to leeward, so that she may obey freely the sea, the shock 
of which win be less violent against the rudder. 

After the gale abates, sail should not be made upon 
the vessel too rapidly, particularly if her course will bring 
the sea ahead or forward of the beam. You should be con- 
tent with giving her headway until the sea also abates ; for, 
by forcing her through a head sea, you strain every mast 
and yard, and injure the rigging. 

Preventer braces, shrouds, and backstays, used in heavy 
weather, as a relief to the standing ones, are of great im- 
portance to the mizzen topmast. The standing part of the 
main topsail brace leads irom the mizzen topmast nearly 
at right angles^ while the angle formed by the backstay is 
too small to afford a suflBcient support. 



RODDER, WHEEL-ROPES, RELIEYING-TACKLES. 

The rudder, wheel-ropes, and relieving-tackles, should 
occupy the particular attention of the first lieutenant and 
navigator. The former, with its tiller, are permanent fix- 
tures, so arranged, and of such durable materials, that they 
should withstand the severest shocks. Wheel-ropes are 
liable to chafes, and should be occasionally examined by 



380 IN A OALfl. 

the navieator. Those of raw hide, now in common use, 
are found to be fairly serviceable and durable. They should 
be occasionally oiled and be protected from injury. 

Believin^-tackles should be kept fitted, and constantly at 
hand, and, m a gale of wind, with a heavy sea, when the 

Earting of a wheel-rope mi^ht endanger the vessel, should 
e kept hooked, ana hanos stationed by them under the 
direction of an officer. 

RUDDER GONE. 

If the rudder head only has been carried away, the rud- 
der remaining shipped, it can be used for steering by means 
of the rudder chains. In view of this possibility, the rudder 
chains should be stopped up so that their ends are accessible 
in case of need. 

The possibility of having to use rudder chains for steer- 
ing purposes has sometimes been overlooked ; the chains 
themselves are difficult to get at, the fastenings on the rud- 
der have not been sufficiently far down, and only common 
bolts have been inserted instead of a stout metal strap, 
which should clasp the after part of the rudder. 

The rudder chains should have pendants spliced into 
them, leading up over the taflfrail where they can be got at. 

In using them to steer the ship, the rudder head bein|; 
wrenched oflf, lower the cross-jack yard on the rail, lash it 
there, and lead pendants from the rudder chains through 
blocks at the yard-arms, hooking tackles into the pendants. 

Cases have occurred, in which rudders have been un- 
shipped or otherwise injured, so as to be of no further use, 
when it has been necessary to resort to some expedient to 
manage the vessel. 

Vessels can always be better managed when by the wind, 
than in any other situation. They will sometimes steer 
themselves for hours, having their yards so trimmed and 
their sails so regulated as to keep by the wind. Care must 
be taken that the vessel holds a good wind, and at the same 
time does not qripe. By slacking, on the one hand, a few 
feet of the heaa sheets, and on the other of the spanker and 
main sheet, an equilibrium will be established between the 
head and after sails. 

The moment you lose your rudder, bring her up by the 
after sails, bracing the yards, and meet her, as she comes 
to, with the head sails. Then, by reducing the sails forward 
or aft, and bracing the yards, vou may steer her, until you 
can resort to better means, as follows : 

TO STEER BY A CABLE. 

Rouse up from below the heaviest hawser and a towline ; 
middle ana clove-hitch the towline, and veer the end of the 



IN A OALE. 381 

hawser over the taffrail, through this hitch : after veering 
out about fif t^ fathoms of hawser^ jamb the nitch and rack 
it well, securmg it so that it cannot slip. Then veer out the 
hawser until the hitch takes the water. Lash the hawser 
on the centre of the taffrail, and a spare spar under it and 
across the stem, with a block well secured at each end, 
through which reeve the ends of the towline, one on each 
quarter. Reeve them again through blocks at the ports, 
abreast of the capstan, by which you may steer your ship 
until you can construct a temporary rudder. 

By rousing in the towline on either quarter, the force of 
the sea on the hawser, drawn over on that quarter, moves 
her stern the opposite way. 

STEERING WITH TWO DRAGS. 

If the hawser and towline do not answer the jpurpose, 
the following temporary steering gear has been tried, with 
success : 

Make two cone-shaped canvas bags, with the seams well 
roped. Fit each with a tripping-line from the pointed end, 
and a ^ood towline secured to a crowsfoot on the large end. 
The tripping-lines are secured inboard, so as to tow the 
drags, pointed end first, when the wheel is amidships ; the 
towlines lead through blocks on the ends of the cross-jack 
yard f which is lowered across the rail), and thence through 
suitable leads to the wheel. When the wheel is turned, say 
to starboard, it brings a strain on the starboard towline, 
canting the starboard drag so that it tows mouth foremost, 
and bringing a strain on the starboard quarter, which turns 
the ship's head to starboard. When the wheel is righted, 
the starboard towline being slacked off, the tripping-line 
takes the strain of the drag and cants it, pointed end fore- 
most a^ain, throwing it out of action. 

Similarly turning the wheel to port, brings the port 
quarter drag mouth foremost, and throws the ship's head to 
port. 

The drags should tow with a long drift. 

TEMPORARY RUDDERS. 

Men-of-war are generally supplied with spare pieces to 
construct a temporary rudder. 

In the absence of these, a piece of a spare topmast may 
be used for the main piece, building out from its heel in 

E roper form, and adding enough pig-iron ballast (also at the 
eeU to sink it. An eye-bolt is screwed into the upper end 
of tnis temporary rudder, and it is got into place in the 
same manner as an ordinary one, except that the hawser 
guys at the heel remain permanent. 



3S2 IN A GALE. 

To supply the place of pintles and gudgeons, the head of 
the temporary rudder passes through the round hole of the 
spare lower cap, the wood around the square hole is cut 
away so that it will fit the stem-post, where it is secured 
after the rudder has been gotten over and placed. 

The vessel is steered by guys attached to the rudder out- 
side, leading through blocks on the cross-jack yard lowered 
to the rail as before. 

In arranging the gear of a temporary rudder in a screw 
ship, it may be necessary to take the guys through the 
screw aperture under the after bearing, as at G, Fig. 492, 
and thence up on the opposite side. Or the guys may re- 
quire leaders in line witn the keel, as in Fig. 493. 

In case it should be impossible to ship the head of the 
temporary rudder through the rudder hole, the plan shown 
in Fig. 492 might be adopted. 

Use a spare topmast lor the rudder stock, heel down, and 
weighted if need oe. The rudder frame formed by a stout 
spar (capstan bar) secured in the fid-hole, so as to project 
aft, ana other suitable pieces of timber securely lasned 
together. Take out the halliard sheave, and throueh the 
sheave hole thrust two iron mast-fishes, or a suitable iron 
bar, lashing to this a thwartship spar to serve as a yoke. 
Fig. 491. 

A pair of sheers are ringed over the taffrail to hoist out 
the rudder and maintain it in position, guys led as shown in 
the figure, or as in the dotted line g. 

A back lashing B through the stem hawse-pipes counter- 
acts the tendency to rise, and a tackle T from the upper 
part of the rudder head to the mizzen-mast is used to Keep 
the lower part of the rudder clear of the stem-post when the 
vessel is making but little headway. A spare gaflf , with the 
jaws pointed over the taflfrail and securely lashed, is used 
to counteract the inboard thrust of the rudder. 

With jury-rudders of this description, vessels have 
been handled in all kinds of weather, though difficulty 
is experienced in heaving to with them, unless canted 
well clear of the stern by some such arrangement as the 
tackle I. 

Owing to its disadvantages when the ship has but little 
headway, the effect of lee helm in lying to might be ob- 
tained by keeping the screw (two-bladed) athwartships, but 
this use of the screw would depend on its form, and also the 
tack the ship was on.- 

A very good form of temporary rudder, adapted for ves- 
sels with small rudder ports, is shown in Fig. 493. 

The rudder proper is a rectangle, which may be formed 
of a gangway grating covered with canvas, or which can 
be built up to suitable size with plank. It is fitted with two 
yard-banas, Y Y, as travellers, to hold it to the temporary 
mdder-postP. 



r 




IN A GALE. 383 

The rudder has four spans, one at the top, one at the bot- 
tom, and one on each of the after sides. 

Having cut a suitable spar (topmast studding-sail boom) 
to a proper length, fit a block and heel guys at the lower 
end Tne heel guys lead through bull's eyes on each side of 
a length of stream chain, the chain passing under the keel. 
On the same chain may be leaders, K-, for the wheel-ropes. 
In the figure the lizards for the heel ffuys are shown, fitted 
separately and crossing under the keel. 

To get the bight of a chain at the required i)lace, drop it 
overboard from forward, under the bowsprit, with the bull's 
eyes lashed on and marrying lines rove tnrough them, then 
brinff the ends of the chain aft outside of all. 

Tnrough the block at the heel of the rudder-post is rove 
the dowimaul for the rudder, which secures to the lower 
span and comes inboard through the rudder port. The head 
of the rudder-post is securely lashed inboard. A line from 
over the taffrail secures to the span on the top of the rudder, 
and the wheel-ropes lead through the fair leaders K to the 
sheaves in the cross-jack yard, that spar being lowered on 
the rail. 

In a light breeze the rudder must be hauled up nearly to 
the level of the water to have its greatest effect ; the CTeater 
the speed of the ship the more the rudder should oe im- 
mersed. 

With a jury-rudder of this kind, the Austrian barque 
Norma was handled with ease during a thirtv-day passage 
from Candia to Trieste, beating up to her anchorage in the 
latter port. 

USING A DRAG IN A GALE. 

The method of steering by a hawser or cable may be re- 
sorted to in other emergencies besides that of losing a 
rudder. It is related by an officer of great experience, that 
having being caught in a hurricane, in the Florida channel, 
in one of our small vessels, it was found that she steered so 
wildly as to be in constant danger of broaching to. It soon 
became evident if something was not done the brig would 
certainly be lost. The largest hawser on board was there- 
fore got up and paid out over the stern for a considerable 
distance in her wake. Its effect exceeded the most san&^uine 
expectations. It acted as a drag, seeming to break the 
force of the sea, and steadying the little vessel so as to ren- 
der broaching to impossible. The severity of the gale 
may be understood when it is known that a Spanish frigate 
foundered at her anchors in the Havana, and three mer- 
chantmea went down in sight of the brig. 



384 IN A GALE. 



LYING TO, 

TTNDEB CLOSB-RBEFED MAIN TOPSAIL, REEFED MAIN TRYSAIL* 
AND FORE STORM STAYSAIL, YOU ARE KNOCKED DOWN. 

Hard up! Let go main trysail sheet and peak out- 
haul ! Main topsail clewlines ! Let go the sheets ! Clew 
UP ! If you have time to clear away the fore topmast stay- 
sail, or foresail, hoist away the first and haul aboard the 
fore tack, but if not, and the ship does not ro off, Man the 
weather fore rigging ! Send as many men aloft as can stand 
there, and she will probably fall off. 



A SHIP ON HER BEAM ENDS. 

If thrown on your beam ends at any time, under any cir- 
cumstances, let fly everything. If she does not right, cut 
away the masts (which in this case will be accomplished by 
cuttmg the laniards of the weather rigging). Cut the lash- 
ings of the spare spars and boats it possible, as well as 
of everything else on deck which will float. 

If on soundings, cutting away an anchor (chain bent) 
will bring her head to wind, and perhaps right her. 



TO RIDE OUT A GALE. 

UNDER THE LEE OF A SPANNED SPAR. 

Liardet says : ^^ It is astonishing that so few attempts 
have yet been made by seamen generally to save their ves- 
sels by riding out gales under the lee of spars. We con- 
tinually hear of boats bein^ saved by these means ; and if a 
ship get on her beam ends, stop-waters are advised to be 
veered from her quarter to get her before the wind by the 
best professional writers, and seamen generally. But let a 
vessel have her sails blown away, be partially dismasted, or 
even wholly so, rolling about in the trough of the sea ;• still 
you seldom hear of the same resources being tried to ride 
the ship by. The stream cable, or one of the strongest 
hawsers, bent on to the wreck of the masts, Ac, previous 
to cutting it away, would make a capital sea-anchor ; how- 
ever, should you not be able to make a hawser fast to the 
wreck, it takes very little to keep a ship head to wind ; a 
few spars from the booms, a quarter, or stem boat, might be 
so slung, as when sunk to ride the ship well ; even, a small 
anchor and cable veered to about fiity or sixty fathoms, 
would be found most useful ; whatever you put over the 



IN A GALE. 385 

bows will tend to make the sea strike the ship in a better 
position for her safety. We are strongly of opinion that if 
more attention were paid to having a stop-water of some 
kind from the head of the ship to make her ride head to 
wind, when from the loss of masts, rudder, sail, or derange- 
ment of engine, you cannot keep the ship out of the trough 
of the sea, it would tend to lessen the number of ship- 
wrecks." 

For description of a sea anchor, see Anchors. 



CUTTING AWAY MASTS. 

First pass a hawser outside the laniards of the rigging 
on the siae you intend the masts to fall over. If the port 
side, cut away the mast on the starboard side, as high up as 
you can, for the stumps will be of service in securing your 
jury-masts: and, when you have weakened it sufficiently, 
cut away all but a pair of laniards on each side, guided by 
circumstances ; then get out of the way, and cut away the 
remaining starboard laniards, keeping fast the stays tiU the 
mast has fallen, when you free them immediately. And 
finally, cut the port laniards adrift, which you will be able to 
get at by their oeing kept up by the hawser. 

If all three masts are to go, commence with the mizzen 
mast and work forward ; although, when at anchor, it is 
generally not advisable to cut the mizzen mast away, as it 
18 of great service in keeping the ship steady, head to wind. 
This supposes that you intend to try to ride out a gale. If 
you are cutting away expecting to go on shore, the foremast 
may be spared if there is any chance of saving the crew by 
running for any particular spot, otherwise cut it away, and 
hold on to the last. Never slip your cables and run for the 
shore in the hope of making a fee by laying the ship in a 
slanting direction ; if the anchors drag she may as well go 
ashore stem foremost as in any other way. 

USE OF OIL. 

The value of the use of oil to prevent heavy seas from 
breaking on board has been clearly demonstrated, and 
nearly all vessels are now provided with the necessary 
outfit. 

The following rules for its use under various conditions 
are taken from an essay on the subject by Captain R. Kar- 
lowa, of the Hamburg- American Steamship Company. 

In the diagrams the arrows denote the direction of 
the wind and sea; the flowing lines indicate the spread- 
ing oil. 



UBK OF OIL. 



Scudding before a gale (Fig. 1), distribute oil from the 
bow by means of oil bags or through waste-pipes; it will 
thus spread aft and give protection both from quartering 
and following seas. If only distributed astern (Fig. 2) there 
will be no protection from the quartering sea. 



Running before a gale, yawing badly and threatening to 
broach-to (Figs. 3 and 4), oil should be distributed from the 
bow and from both sides, abaft the beam. In Fig. 3, for 
instance, where it is only distributed at the bow, the 
weather quarter is left unprotected when the ship yaws. 
In Fig. 4, nowever, with oil-bags abaft the beam as well as 
forward, the quarter is protected. 



FTg-S. 



R»7. 



Lying-to (Fig. 5), a vessel can be brought closer to the 
wind by using one or two oil-bags forward, to windward. 
With a high beam sea. use oil-bags along the weather sidi' 
at intervals of 40 or 50 feet. 

In a heavy cross-sea (Fig. 6), as in the centre of a hurri- 
cane, or after the centre has passed, oil-bags should be 
hung out at regular intervals along both sides. 



steaming into a heavy liead-sea (Fig. 7), use oil through 
forward closet-pipes. Oil-bags would be tossed back on 
deck. 



R9.6.. ng.9. Fig.ll. 

Drifting in the trough of a heavy sea {Figs. 8 and 9). use 
oil from waste-pipes forward and bags on weather side, as 
in Fig. 9. These answer the purpose very much betU^r than 
one bag at weather bow and one at lee quarter, although 
this has been tried with some success (Fig. 8). 

Lying-to, to tack or wear (Fig. lU), use oil from weatlier 
bow. 

Cracking-on, with high wind abeam and heavy sea (Fig, 
11), use oil from waste-pipes, weather bow. 



FLg. 12. 

Towing another vessel in a heavy sea, oil is of the 
greatest service, and may prevent the hawser from break- 
ing. Distribute oil from the towing vessel, forward and on 
both sides. If only used aft, the tow alone gets the benefit. 



Fig. 13. 

At anchor in an open roadstead, use oil in bags from 
jib-boom, or haul them out ahead of the vessel by means of 
an endless rope rove through a tail-block secured to the 
anchor-chain. 



388 



USE OF OIL, 



iSfPdsftion 




'&^'^itimr. 



A vessel hove-to for a 
pilot (Fig. 14), should dis- 
tribute oil from the weather 
side and lee quarter. The 
pilot-boat runs up to wind- 
ward and lowers a boat, 
which pulls down to lee- 
ward and around the ves- 
sel's stem. The pilot-boat 
runs down to leeward, gets 
out oil-bags to windward 
and on her lee quarter, and 
the boat pulls back around 
her stern, protected by the 
oil. The vessels drift to 
leeward and leave an oil-slick to windward, between the 
two. 

There are many other cases where oil may be used to 
advantage — such as lowering and hoisting boats, riding to 
a sea-anchor, crossing rollers or surf on a bar, and from 
life-boats and stranded vessels. Thick and heavy oils are 
the best. Mineral oils are not so effective as animal or 
vegetable oils. Raw petroleum has given favorable results, 
but not so good when it is refined. Certain oils, like cocoa- 
nut oil and some kinds of fish-oil, congeal in cold weather, 
and are therefore useless, but may be mixed with mineral 
oils to advantage. The simplest and best method of dis- 
tributing oil is by means of canvas bags about one foot 
long, filled with oakum and oil, pierced with holes by 
means of a coarse sail-needle, and held by a laniard. The 
waste-pipes forward are also very useful for this purpose. 
The following example of actual experience is interesting : 
Captain J. E. Hansen, of the American steamer *' Bertha," 
reports to the Branch Hydrographic Office at Port Town- 
send, under date of December 20, 1 894, that while on a pas- 
sage from Unga Island to that port oil was used running 
before a heavy northwesterly gale in the following man- 
ner : Four bags filled with oakum were prepared and per- 
forated with a roping needle, seal oil being poured on the 
oakum. A bag was towed on each side in the wave under 
the bow and another amidships. The oil was spread by the 
counter waves, forming an oily wake perhaps three times 
the width of the ship, and the breaking of the seas around 
her counter immediately ceased and she steered much 
easier. Later, when obliged to lie-to, all four bags were 
placed over the weather side and the ** Bertha" was brought 
oy the wind without shipping a sea and lay comfortably. 
The bags were employed for sixteen hours and used five 
gallons of seal oil. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

PARTING RIGGING -SHIFTING SPARS, ETC. 

« 

When standing or running rigging carries away, prompt 
action must be taken to prevent further mischief. 

In choosing the remedy, select that which is most likely 
to save endangered spars, even at the risk of lost or split 
canvas. 

Carrying away weather braces will generally occur at 
the first burst of a squall, on a wind, nearly all the reefs out 
and, consequently, no preventer braces aloft. The yard or 
parrel will be the next thing to go, for the yard flies fore- 
and-aft at once. Left in that position it will either carry 
away in the slings or part the parrel and endanger the lee 
rigging and fore-and-aft stay. 

Lun then, first of all, to check the forward movement of 
the yard ; next ease the lee topsail sheet ; haul up the course 
to admit of bracing aback. Then, with the remaining 
weather brace and lee top bowline, back the topsail and clew 
down to take the strain off the lee rigging, or lower stay in 
the case of a lower yard. 

Having eased the lee topsail sheet, and hauled up the 
course, the ship may bear up to repair damages if pre- 
ferred. But do not bear up before tnis, for, as the wind 
came abeam, it would act with still greater force on the 
sails and consequently make it still more dangerous for the 
spars. 

In substituting new running rigging for old, when jthe 
run of the lead is not lost, the ends are spliced or married 
together, and as one is unrove the other enters its place, 
otherwise men must be sent aloft to reeve it. 

Hy the AV^ind.^ AVeather IVEain Brace 
;s« Luff I Ease off main sheet and lee main top- 
sail sheet! Weather main cletn-garnet I Let go the tack. 
Haul up ! Weather topsail brace, topsail clewlines and 
huntlines! Clear away the main top bowline! settle away 
the topsail halliards^ brace aback I Haul out the reef 
tackles, haul up the buntlines ! Haul forward the 
lee main top bo'line! Easing away the lee main brace, 
and hauling up the lee main clew-garnet. This, by throw- 
ing the main topsail aback, would steady the main yard 



390 • PARTING RIGGING, ETC. 

sufficiently to allow hands to lay out with whips for the 
preventer braces. If the brace has not unrove through the 
block on the yard, a hand may secure the end to its cwn 
part, so that it may be hauled taut on deck. 

Should it be blowing too hard to risk backing the main 
topsail, take in mainsail, clew down main topsail, and haul 
up the weather clew. Haul the lee reef tackle well taut, 
and lee main top bowline. 

When a brace parts, the yard is first in danger and then 
the mast ; therefore it is necessary to relieve the yard of the 
sails immediately. 

If this accident occurs forward, Mind your weather 
helm ! and after reducing sail, leave the fore yard sharp up 
to steady it. 

By the "W^ind, ^Weather l^Ca^ixi Top- 
sail Brace I^arts • Luff I Check the lee topsail sheet ! 
Weather main brace! Main clew-garnets and buntlines! 
Up mainsail! Brace aback! Settle array the topsail hal- 
liards! Clew down! Haul out the reef tackles, haul 
UP the buntlines! Square the main yard, and haul taut 
the lee main -top bowline. The ship is now ''hove to," with 
the main topsail to the mast. 

If not possible to eet the topsail aback, clew down and 
haul up the weather clewline. 

With the wind quartering, if the weather main-topsail 
brace goes. Hard up ! brace m, up mainsail (lee clew), and 
clew down as before, easing office main-topsail sheet as 
necessary. 

"W^eatlxei:* rFopsail Sheet and Clewline 
caiT^ied. stweiy* When this happens on a wind, the 
clew flies forward and may be steadied by the bowline. 
Relieve the yard by checking a couple of fathoms of the 
lee sheet. The lee clew, buntlines, and reef -tackles must 
then be hauled up, the yard lowered and squared, the 
bowline being eased away as the sail comes aback ; when 
so it will lie quiet, and the bowline may be sent with a 
hauling line from the foretop into the main, rove before 
the sail through a leading block on the topmast, and the 
leech thus hauled in along the yard, so that the sail may 
be handed if needful, and new gear rove; an attempt to 
'*hand the leech in " before lowering, clewing up and squar- 
ing, would not only be useless but dangerous. 

If the course is not set, check lee sheet as above, round 
in weather lower and topsail braces, lower and throw the 
sail aback, easing away the bowline. 

Bol>stay s carried. a>vay • In 1881 the U. S. S. 
Constitution carried away the iron straps of her bobstay 
hearts in a gale off the Capes of the Chesapeake. The fore 
topgallant mast was sent on deck, pendant tackles hooked 
from the foremast to bolts in the deck well forward, and 



PARTING RIGGING, ETC. 391 

top burtons from the fore and main topmast heads set up 
for fore 'and aft support. It was deemed uns'lf e to strike 
the fore topmast on account of the heavy sea and motion 
of the vessel; but the amount of sail forward was reduced 
as much as possible (fore storm staysail and fore trysail). 

A short length of stream chain was taken well out on 
the bowsprit and several turns taken with it, with stout 
cleats abaft to prevent slipping. The ends of this chain 
(crossed) were shackled into a large link, hung under the 
bowsprit, thus forming a strap. The link also received ends 
of the stream chain passed out through the sheet hawse 

Sipes. The inboard ends of the chains were hove taut with 
eck tackles on the gundeck. 
Double straps of wire rope were fitted for the bobstay 
hearts, long enough to go around and lash on the upper side 
of the bowsprit, and were cleated on the sides and top of the 
same. Witn these the bobstays were then set up. Wire 
rope was used for the straps, as it fitted in the scores of the 
hearts without altering them. 

When temporarv staying from sheet hawse holes would 
fail to give emcient support, it has been proposed to use a 
hawser from the bowsprit cap to a chain passed under the 
keel, setting up the hawser inooard. Having taken all un- 
necessarv strain from the bowsprit, get up as much of the 
stream cnain as may be required to reach under the ship from 
a port abaft the fore rigging to the corresponding one on the 
opposite side. Pass one end of the chain out under the 
bowsprit clear of all. To the middle of the chain secure one 
end of a hawser rove through a viol block at the bowsprit 
cap, the hauling end of the hawser being inboard. When 
ready, ease the oight of chain down under the bows and set 
up the ends through the proper ports, the bight being under 
the keel. Then clap a tackle on the hawser and set it up 
as a temporary jumper until the bobstays are repaired. 

Tiller-rope carried. SL^wsty* When this oc- 
curs, it may be assumed to be blowing fresh. The first 
thing to be done, therefore, is to steady the rudder, which, 
in a seaway, would fly from side to side with great vio- 
lence. The quickest way of doing so will be by means of 
the remaining rope; and, as the chances are that the 
weather wheel-rope will be the one to go, jamb the helm 
down, shorten sail, and heave to with the head yards 
abox, if you do not want to come round. Otherwise, if 
there is a ship close astern of you, for instance, haul the 
mainsail up, and square the main yard in stays. Should 
the lee rope go, put the helm up, heave to on the other tack, 
and shorten sail as soon as possible. If unsafe, from the 
position of the ship, to do eitner, man the head sheets and 
cross-jack braces, and steer the ship bv the sails. In mod- 
erate weather, the relieving-tackles will probably be hooked 



392 PARTING RIGGING, ETC. 

before it will be necessary to touch anything. In all cases, 
send hands down to hook and work them, and reeve new 
wheel-ropes. 

The senior class of midshipmen on board the practice 
ships are recommended to prepare themselves for working 
ship without the assistance of the helm. 

I3oAVspi*it Slir-oixd carried. eLwsty. Go 
on the other tack if possible; if not, haul down the head 
sails, and keep away. Secure the bowsprit by hooking a 
stout tackle from the bows to a strap round the bowsprit, 
and fit a new shroud or repair the old one. 



CARRYING AWAY MASTS AND SPARS. 

Accidents to the lower masts and larger spars are 
fortunately of rare occurrence in the navy, owing to the 
care with which vessels of war are fitted out, and the very 
liberal allowance made for each in everything necessary to 
their eq[uipment. 

But it is probable that ships would be still more effectu- 
ally prepared to resist the severest trials, if they were, in all 
cases, fitted out under the immediate supervision of the 
officer who is to command during the cruise, the first lieu- 
tenant who is to be the executive officer, and all the officers 
and crew who are to serve in them. 

The good state of the rigging will not be the only advan- 
tage attendant upon this ; a thorough knowledge of her 
state, and intimate acquaintance with her resources, would 
enable each and every one to bring them to bear when 
necessary. 

Light yards and masts are occasionally carried away or 
sprung in a fresh breeze but smooth sea — ^topgallant masts 
by not having their backstays well set up, and yards by not 
having their weather braces sufficiently taut when braced 
up. Topsail and topgallant yards are also sometimes carried 
awav by not letting go the lee brace in tacking ship, in a 
good swing of the after yards, when the lee brace not being 

Eroperly attended to, neither the strength of the yard or 
race can resist the force with which they are impelled; 
and if the brace holds, the yard must be carried away in the 
slings. 

Another cause for carrying away top^Uant yards may 
be found in the neglect to take off the iift-jigger after the 
topgallant studding-sail is taken in, when attempting to 
clew down the yard with the jigger fast in the top. 

No explicit rule can be ffiven for sending down broken 
spars. The first thing to be attended to is their being 
steadied and prevented from falling on deck or tearing the 
sails ; then sling and guy them clear and . send them 
down. 



PARTING RIGGING, ETC. 39 



«» 



If the screw is in motion, guard against fouling it by the 
wreck. 

^W^ith tlie AVreck in the A^'ater. Heave 
to at once under the shortest possible sail, as trysails and 
spanker. 

Clear away the wreck, and if a kedge with a hawser bent 
to it can be dropped on the debris so as to hang, thus con- 
verting it into a sea anchor, the ship may ride to leeward of 
it under low canvas, and save most of the wreck when the 
weather moderates. 

Proceed meanwhile to secure the spars still standing; 
send down the topgallant masts, house the fore topmast, 
secure the foremast with a hawser middled and clove- 
hitched around the mast-head, and set up at the knight- 
heads or through the hawse-holes on the main deck. Clove- 
hitch in like manner another hawser around the fore 
toi)mast-head^ and set up the ends as far forward as possible. 
Bring the main topmast stays down to the deck and set up. 

Lo^wex* Cai> Splits. Take all sail off the mast; 
send down topgallant mast and shift the lower cap if you 
have a spare one ; if not, pass a lashing round the topmast 
and lower mast-head, which wedge; afterward, woold and 
wedge the cap and make sail. 

Tlie nri*eKtle-ti*ees ai*e Hpi-viiig". Take 
all sail off the mast; send down the topgallant mast; reeve 
top pendants and hook top tackles. Sway up on them 
until all strain is off the fid. when rack and belay. Pass a 
lashing round the topmast and lower mast-head, and make 
sail. 

IVCstin CJhaiiiK eai*i*iecl SLxy^i^y. Go round 
if possible. If not, take all sail off the mast, steady it with 
the pendant-tackles and set the shrouds up with luffs to the 
craale-bolts. 

Replace what chain-plates require it with spare ones, and 
keep them out in place with a chock of wood between them 
and the ship's side ; then set the rigging up properly. 

Note. All sprung, spars should be shifted if possible. 



SHIFTING SAILS AND SPARS. 

Shifting the heavy spars being no longer an exercise, 
the methods described under ''Rigging Ship." Chapter IX, 
for handling them is thought to be suflBcient for all prac- 
tical purposes. 

Splitting- Sails. Sails, when split, should be 
taken in and repaired aloft if possible; if not, then shifted. 
The new sail should be ready on deck, and can be sent up 
to windward as the old one goes down to leeward. If the 
sail splits so as to be of no further use. unbend and send 



394 PARTING RIGGING, ETC. 

dowii at once. If not, keep on the ship until the new one is 
ready. 

A reef-tackle-cringle, or anv part of the leech, can 
readily be repaired aloft by tne sailmaker, in moderate 
weather. The officer of the deck need only clew up the 
clew reouiring repairs. Men on the yard gather the sail up, 
the yard bein^, oi course, clewed down. In chase, or bein^ 
chased, it is aosolutelv necessary to shift sails- (if required 
to do so at all) quickly. If carrying studding-sails on one 
side only, the others can be shifted over and set if anything 
happens to those already set. 

If the jib splits, set the fore topmast staysail, cautioning 
the man at the helm to " mind his weather helm ;" take in 
spanker if necessary. 

If the foresail or fore topsail splits, take the sail in, re- 
pair it aloft or shift it. Reduce after sail to balance the 
ship. Caution the helmsman as before. 

If a topsail splits across the head, or if, in tumine out a 
reef, the sail is torn, and it is not convenient to wift it» 
take the reef in again. 



TO SHIFT A TOPSAIL. 

(bt thb wind, under all plain sail). 

Hook the sail burton to strap on the topmast stay. 

The new sail (say the mam topsail) is in the weather 
gangway ready for bending. Clew up the main royal and 
topeallant sail. 

Man the main topsail clewlines and buntlinesi Weather 
main topsail brace f Let go the main t& bowline I 

Haul taut! Clear away the sheets/ Clbw up! Settle 
away the main topsail hculiards! Bound in the weather 
brace I 

haj the yard nearly square, and set taut the braces. 

Aloft topmen ! Man the boom tricing lines/ 

Trice up ! Lay out 1 Furl and unbend I 

Unreeve the first and second reef-earings from the sail 
(supposing them to be bull-ear ings). 

tlnbend the topsail sheets, clewlines, bowlines, reef- 
tackles, robands, and head-earings, securing the bunt- 
robands to the buntlines. Bend a top bowline around the 
bunt to guy the sail clear of the top. A whip from the 
weather topsail yard-arm bent also at the bunt will keep 
the sail from going too far to leeward, if any such trouble 
is expected. 

Lower the sail down to leeward by the buntlines. 

Send up the new sail, with the sail burton before and to 
windward of the stay. Bend a bowline to the sail strap as 
soon as it can be reached from the top. 



PARTING RIGGING, ETC. 39d 

When the clews are above the top — High enough! 

See the turns out of the sail. 

Hook the reef -tackles, carry out the head-earings from 
the bunt to the yard-arms, and haul out. Brmg to and bend 
the sail. Shift the reef -tackles to their own cringles, bend 
the sheets, clewlines, bowlines and buntlines, the latter 
being rounded up. Loose the sail. Reeve the buU-earines ; 
when the forepart of the top is clear of men, Stand by I 
Let pall ! 

Sheet home ! Lay in ! Down booms ! (secure boom-ends 
with the strap and toggle). Lay down from aloft 1 

Man the main topsail halliards ! Tend the braces, let go 
and overhaul the gear ! Haul taut I 

Hoist away the topsail ! 

Set the topgallant sail and royal; steady out the top 
bowline. 

To Shift a Co\Ti*se (]\f:odei:*ate "W^eathL- 
er). The new sail (mainsail) being ready, stretched across 

the deck forward of the mast, yardarm-jiggers on the yard, 
lee lift taut — 

Main clew garnets and buntlines ! 

Haul taut ! Up mainsail ! 

Aloft mainyabd men ! 

Lay out 1 Furl and unbend ! 

Furl the sail: unhook reef -pendants ; stop buntlines to 
head of sail. When ready — 

Stand by the earings ! Ease away 1 Lower away the 
buntlines ! 

All the gear coming down with the sail. Unbend and 
bend to new sail, stopping buntlines and leecUines to the 
head. When ready — 

Man the yardarm-jiggers ^ buntlines and leechlines ! 

Bimtlines and yard-arm jiggers are manned best, a few 
hands on the clew-garnets and leechlines, hands to light up 
tacks and sheets. 

Haul taut I Sway aloft ! Haul out and bbing to ! 

The yard-arm jiggers are run out, leechlines hauled up i 
bend the sail, loose it and hook the reef pendants. 

Man the main tack and sheet I and set the sail. 

To Shift .Til>-l>oom5 Figs. 494 and 495. The 
forecastiemen and fore topmen prepare for housing fore 
topgallant mast, and for rigging in flying jib-boom. In 
amiition, the men stationed on the jib-boom, lay out; carry 
out and hook the cap block, and reeve the heel rope ; hook 
jiggers to topmast stay and whisker ends; cast adrift top- 
mast staysail and jib, and hook jib halliards to jib-boom 
end ; hook tackle from topmast stay to light in boom bv ; 
hook fore clew-jiggers to heel of jib-boom. The forecastle- 
men on deck place the new jib-boom on the forecastle ready 
for going out ; ease up back ropes, jumpers, guys and jib- 



396 PARTING RIGGING. ETC. 

stay, take a turn and tend jib halliards, man fore clew- 
jiggers and jiggers on the topmast stays. 

If the wythe is fitted to unclamp, the stays rove through 
the flying jib-boom need not be unrove. Otherwise, and m 
the absence of funnels on the head booms, the stays reeving 
through them must be unrove and stopped up. 

Rig in the flying jib-boom, and nouse the topgallant 
mast : then — 

A turn with the mast rope! Haul taut the jib heel 
rope I Tend the jib halliards I unclamp the heel of boom, 
ease up the jib halliards to allow the boom to clear the 
saddle ; a few hands man the fore clew-jiggers and jiggers 
on the whiskers. When ready — 

Ease away ! rig in ! easing the heel rope until the band 
is close to the bowsprit cap ; tne jib halliards and fore clew- 

{'iggers are hauled on sufficient to keep the heel of the boom 
lign enough to just clear the knight-heads ; the whiskers 
are triced up to the fore topmast stays, the jib and flying-jib 
are roused in alongside the topmast staysail. As soon as 
the boom is housed close in — 

A turn with the heel rope ! let ^o the jib halliards ; lash 
the bands to the bowsprit cap ; nook the tackle from the 
fore topmast stay to a strap around the jib-boom just inside 
the bowsprit cap, haul it taut, take a turn. 

Tend the stay-tackles ! Walk away with the fore clew- 
Jiggers ! at the same time ease away on the heel rope, and 
and theJ[)oom on the forecastle ; cast off from bowsprit cap 
and unreeve the heel rope and reeve it on the new boom ; 
shift the stay-tackle and fore clew-jiggers from the old. to 
the new boom. 

Man the heel rope and stay -tackle ; tend the fore clew- 
jiggers : when ready — 

ISaul away the stay-tackle and heel rope ! walk the boom 
out until pointed. 

Avast hauling ; tend the stay jiagers and jib halliards ! 
The band is placed ; the stay-tackle is cast adrift, the jib 
halliards are hooked to the boom end, hauled taut and tended ; 
the stay jiggers on the whiskers are tended ; when the boom 
is rigged, stay rove, &c. , order — 

Rig out ! the men walk away on the heel rope ; ease 
away on the fore clew-jiggers until the boom is clear of the 
knight-heads, and when clear, let go and cast them off ; 
ease away the jib halliards and stay jiggers: when the 
boom is far enough out to take in the saadle, pull up the jib 
halliards and secure the clamp. 

Point the flying jib-boom ; at the same time the men pro- 
ceed to take off stay-tackle and jiggers, and to set up guys, 
jumpers, back ropes and jib stay. Man the topgallant mast 
rope as soon as the jib-boom is in place, fld the topgallant 
mast, rig out and secure the flying jib-boom. Bend jib and 
flying jib. 






PARTING RIGGING. ETC. 397 

Instead of sending down the topgallan mast in ordi* 
nary weather, lash the light yards aloft, overhaul the yard 
ropes (the long ones) down well forward; toggle them abaft 
their sheaves in the mast, and set them up with jiggers, 
forward. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



HANDLING "FO RE- A ND- AFT ERS." 

The student is referred for more detailed information on 
this subject to Qualtrough's " Sailor's Handy Book," where 
it is treated with special reference to yachts and yacht 
sailing. 

We shall confine our attention chiefly to the two prin- 
cipal types of f ore-and-af ters peculiar to the waters of the 
United States, viz.: the two masted schooner, Fig. 496, 
Plate 116, and the sloop. 

n^lie Selioonei* has a fore and aft foresail and 
mainsail, both usually laced to booms and gaffs and at- 
tached to hoops on tneir respective masts. It has also a 
fore and main gaff topsail, triangular in shape, the luff 
attached to the topmast by hoops ; the sails f urnng aloft at 
the lower masthead. 

The head sails of coasting schooners are variously named 
according to the position of the stays. 

When the f orestay goes to the bowsprit cap, or nearly 
to it, the first head sail from inboard is the jib, beyond which 
are the fiying jib and outer jib. 

But if the forestay sets up at or near the knightheads, 
the sail set upon it is called the fore staysail, and the others 
are the jib, fiying jib, and outer jib. 

An additional jib, on the fore topmast stay, is called a 
jib toi)sail. Its tack lashing may have a long drift to enable 
the sail to hoist above the other jibs. 

It will be seen from the above that the jib of a schooner 
is that sail whose tack is nearest to the bowsprit cap. 

In our description of manoeuvres, &c., we assume the 
inner head sail to be a fore staysail. 

The staysail sheet and fore and main sheets have their 
lower blocks strapped to a thwartship traveller. This trav- 
eller for the main sheet is a short bar of iron, and for the 
other sheets extends across the deck, and for the staysail 
sheet may be a wooden spar. Stout tail rojjes or clew-ropes 
for the staysail and foresail enable those sails to be hela to 
windward, if necessary, in tacking. 

The foresail may be a combination of " boom and lug," 
in which case the forward part of the foot has the usual 

398 



HANDLING FORE-AND- AFTERS. 399 

boom and traveller, and the clew of the sail extends much 
further aft than in the ordinary type. Such a sail sets 
better than a common boom foresail, particularly on a wind, 
when the boom foresail sheet must be trimmed so flat to 
fill the foresail and fore gaff topsail, that much of the pro- 
pelling power is lost. But the boom and lug foresail re- 
quires more attention in tacking. The lug foresail, without 
any fore boom, is rarely seen in our coasting craft. 

The main mast of schooners is stayed oy a triatic stay 
from one lower mast head to the other. Large schooners 
may have in addition a double stay to the deck, the ends 
setting up with runners and tackles at the waterways, 
abreast tne after part of the fore rigging. The lee stay 
must be overhaulea, when under way, to clear the foresail. 

The main boom topping lift is usually single, shackled to 
a bolt in the after part of the main masthead, the lower end 
fitted with a whip or whip and runner with a block on the out- 
board end of the boom and a sheave through the boom for 
the hauling part. The topping lift may be double in large 
schooners, in which case thev come further in on the boom, 
and the lee one must be overhauled when the sail is set. 

The fore boom topping lift is a pendant supporting the 
boom end. The upper end of the pendant is fitted with a 
whip or tackle, upper block hooked under the main trestle 
trees, fall leOrding on deck. 

!tIci,llia.i*dH. — The fore and main peak halliards are 
generally rove through three single blocts on the gaff and 
two double blocks on the mast-head placed vertically one 
above the other, the distance apart varying with the length 
of the gaff. The hauling part leads through one sheave 
of the upper block to the outer block on the gaff, back to the 
upper block on the mast-head, thence to second block on 
the gaff; then through one sheave of the lower mast- 
head block and the inner gaff block, finally the standing 
Eart reeves through the remaining sheave of the lower mast- 
ead block and to the deck, where a purchase is fitted to 
the end. 

Throat halliards consist of a treble block aloft and 
double block at the jaws of the gaff, the standing part of 
the halliards fitted with a purchase which generallv travels 
on the topmast backstay, similar to the topsail halliards of 
a souare rigged vessel. 

ileef Peiiclants for a boom mainsail consist of 
a long pendant with a Mathew Walker knot in one end. 
The pointed end reeves up through an eyebolt on one side 
of the boom, through a reef cringle in the leech and down 
on the opposite side through a sheave on the boom. When 
reefing, the end of the reef pendant is hitched to the hook 
of the outer reef -tackle block, the inner block of the reeif 
tackle hooking to an eyebolt under the boom. 

There are no reef pendants required for the foresaid 



400 HANDLING FORE-AND-AFTER8. 

ordinary reef earing being passed through the reef cringles 
when required, the end of the fore boom being generally 
lowered on deck while the reef is being taken. 

CirtiiV TopjHttilH. — The gaff topsail sheet reeves 
through a sheave in the gaff end, and thence through a block 
at the jaws of the ga:ff, and to the deck. 

The halliards reeve through a block at the topmast head, 
or sheave in the topmast. Tne tack leads from the tack of 
the sail to the deck.* 

The clewline and downhaul, in one, is secured to the 
clew of the sail and reeves thence through a leader at the 
head and down on deck. 

The Sloop has but one mast, placed about two- 
thirds the vessel's length from the stem. The mainsail is 
like that of a schooner. The sloop also carries a gaff top- 
sail similar to those already described. 

The jib of a sloop sets on the f orestay, which in this case 
goes to the bowsprit cap. A jib topsail is carried usually, 
m addition, being set upon the topmast stay. 

The topping lifts, halliards, gcc, are similar to those 
already described for schooners. 

Cjrettifig" nuclei* ^way. — Schooners. — Heave shorty 
loose and hoist the mainsail, keeping the peak souare with 
the throat until the throat is up. If the mainsau has two 
topping lifts, see that the gaff is hoisted between them. If 
the topping lift is single hoist the gaff so that it will be to 
leewara of it ; the peak can then readily be dropped in case 
of any accident in casting, f 

Get the final pull of throat and peak halliards on the pur- 
(^hase on the standing parts. Now, hoist the foresail and 
loose the head sails. 

To cast to starboard, heave up the anchor, putting the 
helm a starboard, main boom steadied over to starboard, 
fore sheet trimmed down, but plaving^ on the traveller ; 
hoist the staysail, or staysail ana jib, with the port sheets 
aft. When she has paid off suflBciently to starboard, 
" Draw" the head sheets, right the helm, and trim the fore 
and main sheets. 

If blowing fresh the foresail may not be set till after 
casting. 

If intending to wear and stand out before the wind, the 
peak of the mainsail may be left down until after cast* 
mg. 

In a close place, with little room astern, hoist the